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Hypnotic 
Mindcontrol 
Workshop 



Elements in Strate 



Presented 



Mr. Augusto C. Mel 



2014 © Aueusto C. Mel - ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



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This world is a world of worlds. 
Our imagination dreams of itself . . 
as we find ourselves here and now. 



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Foreward 




And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make ye free. - John 8: 32 
Inscription found in lobby of C.I.A. Headquarters - Hangley, VA. 



In the summer of 1985, an article from the Journal of Professional & Ethical Hypnosis tried to warn us about 
the dangers of becoming hypnotized without our awareness. It suggested that without a working 
knowledge of hypnosis, we might not be able to consciously detect any trance behavior taking place anywhere 
around us right NOW, at this very moment. And while it's possible to find ourselves suddenly pondering 
what might seem mysterious and unknown, the hypnotic technique of using certain words in a specific 
structure might easily guide anyone listening into becoming deeply and totally entranced. . . 

Sure, I suppose I'd be curious about the power of words too. Itf they could help me to understand what it's like to find myself noticing 
these words asking me to notice finding myself noticing. Trance is such an amazing thing especially when we're asked to notice it. 

Charles A. Sherwood 

Life is a mixture of experience with the strategies you use, those used on you and those around you. While 
organizations use hypnotic persuasion to get you to be something, new behavior is molded and outcomes are 
shaped in ways that parallel brainwashing. To gain back conscious control, educate yourself with powerful ideas 
and strategies. There's good news, you can and could teach yourself. What you believe in, can change you. 

What you are reading right now possesses powerful hypnotic qualities. While most real information is kept out 
of public view, it's also been right in front of us all along. Hypnosis does exist and Subconscious talk is real. 

Understanding the importance of building a better working knowledge of hypnosis becomes urgently clear again in 
the speech "The Battle for your Mind: persuasion & brainwashing techniques being used on the public today". 
It was delivered to the World Congress of Professional Hypnotists in 1995 and the title clearly said it all: These 
techniques are already being used on us all the time, everyday. It's now not even a question of how, but why. 

Many of the subjects covered in this workshop come from copyrighted patents, scientific research, and 
unclassified-top secret material. These ideas belong to all of us, since they can help us help ourselves in defining 
the possible limits of our own unconscious freedom. Our minds are naturally free. As science and technology 
improve with time, so do the strategies their research reveals. One such strategy was to utilize a fully functional 
understanding of hypnosis. It reveals the way a human mind can be structured, disassembled, shaped and 
re-organized. It's the strategy of understanding and utilizing Hypnotic Mindcontrol. It's all about life, all about you. 

When reading Hypnotic Mindcontrol Workshop®, discover for yourself that the mind functions more 
effectively when operating with a practical understanding of hypnosis. Decipher a lesson based on learning 
what control of an idea like "Hypnosis" can mean. Understand its power can have amazing effects. Perhaps even 
now it's as if some of you may have already realised there's something going on under the surface of all communication. If you did, 
you're right!! It's always up to you to make sense of it all anyhow. This workshop is structured for exploring 
different realities at your own pace using hypnotic ideas, language and behavior that shape our world . 



Enjoy. 

Mr. Augusto C. Mel 



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Table of Contents 




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Table of Contents 



Foreward 

Table of contents 

Introduction 

Hypnosis 

• Trance and Hypnotically Induced, Altered States of Mind 

Natural Strategy 

• Natural Strategy: Understanding ourselves and the way we communicate 
Hypnotic Rapport: Matching, Mirroring, Pacing and Leading 

Representational Systems: 4 tuples, overlap combinations in unconscious processing and hypnotic induction 
Mixed State Communication: The Milton Model, Hypnotic Language Patterns and the Interspersal technique 
Anchoring: Digital and Analog Marking - Embedded Commands-Communicating with the incongruent 
Unconscious Behavior: T.O.T.E., Pattern Interrupt, Confusion, Overload and Stacked Realities 
Resistance: Understanding and Utilising Polarity Response 
Trance Inducing Words and "Weasel" Phraseology 
Uptime Strategy: Concepts in Positive Living 

■ Bill O'Connell: C.O.V.E.R.T. W M.A.G.I.C. - Models of Hypnosis 
' Stephen Lankton - Discrete Communications Operations 

' The Boundaries of Suggestion- B.A.T.'s., Cues of Tmmediaty and New Strategies for the School of 'Tomorrow 



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ub-Natural Strategy 



• Sub-Natural Strategy: patents, research and technology leading us into the next century 
• History of Experiments: the science of Mindcontrol Technology® 

Indirect and Subliminal Communication: Weber, Miller and other cornerstones of research into the unconscious mind 

CIA Study: THE OPERATIONAL POTENTIAL OF SUBLIMINAL PERCEPTION by Richard Gafford -1958 

Subliminal Telecasts, the FCC and denials from 1958 

CONSCIOUSNESS- CO. Evans & J, Fudjack -Addendum A - The Concept of Generalised Reality-Orientation 
Pavlov, Russian Woodpeckers, Chinese-North Korean Brainwashing and the American Neurophone 
The History of Mind Control: Lecture by Dr. Alan Scheflin 
Mk-Ultra & Intelligent Interrogation ® 

KUBARK COUNTERINTELLIGENCE INTERROGATION - July 1963 
CIA Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual - 1983 
Diary - "School of the Americas," Fort Benning Georgia 

CIA Study: HYPNOSIS IN INTERROGATION by Edward F. Deshere-1960 

WHITE PAPER- Effects of GHz Radiation on the Human Nervous System by Harian E. Girard, Philadelphia- January 1991 



Psychotronic Devices 



Radio- Frequency Brain Wave Technology: Psychological Operations Groups (PSYOP-S) 
Subliminal Messages and Commercial Uses -In formation Warfare 
Carrier Waves 
Psychotronic Weapons 
Radio Frequency Weapons 
US5973999 Acoustic Cannon 
E.M.D.R. 

The Telephone "Works" 

US6358201 Method and apparatus for facilitating physiological coherence and autonomic balance 
Brainwashing - by John Mark Ockerbloom 

US6506148 Nervous System Manipulation by EM I 'ieldsfrom Monitors ( TV and Computer ) (Heartbeat) 

US Patent Application # 20020188164 - nervous system manipulation by electromagnetic fields from monitors 

EKG's, emotional signature clustering, patented technology and beyond: 

US4335710 Device for the induction of specific brain wave patterns - white noise 

US4395600 Auditor): subliminal message system and method - Anti-shoplifting device 

US4717343 Method of changing a person's behavior 

US4 777529 Auditory subliminal programming system 

US48 34701 Apparatus for inducing frequency reduction in brain wave 

US5 151080 Method and Apparatus for inducing and establishing a changed state of consciousness 

US51 59703 Silent subliminal presentation system 

US 6024 700 System and Method for Detecting a thought and generating a control instruction in response thereto 

US6219657 Device and Method for Creation of Emotions 

US 6258022 Behavior Modification 

US6 358201 Method and apparatus for facilitating physiological coherence and autonomic balance 

Terminology & Related Research Topics: 

V2 H^ Autonomic Sen soty Resonance Frequency 
2.5 H^ Cortical Sensory Resonance Frequency 

Positive "S"(+S) emotional signature cluster modification strategies Ambient Radio ( aR) and Ambient TV ( aTV ) 
United States Patent Application # 20020173823 - Sense organs synthesizer 
Micro Burst and Down Burst Systems Technology - Project H.A.A.R.P. 

US NAVY CONTRACT FOR ULTRASONIC ACOUSTIC HETERODYNING TECHNOLOGY 
HAARP - by Dr. Nick Begich & Jeane Manning 

US4686605 Method and apparatus for altering a region in the earth's atmosphere, ionosphere, and/ or magnetosphere 
US4712155 Method and apparatus for creating an artificial electron cyclotron heating region of plasma 
US5777476 Ground global tomography (CGT)using modulation of ionospheric electrojets 
FACTS & FIGURES -APPLICATIONS IN SCIENCE 



- Trance-forming the history of mankind 



The mathematical languages of Artificial Intelligence: Vatents, the future and the strategy of beingyou 

US5507291 Methods and Apparatus for Remotely Determining Information as to a persons Emotional State 
US5539705 Ultra-Sonic Speech Translator and Communication System 

US6011991 Communications System and Method Inducing Brain W ave Analysis and/ or use of brain activity 

US6017302 Subliminal acoustic manipulation of nervous systems 

US6135944 Method of Inducing Harmonious States of Being 

CIA Study: A BIBLE LESSON ON SPYING by John M. Cardwell, 1978 

FORENSIC APPLICATION OF HYPNOSIS by Inspector Marx Howell 



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Conclusion -Appendix 



US2304095 Method and apparatus for inducing and sustaining sleep 

US3060795 Apparatus for producing visual stimulation 

US3278676 Apparatus for producing visual and auditory stimulation 

US3393279 Nervous System Excitation Device 

US3398810 Ultrasonic Sound Beam 

US3568347 Psycho-Acoustic Projector 

US3576185 Sleep inducing method and arrangement using modulated sound and light 

US361221 1 Method of producing locally occurring infrasound 

US3613069 Sonar System 

US3629521 Hearing Systems 

US3647970 Method and system for simplifying speech wave forms -Neurophone 

US3712292 Method and apparatus for producing swept FM Audio signal patterns for inducing sleep 

US3773049 Apparatus for treatment of neuropsychic & somatic diseases with heat light sound & VHF electromagnetic radiation 

US3782006 Means & methods to assist people in building up aversion to undesirable habits 

US3884218 Method of inducing and maintaining various stages of sleep in the human being 

US395 1 1 34 Apparatus and method for remotely monitoring and altering brain waves 

US3967616 Multi channel system for & multi factorial method of controlling the nervous system of a living organism 

US4006291 Three dimensional television system 

US4141344 Sound Recording System 

US42275 16 Apparatus for Electro-Physiological Stimulation 

US4315501 Learning Relaxation Device 

US43 15502 Frequency Stimulation Device 

US4335710 Device for the induction of specific brain wave patterns 

US4349898 Sonic Weapon System 

US4388918 Mental Harmonization Process 

US4395600 Auditory subliminal message system and method 

US4572449 Method for Stimulating the falling asleep and/or relaxing behavior in a person 

US46 16261 Method and apparatus for generating subliminal visual messages 

US4686605 Method and apparatus for altering a region in the earth's atmosphere, ionosphere, and/or magnetosphere 

US46921 18 Video Subconscious Display Attachment 

US4699153 System for accessing verbal psycho-biological conditions of a subject 

US4712155 Method and apparatus for creating an artificial electron cyclotron heating region of plasma 

US4717343 Method of changing a person's behavior 

US4734037 Message Screen (Subliminal) 

US4777529 Auditory subliminal programming system 

US4821326 Non- Audible Speech Generation Method & Apparatus 

US4834701 Apparatus for inducing frequency reduction in brain wave 

US4858612 Electromagnetic Interaction with biological system-ground wave emergency network 800mhz 

US4877027 Hearing System ( Microwave) 

US4883067 Method and Apparatus for Translating EEG into Music 

US4889526 Noninvasive Method and Apparatus for Modulating Brain Signals 

US4940058 Cryogenic Remote Sensing Physiograph 

US5017143 Method and apparatus for producing subliminal images 

US5036858 Method and Apparatus for changing Brain Wave Frequency 

US5 123899 Method and system for altering consciousness 

US5 134484 Superimposing Method and Apparatus Useful for Subliminal Messages 

US5 135468 Method and Apparatus for varying the brain state of a person by means of an audio signal 

US5 15 1080 Method and apparatus for inducing and establishing a changed state of consciousness 

US5 159703 Silent subliminal presentation system 

US5 170381 Method for mixing audio subliminal recording 

US5213562 Method of inducing mental, emotional and physical states of consciousness, including specific mental activity in human beings 

US521 8374 Power Beaming System with printer circuit radiating elements having resonating cavities 



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US5221962 Subliminal device having manual adjustment of perception level of subliminal correlates 

US5224864 Method of recording and reproducing subliminal signals that are 180" out of phase 

US5270800 Subliminal message generator 

US3278676 Method and apparatus for cyclic scanning of images 

US5289438 Method and System for Altering Consciousness 

US5330414 Brain Wave Inducing Apparatus 

US5352181 Method and recording for producing sounds and messages to achieve alpha and Theta brainwave states and positive emotional states in humans 

US5356368 Method and Apparatus for Inducing Desired States of Consciousness 

US5425699 Method of modifying human behavior using signal triggered post -hypnotic suggestion 

US5450859 Protection of living systems from adverse effects of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields 

US5507291 Method and Apparatus for Remotely Determining Information as to a Person's Emotional State 

US5539705 Ultra Sonic Speech Translator and Communication System ( DE-AC05-840R21400-Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. 

US5544665 Protection of living systems from adverse effects of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields 

US555 1 879 Dream State Teaching Machine 

US5557 1 99 Magnetic Resonance Monitor 

US5562597 Method and Apparatus for Reducing Physiological Stress 

US5577041 Method of Controlling a Personal Communication System 

US5586967 Method and Recording for Producing Sounds & Messages to achieve Alpha and Beta Wave States 

US5644363 Apparatus for superimposing visual subliminal instructional materials on a video signal 

US5675 1 03 Non-Lethal Tetanizing Weapon 

US5729694 Speech Coding, Reconstruction and Recognition using Acoustics and Electromagnetic Waves 

US5777476 Ground global tomography(CGT)using modulation of ionospheric electrojets 

US5784124 Supraliminal Method of Education with particular application behavior modification 

US5800481 Thermal excitation of sensory resonance's 

US5823932 Apparatus and method for modifying human behavior by triggering positive and aversive post-hypnotic suggestions 

US5830064 Apparatus and method for distinguishing events which collectively exceed chance expectations and thereby controlling an output 

US58645 17 Pulsed Combustion Acoustic Wave Generator 

US5889870 Acoustic Heterodyne device and method 

US59 19679 Method and Apparatus for altering Ionic interactions with magnetic fields 

US5935054 Magnetic Excitation of Sensory Resonances 

US5954629 Brain wave inducing system 

US5973999 Acoustic Cannon 

US5997464 Magnetic coil for pulsed electromagnetic Field 

US601 1991 Communication System and Method Inducing Brain Wave Analysis and/or use of Brain Wave Activity 

US6017302 Subliminal Acoustic Manipulation of Nervous Systems 

US6024700 System and Method for Detecting Thought and Generating Control Instruction in Response Thereto 

US6052336 Apparatus and method of broadcasting audible sound using ultrasonic sound as a carrier 

US6067468 Apparatus for monitoring a person's psycho-physiological condition 

US6081774 Electric Fringe Filed Generator for Manipulating Nervous Systems 

US6091994 Pulsative Manipulation of Nervous Systems 

US6 1 35944 Method of Inducing Harmonious States of Being 

US6 167304 Pulse Variability in Electric Field Manipulation of Nervous Systems 

US6203486 Earth-Magnetic Field Augmenters 

US6219657 Device and Method for Creation of Emotions 

US6258022 Behavior Modification-using Hypnosis 

US6358201 Method and apparatus for facilitating physiological coherence and autonomic balance 

US6506148 Nervous System Manipulation by EM Fields from Monitors ( TV and Computer ) (Heartbeat) 
DE19713947al Unknown 

JP1 1042282a2 Hypnosis accelerating apparatus 
WO09802200a Behavior modification 

N Chomsky- Syntactic Structures: Mouton, The Hague. 1957 / Language and the Mind: New York. HBJ, Inc. 1968 
Proc. of 1978 IEEE, Region 3 Conf, 4/10-12/78, Atlanta, Becker et al, "Subliminal Communication" 

Applications of Subliminal Video and Audio Stimuli in . . . Commercial Settings, 3/28/80, Becker et al 



10 



Introduction 




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Rest assured, things are not always as they seem. For example, this workshop is put together in such a way 
that hypnosis is explained to the reader overtly and used covertly to help learners help themselves. 
Hypnosis in and of itself can merely be a word that is spoken, written down or something thought of in 
abstract ways. It can be used functionally or not used at all. The end user can only manifest it's forces by 
having the skills necessary. Although all of us manifest unconscious processes, very few understand how 
they work. Some already believe that its power is hidden in each of us and conclude that we make what 
we will out of that power. The point of this effort for me is to deliver a message to you, right here: NOW. 

We live each day going in and out of different mental and physical states, dipping in and out of 
consciousness. It's all naturally occurring. So by recalling something as simple as a daydream we can 
reconnect with all the necessary ingredients found in hypnotic behavior. Hypnosis is real, whether we 
know it or not - everyone is still affected . Research not only vindicates Hypnosis as real, but most 
Mindcontrol research using hypnosis remains classified and out of public reach. Hidden truths exist. This 
workship will combine elements of scientific reasoning to show you how this world manifests it's 
illusions. The idea of Elements in Strategy is to give the reader knowledge and information for self 
awareness. I go about this in many ways. Using hypnotic techniques in my workshops helps accelerate 
material absorption rates in learners. They get a unique perspective into an invisible world that's the most 
powerful psychological force in life. Mastering these concepts and ideas will help enhance life experiences. 

It's been taught that using hypnosis begins with understanding and utilizing what's already there. Setting 
the pace of any reality means accepting and utilizing what's already given. To entrance, you can entrain. 
Securing attention and guiding the direction of focus is part of our daily interaction, it's a naturally 
occurring action-energy/ phenomena found throughout all of my life and yours too. Because of our mixed 
states of consciousness, we can sometimes become totally unaware of our own conscious attention. 
This happens quite naturally throughout our interactions and environment. We respond to minimal cues, 
indirect associative and ideodynamic focusing (Hypnofherapy/Rossi-Erickson) mostly without being 
aware of it consciously. Often referred to as an "Unconscious" response, an indirect suggestion can be 
used to direct the focus on reading words from a page like this just now. The response is quite natural. 
Natural spontaneous things happen, it's called Life. We all communicate, some just better than others. 

"You can dream you're awake even though you're in a trance.. ...Oryou can act as if you're in a trance even while awake. Now, in a 
moment your eyes will open but you don 't need to awaken. Oryou can awaken when your eyes open, but without remembering what 
happened when they were closed. " 

Double Disassociation Double Bind -"Hypnotherapy-Rossi / 'Erickson pp>46-48 

"Another way to nonverbally pace and lead is to synchronise one of your behavioral parameters- You might nod your head subtly every 
time the subjects blinks his eyes and then begin to nod occasionally when the subject is not blinking. This can be gradually increased to 
the point that you can illicit eyelid flutters from the subject, a response that can be easily utilised to develop a trance" 

Cross behavioral pacing and leading — Ericksonian Approaches to Clinical Hypnosis - Gilligan pp91 

"Mixed state communication is very, very powerful because rather than putting people into a deep trance and making it difficult to 
talk to them, why not keep their conscious mind around so that you can consult it from time to time. . . A basic form of indirect 
suggestion is to raise a relevant topic without directing it in any obvious manner to the patient. " 

Richard Bandler 

"The hypnotist works to secure and hold the subject's attentional processes, thereby making it possible to access unconscious processes 
to develop hypnotic experiences" 

Herbert S. Lustig 

Our reality is constantly changing every second of every minute of everyday and at some point we might 
become entranced. In each instance when a person isn't paying attention, something is still going on and 
sometimes anything can be dropped in. During mixed states of consciousness things that are in our 
awareness can be modified, focus becomes worked/relinquished and something can be slipped in. It's 
what a particular song or a familiar moment does to us mentally, hypnotically. We can even become 
anchored to a state, entranced and "Hypnotized without our awareness". It doesn't even matter whether 
we believe that it's true or not because hypnosis occurs anytime, anyplace and anywhere. 



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Hypnosis 




13 



Hypnosis 

Trance and Hypnotically Induced Altered States of Mind 



Hypnosis is induced. Whether you believe it exists or whether we, are in fact, having this conversation already: 
it's all just a matter of perspective. Trance and Hypnotically induced altered states of mind occur everyday. 

Some take advantage of this type of knowledge Advertisers are just one example; they know all too well 
what they're doing inside our minds and hearts. They know what makes us tick. What they do really works 
well. Making us do something we might not ordinarily do or hadn 't thought of is what they officially do ... remember ? 

In 1956, a Doctor at MIT named George A. Miller wrote about how much the human mind can process 
in " The Magic Number 7+/-2 ". Some Agency Groups have been using the psychology of persuasion to 
increase sales for many years now and if you don't think they have any influence on you or those around 
you. . . you're just not being realistic- they've got your name, they've got your number!!! Getting us to buy 
is what they're usually after but sometimes something else is happening. Reality is shaped and defined by 
suggestion. Our realities stack in infinite ways, some know the combination unlocking the unconscious. 

"Man is not only a biological organism but also a social one. His behavior is modified by and in turn modifies 
the behavior of others" 

pp5 Psychology- The Fundamentals of Human Adjustment by Norman I . Munn 

Hypnosis... what trance?? What the heck's this ALL about anyway right? Well, most people think that 
they're consciously awake most of the time but it's not true. Luckily for you one of the very first ideas to 
help you in creating a tangible understanding of hypnosis has been reached. You've already been reading 
about it and the idea is simply this: Hypnosis exists - regardless of our knowledge or acceptance of its powers to 
shape behavior and manipulate outcomes. You can start by first examining your own interactions with others. 

The very first theory is about you, yes... You!! You and the way you look at things, the way they sound, 
feel, smell and taste. In fact anything that describes experience in relation to you has the ability to affect 
you by altering your reality and even possibly allowing you (and others) to exhibit hypnotic phenomena. 

What you focus your attention on is all-important. Although these are simply words on a page they 
represent ideas with much implication. By paying attention, you're able read and use your own logic to 
create an understanding of these symbols, these letters and words represent for you and the world around 
you. Maybe by paying any attention at all hypnosis has already happened. It's not always up to you now. . . 

'You can induce trance most subtly and easily by simply letting a person focus on what is of most interest to them Trance 
is initiated when they become absorbed in something they are really interested in. This is the basis of all indirect induction 
of trance ". 

Pp368-Hypnotherapy-Erickson-Rossi 

For most people, reality is what we pay attention to and what we focus on. It's what we think we 
know . How we communicate is often overlooked. Verbal and non-verbal aspects of communication have 
often been a misunderstood process in our reality. They play a big role in our self-expression and 
interpretations of reality. By studying them we have gained new strategies for inducing and eliciting 
responses that are at times, "Hypnotic in nature". We can learn to teach ourselves "Multi-level 
communication and indirect suggestion" both of which "Occur naturally, spontaneously and usually 
without much conscious knowledge" (J. Zieg). We can also research the strategy of building response 
potential to minimal cues. We can utilize concepts like pacing and leading to do more with hypnosis. 



14 



This brings us now to the unfortunate fact that many are interested in manipulation. Governments and 
Religions wash the brain well. People hurt each other on even the most basic levels. The world has 
suffered enough. Love has always been the answer. With that being said let us continue to learn more 
about hypnosis. The next passage is from "Building Resistance" by R. Eichlow and I've found it 
particularly helpful in understanding why hypnosis is so important for everyday people and everyday life. 

"One's fund of general information (e.g. philosophy, comparative religion and history) can be vital in resisting manipulation. 
Perhaps more important, however, is an awareness of the limits of one's knowledge base, and a willingness to add knowledge when 
one is unsure of the validity of what is being said. " 

° It is possible to be hypnotised without being aware of the induction process . Most hypnotic phenomena, including carrying 
out posthypnotic suggestions, have been produced in subjects who were not aware of being in hypnosis (Erickson, Rossi, 
<& Rossi, 1976). 

° Hypnosis begins with a shift in attention (Hilgard, 1968). Attention is normally motile. That is, it is dynamic and is 
relatively freely focused on a variety of events within a large perceptual field; it moves back and forth between the external 
(e.g. actions and events "outside" the self and the internal (e.g. thoughts and feelings). Trance is a state that involves 
relatively focused, fixed orimmotile attention. Corollary: anyone or anything that results in decreased motility of attention 
is highly likely to induce an altered state of consciousness ('trance") whether or not it is labeled "hypnosis. " 

° The language of hypnosis is marked by vagueness. overgenerali%ations, metaphors and abstractions . Classical inductions 
are not the only way to "talk hypnosis" (although they can be found in many "meditation" techniques not overtly labeled 
as hypnosis). Nonclassical inductions use "normal" conversation and storytelling, often directed at more than one 
representational system (e.g. sight, sound and touch) to shift attention, in part by activating the subject's tendeny to 
search within him- or herself in order to find ways of relating what is being said now to experiences in the past (Handler 
& Grinder, 1975). Corollary: words that sound "deep" or meaningful but feel confusing (and/ or strangely calming) can 
induce trance outside the subject's awareness. 

° In trance, memories, fantasies, feelings and thoughts are often experienced more vividly and intensely than they are in the 
normal "waking" state (Hilgard, 1981). If a person is unaware of being in trance, or is unfamiliar or unconvinced of 
the phenomenon of hypnotic enhancement of perception, fantay and suggestibility, then that person is likely to attribute 
the vividness and intensity of the trance experience to some special characteristic of the message and/ or communicator. 
That is, the person links his/her feelings of intensity with what has been said or who has said it, not with how (i.e. 
hypnotically) it was said. The message is therefore experienced as "more real" or "more true" than other messages, and 
the communicator of the message is endowed with extraordinay (or even supernatural) characteristics or skills. 

° Hypnosis involves powerful trans ference . The induction process involves establishing and utilising rapport, and hypnosis 
is perhaps first and foremost an interpersonal process (Fromm, 1979). Most subjects, after being hypnotised, feel closer, 
more trusting and more positively about their operator than before. It is always more difficult to objectively assess 
someone (or what that someone says) after a powerful transference relationship has developed. 

° Hypnosis involves the suspension of "normal" logic . Trance logic is characterised by, among other things, lack of 
criticalness and the ability to hold two contradictory beliefs as true without one canceling out the other (Ome, 1959). 
Thus, in trance one can have the sensation of cold and still be aware of being seated in a warm, heated room. Corollary: 
in trance, people can accept notions or ideas that they would otherwise reject because they contradict other beliefs known to 
be based in reality. For example, the members of one Hindu-based cult believe that the space program is a hoax andyet 
may listen to and accept weather reports based on satellite pictures. 



15 



Ordinary people unknowingly create contexts in suggestion using ideas like double binds, the building of 
'Yes-sets' and reverse psychology. Most of us do it unconsciously as we talk away with each much like we 
do already everyday, we're having conversations like usual and after a while trance would occur and what 
not might happen and BOOM!!! What just happened right? The point is that living exposes you to this. 

So it all comes into play naturally as we SHARE EXPERIENCE TOGETHER, we interact and focus 
shifts from one thing to another. People do this with each other automatically, it's our way of 
communicating although few can acknowledge this consciously the way I have for you just now. We 
process many things unconsciously as we are entranced. It's fun to be enchanted and carried away, ...right? 

Some of us experiment with using different names, creating new personalities and becoming a different 
person. This allowed us an opportunity to experiment on ourselves, to learn and grow with life. We can 
use these changes to make powerful rapport with life. We can take it all to another level by tweaking our 
personalities. This happens to be the way we naturally develop maturity and a solid character anyway. So 
as we create our own adjustments in approach, we can better calibrate ourselves with life using the 
degrees of control brought on by a fully functional understanding of hypnosis. 

After a while I won't have to repeat myself anymore. You'll begin to understand why I emphasize self- 
research. I've come to the understanding that hypnosis has been studied thoroughly and its knowledge has 
been well documented. It's part of everyday life so if you study hypnosis, you'll soon discover that it's the 
motivation behind everything. Your unconscious mind listens and obeys within certain contexts. Those 
who don't know the rules on how it works are at the mercy of senselessness. 

Today we can gain new insight with these words which have been arranged to help readers understand 
one possible way of sizing up our situation. Throughout our day we go about our business thinking that 
our actions and re-actions are all random events but they are not. There's a defined structure to human 
behavior and its secrets are known. The idea of altered states of consciousness and the mechanics of 
hypnotic induction are said to have structures that can be consciously utilized to interjunct reality. 

Have you ever had a "Jingle" stuck in your head? It's because you have anchors that trigger responses in 
you. It's an intelligence based on the Hypnotic Utilization of Reality: Hypnosis is real. The whole point 
in this section is to keep things simple, hypnosis exists and you have a choice: learn it and use it or don't 
and be in the dark. Trance and Hypnotically induced altered states of mind are easy to construct if you 
know what you're doing and what to search for in situations that make it so. Anchoring is real. 

You may have realized by now that Hypnotic inductions are everywhere , A simple litde fan, it's blades 
can change your state with the right vibrations, fish in an aquarium, strobe lighting, practically anything 
that has the ability to capture your imagination can hypnotize you. Actually, it's you that allows and 
enables yourself naturally to shift states of consciousness. Where you wind up is another state, maybe a 
hypnotic trance state. Trance states can occur naturally or they can be conjured up. Hypnosis is the 
understanding of induction structure - the things that can make us change our state of consciousness. 
Practically any state can be induced. So remember, Inductions into hypnosis are everywhere. 



16 



Natural 
Strategy 



17 



Natural Strategy 



Understanding ourselves and the way we communicate 

Understanding ourselves and the way we communicate, it's a simple strategy to have. In life, 
experience revolves all around you. Your strategies determine your understanding of any reality you 
might have or that could be shared. Natural Strategy is all you , it's what you make life itself out to be. 

Your state of mind is affected by a lot. Our emotions can be easily triggered, creating an altered state 
of mind. They are easy to induce, they usually occur all by themselves. An altered state happens quite 
naturally while driving down the road and getting sleepy or zoning out while reading these words. 

The point is this: In an attempt to understand ourselves everyday, we should examine our ways of 
thinking, our version of reality. Here we can discover the filters of our self-imposed limitations using 
our knowledge of hypnosis to unleash the powerful focus of attention in our lives and be here now. 

We communicate our reality both consciously and unconsciously. The processing of all information 
happens on many levels and those that understand multi-level communication can manipulate reality 
with much more effectiveness and grace than someone without this way of using their imagination. 
Still, these manipulations can happen "Naturally "and they are all Natural Strategies . It's when we 
resort to manipulating environmental factors that we start to experience the sub-natural. That's later. . . 

After spending a couple of years thinking about a way to make all of this material easier to 
understand, I condensed it all into two distinct ways or strategies of inducing hypnotic 
behavior/waking suggestion in a person or group of people. Still, much research remains classified. 

Natural Strategies are methods which induce hypnotic behavior and induce waking suggestion "Naturally"- as it would 
naturally occur in regular, everyday experience. Natural Strategies are also the strategies we use to live our life, the ideas we 
have in our mental toolbox and which we use to make now a fine time. We can utilize knowledge of naturally occurring 
hypnotic states to hypnotize ourselves and each other. Natural Strategies are "Machine free" ways of induction. Natural 
Strategies induce hypnosis through natural means using either verbal and/or nonverbal contexts in communication. 
Consciously learning these methods require gaining a functional understanding of what governs hypnotic behavior to 
consciously induce hypnotic modification and test these Ideas. Typically people communicate unconsciously and may employ 
these strategies "Naturally" without knowing it. Examples are powerful preachers and politicians. The utilization of naturally 
occurring mixed states of consciousness make it easy for anyone to develop mastery of hypnotic controls. We can choose 
to create our own customized uptime strategy, avoiding downtime/Tranderivational search within ourselves. Utilizing 
communication at the content level instead of the process level (where analog messages are being marked out by the 
unconscious) allows us to act beneficially, easily keeping us focused. The whole point is self empowerment, we can do it! 

Sub-Natural Strategies are those methods which induce hypnotic behavior and waking suggestion "Sub -naturally". These 
types of strategies use machines and advanced scientific technology to hypnotize a subject. Sub-natural Strategies induce 
hypnosis by applying the laws of hypnosis, subliminal communication and para-psychophysical manipulation of the human 
nervous system. All together they form a purposeful " Invisible and Silent " way of modifying behavior and contexts. This 
type of strategy is usually kept top secret. Some argue that it's best if people were made to believe these strategies don't exist. 
It's research is old. As far back as the mid 1800's, E.H. Weber measured sensory experience and experimental findings bore a 
formula with his name. The subliminal age was born soon after Fechner published Elements of Psychophysics in 1860 

We will discuss innovative research and concepts in the field of hypnotic communication. We will 
examine Hypnotic Rapport, Representational Systems, Mixed State Communication, Anchoring, 
Unconscious Behavior, Resistance, Uptime Strategy and more. We'll discover some ideas by Bill 
O'Connell and Stephen Lankton. We'll examine the Boundaries of Suggestion. Words lead the way. 



18 



llOtic Rapport! Matching, Mirroring, Pacing and Leading 



Rapport is just a word and hypnotic rapport makes two. To some, these words might describe a 
possible conscious/unconscious connection things may exhibit. It's typically an unconscious 
relationship that occurs when people establish a mutual point in reality that may or may not possess 
hypnotic characteristics. Some say it's an invisible bond in between people; a few even call it rapport. 

Some people like you, for instance, could build rapport with others in many ways. By simply 
agreeing with them, by talking at the same speed, with the same tone and tempo you can begin to 
become more alike and develop strong rapport. Through mirroring and matching behavior we can 
begin a biofeedback loop that connects us " HYPNOTICALLY" and induces by pacing with words 
and actions to represent the ongoing experience of the person you are maintaining rapport with. 
Gaining rapport helps us to lead hypnotically. You might even choose to be in rapport with someone 
or not at all. This is where an understanding of pacing and leading becomes practical. Pacing and 
Leading a person's focus of attention can take us along to anywhere at anytime in anyplace. Rapport 
can be very powerful and understanding it's key elements can help make sense of hypnosis. Rapport 
can be very hypnotic. You can create it and you can destroy it, it's "Hypnotic Rapport ". 

To better understand the basics of Hypnotic Rapport, we can review some material from the experts. 

"Notice what people respond to naturally So if you begin matching someone else's behavior, either verbally or nonverbally, it puts you in the 

position of being able to vary what you do and to have them follow" 

Ppl3-15 Transformations, Bandler & Grinder 

" In clinical settings, Milton used his voice and his body similarly. By deliberately and systematically modulating his voice tone and tempo, and 
altering his body's position and movement, he was able to "Train " his patients to receive subliminal messages the he was transmitting to them. It was not 
uncommon for patients to receive two messages simultaneously, sometimes even within the same sentence. The first message was sent with one particular 
vocal or tempo (Body position and movement) and the second message was communicated with a different tone or tempo (body position and movement). 
This complex technique was just an elaboration of the methods that farmers had used to train animals back in Wisconsin when Milton was a boy. " 

Pp460 Hypnotherapy - 1979 Rossi and Erickson 

"In addition to matching peoples experience with your statements to get rapport, you 11 need to be able to do something with the rapport you 11 have. 
The key to this is being able to make transitions. You 11 need to have a graceful way of guiding someone from his present state into a trance state - going 
from describing his present state to describing the state you want him to go. Using transitional words allows you to do this smoothly " 

Ppl6 Trance formations - 1983 Bandler & Grinder 

"Beginning with sensory based information allows you to make transitions and elicit responses that induce altered states. The sensory base for 
transitions needs to be something that the person whom you are working can find. It doesn 't need to be something he already has in his awareness but 
something that he can find. " 

Ppl7 Trance formations - 1983 Bandler & Grinder 

"Hypnosis itself, as far as I'm concerned, is simply using yourself as a biofeedback mechanism. You were doing that when you matched the other 
persons breathing rate with your voice tempo. Your behavior became and ongoing feedback mechanism for his behavior. Whether you 're going to use 
altered states for inducing personal change, for some medical purpose, for the purpose of relaxing , or as a form of meditation, the things that allow you 
to be able to respond to another human being by going into an altered state are not genetically predetermined. They 're simply the mechanisms of 
communication " 

PI 2 Tranceformations - 1983 Bandler & Grinder 



19 



'Accept and Utilize: Pace and Lead" Stephen G. Gilligan In Ericksonian approaches to clinical hypnosis 



Hypnotic rapport can be had between two people or a group. Usually people are in rapport 
unconsciously but a practical knowledge of hypnosis can change that. One thing you'll have to pay 
attention to are your senses. Later on you'll read about what happens when you start working with 
representational systems. The main point now is that unconsciously, we all communicate with each 
other. It's happening all the time. We "Pace "each other to communicate. Sometimes we even lead. 

In order to understand and assess the current situation, time is spent communicating verbally and 
non-verbally. The fact of the matter is that we already do experience rapport in our reality but much 
happens on an unconscious level. We either do it rather well or we don't know what we're doing 
(and it's hit or miss). It's all part of our inherited nature to have a focus and a limited consciousness. 
The science of hypnosis is an amazing thing because it allows us to begin to understand what we are 
all doing unconsciously, consciously. It's how we are and why we are each connected by experience. 

You can understand rapport as many things, a new set of ideas, perhaps a new way of working with 
things that makes more sense. You might even find it here in these pages trying to understand you. 
You could begin to think somehow that matching, mirroring, pacing and leading are ALL strategies 
that we already live with. In that sense, it is true. While salesmen, politicians and the clergy use it, we 
all are affected by what's on our mind, our current state and our process in thinking. We all display the 
characteristics of self -hypnosis, imposed by limitations set forth upon our unconscious. Hypnotic 
structuring of unconscious biofeedback loops enable us to communicate our thoughts to ourselves and 
each other. That could be something I might call rapport, it may now begin to mean something to you. 

Matching, Mirroring, Pacing and Leading 

Pacing and Leading is a pattern that is evident in almost everything we do. If done gracefully and smoothly it will 
work with anyone, including catatonics. 

Pp80 Frogs into Princes NLP 

As I mentioned earlier, the big challenge in writing this book came with trying to interpret hypnosis 
in such a manner that even the most unskilled reader could easily understand it. We could have begun 
by discussing Generalized Reality Orientation (Shor-1959) but where would that possibly have gotten 
us? Hopefully you're beginning to see my point. Instead of going right into some raw data, digging up 
clues to where we've been, let's now instead discuss Matching, Mirroring, Pacing and Leading. These 
are the basic elements that you can use to better understand the concept of Hypnotic Rapport and how 
Hypnosis occurs. You can utilize these strategies to induce highly suggestive states. 

Matching: Matching Modes, Representational Systems and whatever is going on ...on all input and output channels available. 

Mirroring: To copy, mimic and or otherwise imitate movements, gestures, patterns and anything else that one can mirror. 

1) Direct Mirroring-non verbal pacing technique whereby you mirror the exact channel 

2) Cross Over Mirroring- nonverbal pacing technique whereby you substitute one nonverbal channel for 
another or "Switch channels"'being mirrored. 

Pacing: Pacing the ongoing experience, done both verbally and non-verbally. You can match and mirror to pace. 

Leading: Leading the ongoing experience with the intent of moving someone into varying degrees of hypnotic states 



20 



Establishing Hypnotic Rapport is very easy using strategies in Matching, Mirroring, Pacing and 
Leading. All you have to do is know that they exist and start paying more attention to what you are 
already doing. The concept of building Hypnotic Rapport explains pacing as an exercise in matching 
and mirroring. When you pace somebody, you get into their world and can match and mirror 
consciously and/or unconsciously. It's all so natural when we try to understand each other that we try 
to see/hear/feel from the others point of view using our own point. It is something that is naturally 
occurring yet mostly an unconscious process. So when we are building rapport, we are attempting to 
pace someone and this can be done verbally and/or non-verbally. When pacing, we can lead. I highly 
recommend the 5-4-3-2-1 pacing and leading exercise from the book "Trance-formations ". 

Pp 16 - "To build Rapport, we work on building response attentiveness " Hypnotherapy/Rossi Erickson 

The idea of building Hypnotic Rapport using Matching, Mirroring, Pacing and Leading.... is that it 
can get you to start thinking in new ways. You can make finer distinctions in your experience and that 
of others. That's when we start separating and categorizing different channels of experience. They can 
be the channels of Kinesthetic, Olfactory, Visual and Auditory experience. There's input and output, 
and there's internal and external. This will allow us to categorize experience into smaller "Chunks" 
which we can all thank George A. Miller for (The magic Number 7 plus or minus 2). His paper helps 
us realize there's only so much we average humans can hold in conscious thought before we start 
becoming overloaded. We will discuss that further on in the workshop. We should also thank 
Erickson, Bandler, Grinder and many others too. Repetition is the key to Mastery. Read their books, I 
highly recommend them to anyone interested in learning more about NLP, Hypnosis and Mindcontrol. 

Altered states of consciousness and the mechanisms of induction are said to have structures that can 
be consciously utilized to interjunct reality. Something as simple as a metronome or dangling tree 
limb can alter states "Hypnotically ". This is where building Hypnotic Rapport plays its part. Let's 
take a moment to examine Dr. Charles Tart who defined "d-Soc" or discrete state of consciousness for 
a given individual as: 

"A Unique configuration or system of psychological structures or subsystems, a configuration that maintains it 's 
integrity or identity as a recognizable system in spite of various (small) changes in the subsystems. The system, the 
d-Soc, maintains it 's identity because various stabilization process modify subsystem variations so that they do not 
destroy the integrity of the system. " 

Ppll CONSCIOUSNESS© CO. Evans & ]. Fudjack Addendum A - The Concept of Generalised Reality-Orientation 

To better understand hypnotic rapport, we must begin to dissect communication and find out what's 
in the core. We communicate through five sensory modes: Kinesthetic, Olfactory, Auditory, Gustatory 
and Visually. These five Representational Systems can help us to understand hypnotic states as modal 
shifts in trance. Understanding Transderivational search and transformational grammar can help us to 
understand hypnotic patter as the structured use of forms. It's gets deeper, so hang on. . . 

Telemarketers pace and lead the attention. Like Hollywood, in order to maximize a suggestions powerful effect, 
lines are written out which they also call a "Script ". The effect of embedded patter can be quite jaunty. 

Charles A. Sherwood 



21 



Representational Systems: 4 tuples, overlap combinations in unconscious processing and hypnotic induction 

We ALL use representational systems. We all access ALL experience. We do so consciously and 
unconsciously with each of our five senses, called modes. We experience reality as best we can in 
whatever way we can. With the right use of these systems, the right combination can lead anyone into 
an experience of hypnosis. Therapists use it to heal, salesmen use it to sell, and clergy use it to save 
souls. Here we will use them to examine experience itself. Are you paying attention? 

"If people were to recognize what was really happening... what would they do? " 

Charles A. Sherwood 

For now, rest assured that the "Hypnotic Experience" has been investigated by many. Mainstream 
research includes the works of Milton Erickson, Gregory Bateson, Richard Bandler and John Grinder. 
Some research has gone as far as making equations out of human experience and have created an 
elaborate " Hypnotic Calculus " out of these modes, out of consciousness thereby defining the 
unconscious and its channels using mathematical language and computers. Today's research uses 
formulas based on "Emotional Signature Clusters". Even more highly classified experiments exist, all 
in an effort to control the parameters of reality and experience. Most are developed secretly of course. 

A 4-tuple is just an easy of way of categorizing human experience and interaction using a specific 
time-state based on internally and externally generated sensory points. It's a way of describing the 
things that are going on and what goes right past us. It's a good way of defining the limits of our 
conscious and unconscious minds. This formula can help us understand hypnosis as an experience- 
state in space and time. So, as each of us weaves in and out of different states of consciousness we can 
use all sorts of different combinations of 4-tuple, interpreting experience and living life with whatever 
potential we give it. 

"Once you understand the limitations of consciousness you can begin to understand both the necessity and 
usefulness of unconscious programming behavior. " 

Pp73- patterns of the hypnotic techniques of Milton H. Erickson MD II 

To learn about communication models, surface and deep structures, examine the concepts found in 
transformational grammar. Chomsky, Bateson and heck, even George A. Miller can all be thanked for 
helping us with our investigation of the wonderful ideas based on Transderivational Search and 
Representational Systems. Why should we? Well because there's alot of detail found in 
communication and reality. Hypnosis exists in this twilight of meanings and action. To learn more 
about these theories, I recommend reading "The Structure of Magic & Patterns I&II series " by 
Bandler and Grinder. Essentially, 4-tuples are used to define structure and quantify overlap 
combinations in unconscious processing and induction. Like confusion, The Milton model, pacing and 
leading these are all strategies leading to Hypnotic Mindcontrol®. 

4 tuples 

"The 4- tuple is a visual representation of experience which looks like < V, K, A{ O > i 

Where: 

V = visual mode 

K = kinesthetic mode 

Af = auditory tonal mode 

0 = olfactory mode 

1 = the referential index of the experiencer 

The 4 - tuple is a way of visually representing a persons experience at any point in time. The 4 - tuple claims that for the 
purposes of a model of effective hypnotic communication, a person's primary experience at a moment in time can be 
represented adequately by a description of their visual, kinesthetic, auditory tonal and olfactory experience. " 

Pp. 11 Patterns of the hypnotic techniques of Milton H. Erickson MD II-Bandler, Grinder, Deloizer 



22 



And there you have it, 4 tuple is just a name for an equation that is used to represent ongoing 
experiences. Why is it important? Well, because it can help explain hypnosis as variations in 
experience either internally or externally generated. Transformational grammar explains 
communication as an exchange or combination of deep and surface structures. It can also be a 
mathematical language used to understand human behavior, modify ourselves and induce hypnosis. 

Calibration is found in the book "Trance-formations"- Bandler/Grinder - it describes calibration as an 
exercise in calibrating ourselves with another person's representational system, their map of the world. 

Overlap combinations in unconscious processing 

" Once an effective pace is established within the clients own representational system, the hypnotist may begin to lead the 
client to an altered state of consciousness by finding the point of overlap between some experience in that representational 
system and that same experience in one of the associated representational systems not normally a part of the clients ongoing 
experience 

Pp 31-32 patterns II of the hypnotic techniques of Milton H. Erickson MD 

When you begin to understand representational systems, you'll notice odd things happen when 
certain modes are overlapped onto each other, cycling together and mixing into experience over time. 
Unconscious processing of information becomes more fluid in its structure when you understand that 
we have different operators functioning (L, C and R operators) creating 5 tuples. It can then become a 
matter of studying and applying structure to this hypnotic learning about hypnosis for you to 
understand that Overlap Combinations in Unconscious Processing can be unavoidably hypnotic and 
skillfully applied. Do you hear what I'm saying, see what I'm talking about or feel what I'm doing?? 
Yeah, OK - 1 don't believe you. It took me years to learn this stuff; I suggest you do some reading up. 

"Listening to the client 's use of predicates for identifying the clients most highly valued representational system will allow the 
hypnotist to decide whether a visualization (or whichever) accessing induction will be effective. " 

Ppl87- patterns of the hypnotic techniques of Milton H. Erickson MD I 

Bringing people from one state of consciousness to another can be done easily. One effective way is 
by overlapping representational systems. When we communicate conversationally it happens and 
altering focus is part of the process. Predicates can be found and utilized. You can calibrate yourself to 
a person in hypnotic ways. People have a main representational system they use to interpret reality, a 
sensory mode that leads the others in conscious awareness. This will usually free up other modes and 
channels making them unconscious in their awareness. Shifting modally in-between sensory 
experiences, internally and externally can access unconscious processing. Overlap combinations are 
just one way to unlock the door of hypnotic phenomena. Deep Trance is one possible outcome of 
overlapping representational systems. Different combinations can create different states. Experiment! ! 

Hypnotic induction 

There are many ways of inducing trance. Hypnotic interaction can help provide a simple bio-feedback 
loop using verbal and nonverbal communication components. A person can be paced and lead and it 
can be called an "Induction". Induction is also a word that could represent the process of going from 
any state to one of increased suggestibility and relaxation. In an altered state some people might 
exhibit hypnotic phenomena quickly. There could also be an unlimited amount of inductions for an 
unlimited amount of people. In other words there are many ways and plenty of techniques, it's all a 
relative function of an individuals programming. Anyone can be hypnotized, even you. 

Excerpts from Ericksonian Approaches to Clinical Hypnosis by Stephen Gilligan pp92 
"The Main Strategies or principles that an Ericksonian Hypnotist uses to induce trance are 

1. ) Secure and maintain the subject's attentional absorption; 

2. ) Access and develop unconscious processes ( associational strategies ; 

3. ) Pace and distract conscious processes ( disassociational strategies ) 



23 



Mixed State Communication: The Milton Model, Hypnotic Language patterns and the Interspersal Technique 

"Trance: It is a subjective internal experience whose behavioral manifestations will vary across individuals. " 

Pp 88-89 Tranceformations- Banldler-Grinder 

Communication is very important. Within its structure is the understanding that every definition has 
a different reality for everyone. We communicate with ourselves and each other, on many different 
levels. Since we all operate within our own mixed states of awareness, we are limited in our 
communication strategies and respond to things, which can be out of our normal conscious awareness. 
This split in awareness means people can be communicated with, their states can be changed or mixed 
without them knowing, without them resisting. 

In Patterns II, page 88 it goes on to say " The systematic accessing of 4 tuples by tracking or 
sequencing, whether overt or covert, with or without anchors, offers a structure for communication of 
multiple messages in ways that give meaning to the principal of maximal direction 

By now you should have noticed hypnosis, trance and mixed state communication occurring naturally 
and spontaneously in all environments, even your own. Mixed state communication is real. Investigate 
US Patent # 6,506,148 and discover its madness. 

" One response that's very useful to illicit when doing hypnosis is the experience that one's unconscious is wise and can be 
trusted. What are universal experiences in which people respond appropriately without thinking about it consciously?. ..You 
can talk about how you when you run, your body knows just when to make your heart beat faster, and your breathing faster, 
and when to slow them down again. Consciously, you have no idea just how fast your heart should beat in order to get the 
appropriate amount of oxygen into your cells, and there's no need to, because your unconscious has a wisdom about how and 
when such things should occur. " 

Pp 136 Tranceformations- Banldler-Grinder 

I encourage you to study from the work of Milton H. Erickson MD. There's definitely a lot more to 
know about theories, techniques and what the big picture looks like. For now, learn the basics. . . 

THE MILTON MODEL: The Milton Model is a MODEL of patterns (verbal-nonverbal) that can be 
used for the induction of hypnotic work. It's a set of descriptions that help give a structure to process 
of hypnotic induction. It's based on the ways we generalize, delete, distort our experience and more. . . 

HYPNOTIC LANGUAGE PATTERNS: Language patterns spoken with the intent of producing 
hypnotic response. Effects are compounded when used with the appropriate nonverbal gestures and 
analog marking (the marking out some of the words in the communication by tonal shifts, tempo shift, 
body shifts, small gestures, spatial location, etc.): Structured patterns can produce hypnotic results. 

"Automatically begin to hear and change the language that has been limiting you and begin to use language to create new possibilities in all 
areas of your life. Language patterns are one of the most pervasively useful areas of communication, because anytime you are speaking - the 
words you are saying, and how you say them, makes a tremendous difference. ..Anytime you are talking with someone, including yourself, it is 
relevant what words you use. Use language patterns to move yourself and others in a direction that results in a win-win situation. " 

Advanced Language Patterns Mastery- Larry McLauchlin 

THE INTERSPERSAL TECHNIQUE: Dr. Milton H. Erickson interspersed Direct and Indirect 

suggestions in various ways. He was shifty, one minute he's talking to you about one thing and next 
minute he has you doing things, thinking things and whatever else leading up to it all. He could bury 
meaning and dispense ease. Interspersing Embedded Hypnotic commands was his way, his technique. 

"With the advent of modern psychodynamic psychology however, we recognize that the mind is a continual state of growth 
and change. ...The Interspersal , approach, on the other hand is suitable means of presenting a suggestions in a manner that 
enables the patients own unconscious to utilize them in its own unique way. The Interspersal approach can operate on many 
levels. We can within a single sentence intersperse a single word that facilitates the patients associations: 

Pp20-The Interspersal approach 



24 



Milton Erickson's ideas can never be too repetitiously impressed upon the mind. He taught indirect 
ways to "Manipulate the personality" and access learning to promote positive changes within people. 
Miracles arouse from the changed limitations. He would speak to both a person's conscious and 
unconscious mind and expected them to be together in the same person. His way was so effective that 
I'm not really sure why more people don't know about him or his "Hypnotic Technique". The power 
of thought and communication belong to all of us yet so few know its boundaries. 

"Hypnosis is primarily a state in which there's increased responsiveness to ideas of all sorts. ..and one implores that 
responsiveness not by trying to force but by trying to illicit an immediate response.. " 

Milton Erickson- Seminar on Hypnosis- Ocean Monarch, 1957- 4:48 

" I think that a good hypnotist understands the value of multi level communication. " Milton was the acknowledged master in 
transmitting more than one message to a person simultaneously, and in simultaneously transmitting different messages to the 
members of group confidentially. He accomplishes this by deliberately, systematically and precisely controlling his words, his 
voice and his body language ". 

Pp460 Understanding Hypnosis and Ericksonian Techniques - Herbert S. Lustig 

To accomplish this "Elicitation of Immediate Response" an operator must have some degree of 
compliance from the subject-responder. Oftentimes this may be best accomplished in ways that where 
there's no conscious perception or knowledge of the manipulation occurring. In other words, hypnosis 
works best when done covertly. The subject is unaware that you may be pacing and leading. This lack 
of knowledge can be used to elicit responses more readily. A person can be led into unconscious 
processing or they may just be there already, having arrived there on their own. The experienced 
operator will pick up on this and simply has better access to the resources that make up the subject's 
unconscious mind. Understanding the human psyche has been one of mankind's greatest obsessions. 
Still today, few are even aware that life is affected by the laws of hypnosis yet mankind continues to 
move forward, bumping into the furniture of a dark room that we have found ourselves in. Wake up! 

The basic idea of effective mixed state communication is to guide focus and test suggestibility of 
whomever hypnosis is to be induced in. Erickson proved he could intersperse suggestions, use verbal 
and non-verbal communication strategies to elicit powerful responses from his patient's unconscious. 

The Double Induction is what makes US Military boot camp so effective. It's an example of the 
hypnotic trance induction using a simultaneous induction technique on one subject, overwhelming 
their consciousness and eliciting hypnotic phenomena. Look it up on page 98 of trance formations and 
also on page 101 of Ericksonian Approaches to Hypnosis and Psychotherapy. There are many 
different levels of experience and communication. Some levels of access to conscious and/or 
unconscious processing use models to orient reality and alter focus. We communicate with ourselves 
and each other on many levels, using our own multi-level communication system. Most of us do this 
unconsciously but the structure of multi-level communication can be learned and used consciously. 
For now, we will approach representational systems and Uptime Strategy as the two ways of 
communicating Experience and Potential Reality Orientation. 

So as with Multi level communication Systems, those that can manipulate rapport have an advantage 
over those who can't. What they do with it can possibly affect all those that are near. What you choose 
to do or think about while using this material is up to you. I suggest researching the word Karma. 



25 



Anchoring: Digital and Analog Marking - Embedded Commands 



TV commercials often feature an anchoring device. A subconscious trigger than has the ability to 
recall, influence and unconsciously access state change. One example is a catchy TV jingle which is 
really nothing more than a powerful anchor. When we hear it and we know what it is. 

People anchor things with each unconsciously as well. Anchors can be in any representational 
system. We are in a constant mix of changing states We can be trained to respond through the use 
of anchors. They are part of our unconscious communication strategy. Our emotions, any activity can 
be linked to a trigger - a switch in our unconscious. Anchors exist and they are everywhere. 

We can use analogue and digital pathways to anchor. When we anchor, we save a copy of our 
experience in our unconscious mind. Trigger it and it brings it back our experience. Here we will 
discuss the features found in various sources on this interesting subject. The purpose is to show us just 
how important and necessary this stuff can be to know. If you aren't aware that commands are being 
imbedded, that your unconscious mind is being communicated with by suggestions having bypassed 
consciousness and having gone straight to your unconscious- you may as well give up now, go ahead. 

"The choice you make about what system you anchor in will determine the kind of response you get. If you want to involve the 
person 's consciousness, anchor in all systems. If you want to be covert and go around a resistant conscious mind, anchor in any 
system that is not represented in consciousness. If the persons predicates and eye movement patterns give you the information that 
they are kinesthetic, don 't anchor in that system unless you want their conscious resources involved. If you anchor that same person 
tonally, they have no conscious representation of it. " 

pp!05 Frogs into Princess. Bandler & Grinder 

Every experience includes multiple components: visual, auditory, kinesthetic, olfactory and gustatory. Anchoring refers to the 
tendency for any one element of an experience to bring back the entire experience 

pp 61Trance-formations Bandler & Grinder 

" You can 't not anchor. It's only a question of whether you do it in a useful way or not. " 

pp 103 Frogs into Princes - Bandler & Grinder 

Many products use a jingle within a commercial advertising format to anchor you. Double Reverse- 
Anchor advertising has created a consumer culture out of human experience. You'll believe it's not 
possible to notice things that are in the unconscious mind. Look at the box of wheaties, you're on it. 

Digital and Analogue marking 

Analogue marking - A special kind of anchoring is particularly useful when you want to elicit hypnotic responses. It's called analogue 
marking and involves marking out certain words nonverbally as you're talking with someone. I can mark out these words as separate 
messages with my voice tone, a gesture a certain expression or a touch. 

Pp63 "Trance-formations " Bandler & Grinder 

In other words, we can use anchoring to guide ourselves back or forward anywhere at anytime in 
anyplace. We can even research a technique called timed distortion. It's a wonderful time machine, 
which allows us to build new realities, creating new symbols and definitions all along the way. The 
contents of our unconsciousness can be used as an anchoring tool for self-exploration and to build a 
better understanding of our behavior and that of others. This power is found in our unconscious mind. 



26 



Embedded Commands 



With a thorough knowledge of embedded commands, you would be able to easily identify them 
when they are used. Take Martin Luther King's famous speech where he says " I HAVE A DREAM". 
With knowledge of embedded commands, his words can begin to take on new meaning and different 
tone. Have a DREAM, won't you? Sure, don't mind if I do... The structure of words began to make 
sense to me when I started reading about Linguistics, Logic and Semantical Abstracts. Just like 
successful ad campaigns on Television or a politician/preacher talking and persuading, they all do 
what they're designed to do: access deep structure. Communication formats that use Embedded 
Commands, Transderivational Search and Transformational Grammar are everywhere. Let's examine 
a few examples from the "Experts "on hypnotic technique. I hope you find it useful: 

Forms of Indirect Suggestions: Embedded Commands, Questions and Conversational postulates 

There are three major types of "Lesser Included Structures" in which a listener responds to unconsciously: Embedded 

questions, Embedded Commands and Quotes 



Embedded Questions: 

"By skillfully selecting the question which he imbeds, the hypnotist can lead the client in a direction which will accomplish 
the objectives of the hypnotic work. "Pp238- The Hypnotic Techniques and Patterns of Milton H. Erickson MD, Vol I 

Step 1 - Identify the message which you wish someone to receive; 

Step 2 - Form a question which will lead the person to the message which you wish them to receive; 
Step 3 - Embed the question within a verb to form an embedded or indirect question. 

Embedded Commands: 

"Presenting the command in a covert way has all the other advantages which we have mentioned previously; e.g., avoids the 
authoritarian issue and thereby, resistance; engages active participation on the part of the client at the unconscious level of 
behavior. P 239- Patterns I 

Step 1 - Identify some message to which you wish a person to respond; 
Step 2 - Form a command with the message; 

Step 3- Embed the command into a sentence without making the result ungrammatical. 
Quotes: 

"The listener's tendency to commit an error of logical typing at the unconscious level- That is to respond to a meta-statement 
(The quoted material) as though it were at a different logical level." p 240 

Step 1 - Identify the message which you wish someone to receive 
Step 2 - Form the message into a command 

Step 3 - Make up a story in which one of the characters says the command (s) emphatically. 
Analogical Communication: Analogical Marking of Verbal Communication: 

When these three techniques are combined with Analogical marking, their effectiveness increases tremendously. 
Step 1 - Identify the message which you wish someone to receive 

Step 2 - Make up a series of sentences which include as a proper subset all of the words which, if they were extracted, would 
communicate the message directly; 

Step 3 - Mark the subset of the words included in the communication Analogically (by tonal shifts, body shifts, tempo shifts, 
etc.) to communicate the included meanings. 



27 



Patterns of the hypnotic techniques of Milton H. Erickson MD II-Bandler, Grinder, Deloizer 

Excerpt from pages 107/108 

"... Another choice of responding to incongruency is that offered by any 
of the covert induction techniques we have mentioned earlier. For example, the 
hypnotist/communicator may choose to question the client closely about his 
understanding of what a deep trance would be like (working his way systematically 
through the variables of the 4-tuple). As he does so, he is alert to note the responses by 
the client and to covertly anchor the responses which in combination will yield the type 
of the type of altered state which will be useful for the purposes of the hypnotic 
encounter. The client, of course, is conscious only the he is having a harmless 
conversation with the hypnotist. Once the components of the altered state the hypnotist 
desires have been solidly anchored, he need only trigger the anchors for the components 
simultaneously, and the altered state will result. In making choice about which system to 
anchor in, the 4-tuple and it's associated R operator provide the hypnotist/communicator 
with a principled and effective way of deciding- specifically , with incongruent clients, 
anchor in any system which is ~ R . Another excellent choice with incongruent clients is 
to converse comfortably with the client about a relatively harmless topic while marking 
analogically certain portions of the verbal communication for special attention at the 
unconscious level. Again the R operator indicates which system to use which system to 
use for the marking of verbal messages - that is any of the ~ R systems. A third class of 
covert inductions which are effective with incongruent clients are those involving the 
intersection of TOTE's as detailed in tracking model II. In using this model with 
incongruent clines the hypnotist/communicator may usefully select 4-tuples which 
involve TOTE's where the intersection occurs in one of the ~ R systems. For example, if 
you as the hypnotist were working to get eye closure with a client whose R operator was 
V using tracking model II, you might have a conversation which included a discussing of 
among other things: watching a sunrise, diving into cold water, walking down a dusty, 
dirt road with a lot of traffic on it. Visually (the client's consciousness) these 4-tuples 
have very little in their intersection but kinesthetically, each includes a TOTE which 
leads in the direction of eye closure." 

The power of questions goes underestimated. The embedding of questions is extremely 
powerful. Pacing and leading is accomplished naturally. Reading the above excerpt leads 
us to another theory. One that hypothesizes embedded questions covertly elicit hypnotic 
response potentials. For example... 

Hi, my name is Charles A. Sherwood. I'm a hypnotist; Here are a couple of questions 
before we get started... 



28 



Advanced Language Patterns Mastery : by Larry McLauchlin (1992) 



Embedded Commands 

(Statements that include indirect commands embedded within the statement itself) 

a) We people like yourself, Jim, attend my seminar they get excited about how they 
can make many changes in their lives. 

b) When clients hire my firm, Jim, all the work we do is to get results right now. 

c) All the experts who study NLP in depth agree with me that it's the world's greatest 
communication model. 

Before we start our interview I'd like to let you know up front that there are some things 
you may not want to tell me, now and I'd like not to tell me those things until you are 
ready to tell me, Now, we can start. 

I'll be glad to help when you want to talk to me again. 

( Put commands behind modal operators) 

If you will use commands you will be amazed at how you'll be able to persuade more 
rapidly and if you want to accomplish this, you will become driven to learn these now. 



Embedded Questions 

(Questions that include commands embedded within the question itself) 

a) I'm not sure if you want to make comprehensive changes enough to come to my 
seminar. 

b) Can you think of all the reasons that you want to hire my firm to get the results that 
you want, now. 

c) Do you think that NLP is the greatest communication model in the world or do you 
need to know more about it before you reach that conclusion. 

You may now be noticing things that you didn't before. There's a pattern in all this talk 
about "Anchoring: Digital and Analogue marking with embedded commands". We do 
this stuff to each other every day. See what others mark out for you unknowingly, you 
may be surprised to find out. 



29 



UnCOnSCiOUS Behavior: T.O.T.E.'s Pattern Interrupt, Confusion, Overload and Stacked Realities 

"Confusion and overload can also be accomplished by telling stories involving spatial and/or temporal disorientation. " 

pp99 "Trance-formations " Bandler & Grinder 1982 

The patterns of unconscious behavior we humans display is infinite. To understand them 
is to live wisely, e Pattern Interrupt is one example of how an idea about unconscious 
behavior can make it possible to accomplish the " Handshake-Interrupt". Milton Erickson 
was a master of this technique. First we need to understand unconscious behavior and it's 
least common denominator, the T.O.T.E. 

TOTE 's - Plans and the Structure of Behavior: short sequence of behavior occurring at the unconscious level.... 
"An example of the utilization of a TOTE in the context of hypnosis is the interruption of the standard handshake as the first 
step in a kinesthetically based trance induction. " P 6 patterns II 

"In our experience, the trance states which result from the interruption of a tote are typically profound, and deep trance 
phenomena are comfortably elicited. Further if care is taken to re-orient the client to the exact position at which the 
interruption occurred and the remainder of the TOTE is executed, the client will have no conscious representation that 
anything unusual has occurred. In other words, consistent with the interrupted pattern having attained the status of a single 
unit of behavior at the unconscious level of behavior, any experiences which occur in the interruption can have no conscious 
representation unless deliberate instructions are given the client to consciously recall those experiences upon awakening. " 

"pp 6-7 patterns II" 

The whole idea of interrupting is gaining control of unconscious behavior, willingly. 
The whole point is to jam or redirect conscious attention so that unconscious resources 
can be accessed. 

Confusion, Overload and Stacked Realities 

All three: Confusion, Overload and Stacked Realities can induce hypnosis. Confusion was used as a 
hypnotic technique by Milton Erickson to induce trance, psychotherapeutically. 

Confusion Technique: 

1 ) Identify a dominant pattern in the subject 's behavior. 

2) Pace the pattern for a while. 

3) Interrupt or overload the pattern in a way which confuses the subject. 

4 ) Amplify the confusion a bit. 

5) Use the confusion by introducing a simple leading statement "e.g.. drop into a trance" 

pp 98- Ericksonian Approaches to Clinical Hypnosis 



30 



Milton Erickson used this technique and others while he talking to both a person's conscious and 
unconscious. Many attempted to define his hypnotic patter and technique. It wasn't until Patterns I & 
II that his way was defined in a manner that could be easily understood. As Bandler and Grinder 
studied Dr. Erickson they formulated understandings based on their own research and that of other 
intellects like Gregory Bateson (who laid the foundation for their study with Erickson and wrote the 
book "Steps to an Ecology of Mind") and George A. Miller (who wrote the paper "The Magic 
Number 7 +1-2" which explored the limits of how much the human mind can hold in conscious 
thought before experiencing overload). Confusion and Overload both open the door to hypnosis. 
Realities can be "Stacked" to create/induce a confusing/overload effect and that's when embedded 
commands have their greatest effect. It's shocking to see this stuff being used commercially to get 
people to do something without their knowing. Embedded commands, subliminal presentation and 
more, the point is to gain a better understanding of this stuff for yourself fast, I assure you there's 
plenty left to know. There's no need to be confused any longer, continue to read along and begin to 
build more "Resistance " to brainwashing and unethical manipulation. 

Research proves hypnotic phenomena is real, it can be learned and it can be used. Let's now take a 
moment to review our own hypnotic understanding. First, I would like to impress upon you to 
remember how easy it is to form ideas. The key to understanding the human mind is inside of you. 
You are a miracle set in motion, a unique being creating thoughts from within thoughts. Ideas can 
come from anywhere, including somewhere other than you. Second, We can develop our own good 
hypnotic technique. By achieving this level of practical understanding and with skillful use of these 
forces in action , we can make it easy to create a more practical way of impacting world around us. 

Here's an interesting little article on how simple and effective confusion can be: 

The Hypnotic Power of Confusion 

by Joe Vital 

"Did you walk to work or carry a lunch?" 
Huh?... 

My father asked me that question more than 25 years ago. I still remember it. Why? Because it's a ridiculous question. 

A famous comedian in the 1950s used to ask people, "Got a banana?" The question might make sense if asked in the right situation, 
but he asked it everywhere. I've forgotten the name of the comedian, but I still recall his question. Why? Because it's strange. 

As I write this, I am creating new business cards for myself. I decided to add a confusing line to it. After some fun brainstorming with 
my girlfriend, I settled on, "Ask me about the monkey. " 

Why is "Ask me about the monkey?" worth putting on my business card? As with my father's question and the comedian's question, it 
stops your brain in its tracks. It makes you pause. It makes you focus on ME. The theory is that once you stop someone with a 
confusing line, you can then implant a hypnotic command right after it. 

In other words, if I write something like, "Apples desk fly dirt, " and then follow it with, "Read my new ebook, " the chances are very 
high that you are going to want to read my new ebook. 

Why? Because the first line jammed your mind, and the second line slipped into your brain while you weren't looking. I've just upped 
the odds that you will buy my new e-book. And if you don % of course, it doesn 't matter because I never really told you to go buy it. 
See? The same thing will happen on my new business cards. Since I'm now known as "The World's First Hypnotic Marketer, " I wanted 
a strange, confusing line on my new card. When someone sees, "Ask me about the monkey, " and then asks me about the monkey, I can 
simply point out that I practice hypnotic selling and I just got them to do what I wanted. 

The Japanese practice this "hypnotic confusion, " but probably unknowingly. A friend of mine who flew to Japan reported to me that 
the English phrases on all the Japanese products were bizarre. A tube of toothpaste might say, "Green days you not sing." A box of 
cookies might say, "Wood above fish. " 

How can you use this secret right now? Don't be afraid to be confusing. People tend to sort out whatever 

you say anyway and make sense out of it using their own terms. If you are describing your product in great detail, be willing to toss in 
something odd. It may increase sales... " 



31 



Resistance - Understanding Resistance and Utilizing Polarity Response 

"What's it like not trying to awaken something deep inside? And don 't think about it either. " 

Charles A. Sherwood 

Resistance helps guide us from where we are now, a situation we're in that is causing resistance, to 
a new situation, one void of resistance and full of compliance. They key is changing what we are 
doing to doing something else. A persistent hypnotist finds what works best in minimizing resistance. 
A polarity response is an opposite response. You can use it like a switch that you can flip to turn 
things around. . . 

"Negation is particularly effective to use with anyone who has a polarity response. One good way to work through 
resistance and handle polarities is with the use of tag questions. A tag questions is simply a negation in the form of a 
question embedded on at the end of a sentence. I've talked about using negation and tag questions. You can have a 
greater impact if you add the use of embedded commands. Take the statement "And I don't want you to become 
more relaxed as you listen to the sound of my voice." If I change the tempo, pitch, or timbre qualities of my voice 
when I say "Become more relaxed" that instruction is marked out analogically for special attention at the 
unconscious level. ...You can use embedded commands with or without negation. "As you sit there you can begin to 
relax... Don't close your eyes only as fast as your unconscious mind allows you to remember a pleasant time from 
your past when you didn't feel too comfortable. If you analogically mark out the instructions you want someone to 
follow, you will gracefully have more impact. 

pp 68-69 Trance-formations Bandler/Grinder 

Another important point is what really happens during communication exchange. Shared realities and 
contexts allow implication to be used by the conscious mind to influence unconscious processes. . . 

Shock, Surprise and Creative Moments ; Implication and the Implied Directive: 

Implication is a basic linguistic-psychological form that provides us with the clearest model of the dynamics of 
indirect suggestion. Most psychotherapists agree that it is not what the therapist says that is important but what the 
patient hears. That is, the words of the therapist only function as stimuli that set of many personal trains of 
association within the patient that actually function as a motor vehicle for the therapeutic process. This process can 
be disrupted when the therapist's innocent remarks have unfortunate implications for the patient, but it can be 
greatly facilitated when the therapist's words carry implications that evoke latent potentials within the patient. A 
great deal of communication in daily life as well as in therapy is carried out by implication in a manner that is, for 
the most part, not consciously planned or even recognized by the participants. We witness this in everyday life when 
a housewife bangs her pots and pans a bit louder when she is displease with her husband but may hum softly to her 
self when she is pleased. She may not recognize what she is doing, and her husband may not always know how he is 
getting the message, but he feels it at some level. Body Language and gesture ( Birdwhistell, 1952 1971 : Scheflen, 
1974) are nonverbal modes of communication that usually function via implications. In such implication the 
message is not stated directly but is evoked by a progress of inner search and inference. The inner search engages 
the patient's own unconscious processes that the response that emerges is as much a function of the patient as it is 
of the therapist. Like all the other forms of indirect suggestions, our psychological use of implication ideally evokes 
and facilitates the patient 's own processes of creativity. 

What is the value of such implication? Ideally such implications bypass the consciousness and 
automatically evoke the desired unconscious processes that will facilitate trance induction in a way that the 
conscious mind could not because it does not know how. We can prepare ourselves to go to sleep, but the conscious 
mind cannot make it happen. Thus if we directly order a naive patient, "Sit down and to go into trance" (apparently 
an indirect compound contingent suggestion in itself) he or she may well sit down while politely protesting, " But 
I've never gone into a trance, and I'm afraid I don 't know how. " Since the essence of hypnotic suggestion is that 
responses are carried out at an autonomous or unconscious level, it is usually futile to expect the conscious mind to 
carry them out via direct suggestion. When direct suggestions are successful, , They usually involve preparation for 
hypnotic work in the same sense as brushing one 's teeth and lying in bed are conscious preparatory acts that set 
the stage for going to sleep, which is then mediated by unconscious processes. With implication and all other 
indirect forms of suggestion, we are presuming to do something more: We are making an effort to evoke and 
facilitate the actual unconscious processes that will create the desired response. As we reflect upon the process of 
implication, we gradually become aware that everything we say has implications. 

pp 39 Hypnotherapy -Rossi-Erickson, 1979 



32 



Trance Inducing Words and "Weasel" Phraseology 



Overcoming resistance and anchoring products are what advertisers do best. As 
individuals, we sell ourselves and each other with their ideas and contexts. Manipulation 
is everywhere. We can investigate how powerful hypnosis has become as a tool of 
persuasion. This last section is from a set of flash cards based on a seminar by Ross 
Jeffries on Speed Seduction. He was also a former pupil of Dr. Erickson. Today's world 
requires an open mind to understand what the implications of mind manipulation really 
are. Life involves everything. Are you listening? Are you aware? 

The purpose of your communication is to get you a result! 

The purpose of jour communication is not to give an understanding. The purpose of your communication is to get a result! 

Super Influence Pattern # 1 
Entrain Attention Induce Amplify & Intensify State Link to action 

Simple enough - get "em fixated, start 'em going get 'em to step on the gas and link to what you want "em to do! 



Super Influence Pattern #2 
1. Have you ever X? 2. Give Example 3. Describe Process 4. Optional amplifier: move sub- 
modalities 

This is most useful for complex processes that you want them to run when you aren't even around. 

Trance Word # 1 
instantaneously 

All trance words work because they imply a process that takes place outside of conscious awareness or control. 
When something happens instantaneously in a person's mind, it 's got to come out of an unconscious process. 

Trance Word #2 
immediately 

Again, when you immediately "realise" or " convince yourself ' it's happening 
out of our control or awareness which means T-R-A-N-C-E! 

Trance Word #3 
find yourself 

What does it mean to "find yourself doing something? That it wasn't 
Consciously planned or executed! Which means T-R-A-N-C-E? 

Trance Word # 4 
suddenly 

Same effect as instantaneously, immediately. It means that 
the thought comes from another awareness ... the unconscious, T-R-A-N-C-E! 



33 



Trance Word # 5 
picture 

Don't picture yourself having mastered these skills! Picture requires 
visual internal processing; day dreaming hallucinating - T-R-A-N-C-E! 



Trance Word # 6 
suppose 

Suppose you were to master these skills! It means the same thing as "imagine. " T-R-A-N-C-E! 



Trance Word # 8 
realize 

When willyou realise you can master these skills? To realise means to have a thought just suddenly pop up in T-R-A-N-C-E! 



Trance Word # 7 
convince yourself 

Don 't convince yourself to master these skills! In order to convince yourself you have to go inside yourself 
And access all of your internal processes! Very powerful way to induce a T-R-A-N-C-E! 



Trance Word # 9 
ponder 

To ponder means to "mull it over" or "think about if, usually in an 
altered, day-dream type state. In other words: T-R-A-N-C-E! 



Trance Word # 10 
mysterious 

Tor whatever mysterious reason, you might realise suddenly that you can master these skills! 
Mysterious has shades of unknown, hidden, unconscious T-R-A-N-C-E! 



Trance Word # 11 
imagine 

It's not important to me that you imagine having mastery of these skills! To imagine requires usingyour internal processes 
visually; similar to day dreaming or hallucinating! In other words . . . T-R-A-N-C-E! 



Trance Word # 12 
remember 

As you remember a time when you were an exquisite learner, you can realise how easily you can master these skills. 
Remember means "go inside" and access internally ... T-R-A-N-C-E! 



34 



Trance Word # 13 
wonder 



To wonder requires a state of inner focus, awareness, attention ... T-R-A-N-C-E! 

Trance Word # 14 
allow 

As you allow yourself to master these skills, won't it feel great after you've accomplished it? 
To allow something means it will happen without conscious effort; in other words, unconsciously in T-R-A-N-C-E! 



Trance Word # 15 
curious 

Have you ever been curious as to why and when things just happen? 
To be curious is to strongly desire to discover what is unknown and making that connection is done in your head. T-R-A-N-C-E! 



Trance Word # 16 
pretend 

fust pretend you are getting all the messages in these cards and that these words are becoming an unconscious part of your 
vocabulary. To pretend you must go inside and construct something new in T-R-A-N-C-E! 



Trance Word # 17 
understand 

It's only important that you understand what is puling only as fast as you master all these induction techniques. Understanding 
requires you to internally process especially if the statement is vague. Ummmmm, know what I mean. T-R-A-N-C-E! 



Trance Word # 18 
enchant 

Have you ever been enchanted by a person, me, I know its happened. 
To be enchantedyou must go inside and enhance those images recalled in euphoria. T-R-A-N-C-E! 



Trance Word # 19 
awaken 

It's as if you awaken feelings long lost to the point where you become totally alive again. 
What does it mean to awaken something on the inside of your head. T-R-A-N-C-E! 



Super Weasel Phrase # 1 
Have you ever 

The 3 words that open the gates of hell! To ask a person "have you ever" is actually commanding them to go inside and remember 
when they did, re-experiencing all those feelings! A powerful, no, super powerful way to induce states, triggers processes and influence 
at all levels! "Have you ever experienced incredible excitement, thinking about mastering new skills? 



35 



Super Weasel Phrase # 2 
What's it like when? 

This super weasel phrase serves the same function as super phrase # 1 - Asking "What's it like" forces the person to go in and 
recall the circumstance, state or condition. "What's it like when YOU GET VERY SLEEPY? 



Weasel Phrase # 1 
When you... 

"When you" presupposes that you're going to do the thing discussed or enter the state so it's no longer open to debate. "When you 
get incredibly aroused do you find yourself compelled to act on it?" 



Weasel Phrase #2 
What would it be like if... 

This statement is in effect a command for the person to imagine the condition or occurrence named or described after it. "What 
would it be like if you were to find yourself growing very aroused. 

Weasel Phrase #3 
A person can . . . 

By talking about a "person's" experience it deflects any resistance on the part of your subject since you aren't really talking about 
them. "A person can become incredibly aroused, talking with someone they really like! 



Weasel Phrase # 4 
If you were to ... 

This is a really useful weasel phrase! By saying "if it deflects resistance while at the same time directing the person to imagine 
experiencing the condition, feeling or behavior. "If you were to become very aroused ... 



Weasel Phrase # 6 
It's not necessary to ... 

An example of negation - by sayingyour command isn't necessary to - dissipates any resistance. "It's not necessary for you to find 
me more and more fascinating 



"Weasel Phrase #5 
As you... 

This phrase presupposes the person will do the behavior or undergo the experience. "As you grow more and more aroused ..." 



Weasel Phrase # 7 
You really shouldn 't ... 

Another negation pattern. Since you' re saying they shouldn't, it's not like you're trying to get them to do it, aren't you! " You really 
shouldn't think about amazing sex! 



36 



Weasel Phrase # 8 
You might find (yourself) 

Useful as, the start of an intensifying chain of phrases, it implies that they're going to experience what just happens, so not only can 
they not resist it, but it implies that you had nothing to do with it! "You might find that a picture of you and me being together in a 
special way pops right into that space in your mind. 



Weasel Phrase # 9 
to the point where ... 

Really, this phrase connects one thing they are experiencing with the next thingyou want them to - so it's useful both as a connector 
and amplifier. "You might find those pictures start to get bigger and brighter to the point where that arousal just gets UHH - 
incredibly intense 



Weasel Phrase # 10 
Invite you to notice ... 

Same effect as "you might find" - implies that what you describe is going to happen. Plus, "invite" has pleasant connotations of it 
being voluntary and polite! "And I invite you to notice how the deep, rich warmth of my voice is beginning to spread. . . " 

Weasel Phrase # 11 
Notice what it 's like . . . 

Same effect as WP # 10. It implies that the condition or experience is going to take place. Very useful for movingpeople's internal 
pictures. "'Notice what it's like as that picture, for whatever mysterious reason, pops itself into that location. 



Weasel Phrase #12 
What Would it feel (be) like if. . . 

Presumes condition is going to take place plus is very non-threatening as it uses "what if. Note: (Feel variation forces a body 
sensation) . - What would it feel like if you were to instantaneously find yourself growing very aroused by the sound of someone's 
voice? 



Weasel Phrase #13 
as to when 

This phrase connects and presupposes the thing will happen. You may wonder as to when or what will trigger all of these teachings 
to flow naturally from your lips and bringyou the pleasure you desire. 



Weasel Phrase #14 
as if 

Connector and enhancer. As you look back on reviewing these cards, I invite you to notice how they have already taken effect it's as 
if you already knew all this stuff and you are enabled and empowered now to do it. Doesn 't it just seem natural and great when you 
look at it that way, Now. 



37 



Uptime Strategy - Concepts in Positive Living 



"By utilizing an Uptime Strategy, a hypnotist/communicator stays in " up -time ' by having no consciousness of the 
transderivational search process while remaining congruent and creative in his responses. This allows him to have the 
maximum amount of sensory experience by using his 7+/- chunks of attention focused on externally generated experience. " 

Pp68- Patterns of the hypnotic techniques of Milton H. Erickson, MD Vol. II 

Once an individual begins to understand hypnosis, oftentimes this new found knowledge manifests itself as new 
behaviors, new habits of observation and action. This may also make way for personal life improvements. Dare 
to adventure forward, learning new practical knowledge about the world around you. Sure, it's weird and strange. 
It's the unusual behavior associated with the deeper cataleptic and somnambulistic trances that seems strange and 
mysterious and unknown. You'll get used to it. I'll keep talking, you keep reading and we'll work together. 

"Once you understand the limitations of consciousness you can begin to understand both the necessity and usefulness of 
unconscious programming behavior. " 

pp 73- Patterns of the hypnotic techniques of Milton H. Erickson, MD Vol. II 

Natural Strategies are methods which induce hypnotic behavior and induce waking suggestion "Naturally"- as 
it would naturally occur in regular, everyday experience. Natural Strategies are also the strategies we use to live 
our life, the ideas we have in our mental toolbox and which we use to make now a fine time. We can utilize 
knowledge of naturally occurring hypnotic states to hypnotize ourselves and each other. Naturally occurring 
mixed states of consciousness make it easy for anyone to practice hypnosis consciously and unconsciously. We 
may choose to create their own customized uptime strategy, avoiding downtime/Tranderivational search within 
uorselves and understanding communication at the content level instead of the process level where analog 
messages are being marked out for the subconscious to take hold. 

Observe. Naturally occurring, mixed states of consciousness exist naturally in nature. Make it a habit of staying 
externally focused and being aware of EVERYTHING -AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE- ALL THE TIME!! In other 
words, you're not just talking to yourself; instead you are to pay acute attention to the world revolving around 
you. Every sensory channel is clear and open to pickup input. Again, stay focused on externally occurring events 
in their sensory modes and input/output channels. 

Uptime Strategy exists thanks to the research of Bandler and Grinder. They studied Milton Erickson and 
explored the value of internally-externally generated 4 tuples. The formal mathematical notation for emotional 
signature clusters afterwards became the psycho-biological equivalent of mindspeak. Strategies of mind belong 
to all those seeking concepts in positive living and living a better life. Enjoy it and live it to the fullest. We all 
make it up as we go anyway so why not choose to give it a positive spin. You have input and generate output. 
Everything also has a spin, so make sure you spin well. 

Just like a gig factor describes "Current Awareness Conditions", using an Uptime strategy helps us to observe 
with an acute awareness all parameters of the ongoing "Tupleage" or state of experience in time we call now. A 
hypnotist can pay attention to what's going externally and stay in Uptime to observe effectively. In order to 
assess the situation, total awareness using an Uptime strategy can mean the difference in who holds the power to 
control and who moves unknowingly in reaction. When we harness the power of our own imagination to make 
our lives what we positively wish for, we truly reach our goals magically with our thoughts and move on with 
our happy evolution. 

Experimental Introspection : The Nature of Immediate Experience: attempting to analyze experience in process rather 
than reflecting upon it after it had occurred. 

Physiological -Psychology Wilhelm Wundt 1 961 

Concepts in positive living are collections of great mechanisms which you must create for your self. Your 
strategies allow you to live a better life. We must be in charge of our own direction; we must plan and decide if 
we are to say we're in charge of ourselves. Freedom is an interesting word that reflects the deep structured tone 
I want charging this book. This is my own unique Uptime strategy, now go find yours -that's the whole point of 
everything anyway. What are you waiting for, start now. 



38 



Bill O'Connell: 

C.O.V.E.R.T. and M.A.G.I.C. - models of Hypnosis 



I first sent away for a video tape on hypnosis that I won on an e-bay auction. It was narrated by Bill 
O'Connell and called COVERT Hypnosis. He came up with strategies for covertly inducing hypnosis. 
If you don't know anything about hypnosis, you would have little defense. His strategy was to illicit 
post hypnotic responses activated by triggers which he formed after he induced some degree of trance 
using the conversational model of hypnosis. He accomplished this specifically through the use of 
organized multiple stories, verbal breathing synchronization, encrypted instructions and repackaging 
sensory input. He called it the COVERT model and strategies like these are very powerful. 

Some corporate trainers have been teaching top CEO's these type of strategies for years. They in 
turn have shared it with others in week-long seminar presentations and retreats. The whole point is 
that strategies like these exist, they are out there and if you don't know, now maybe you should.... 

C.O.V.E.R.T. MODEL 

The C.O.V.E.R.T. Model of Hypnosis is by Bill O'Connell of Hypnosis Secrets Inc. 

C conversational model 

O organized multiple stories 

V verbal breathing synchronization 

E encrypted instructions 

R repackaging sensory input 

T triggering post-hypnotic instructions 



The M.A.G.I.C. model came afterwards. He wanted to press along with a therapeutic perspective of the hypnotic process and 
developed the MAGIC Model below: 



M.A.G.I.C. MODEL 

The Magic Model came after as 

M mind-synch 
A access problem 
G generate solutions 
I innovative suggestion matrix 
C consequential link 

He also said wrote how advertisers use hypnotic techniques: 

They grab your attention 

They capture your imagination 

They induce powerful states of positive emotion 

They link those emotions to their product 

The result? A post hypnotic suggestion! 

And some like.. 

Anthony Robbins talk extensively about using NLP skillsets as tools 

Both models are useful in understanding hypnosis, waking suggestion and the process of Trance. I 
recommend them as tools to help you better understand the link between hypnosis and everyday life 
environments. Check them out. Most of these operations are happening everywhere, all by themselves. 



39 



Stephen Lankton 

Discrete Communications Operations 



Here's some basic information about Dr. Stephen Lankton's work in Discrete Communication 
Operations. It's structured within four analytical schemes: Process Operations, Content Operations, 
Linguistic Operations and Input Operations. This work dates back 25 years or more and is a good 
foundation to discuss. I believe it to be relevant in furthering the study of artificial intelligence. 

Process Operations: Matching, Reversal and Disruption: 

Three patterns are identified by which verbal and/or nonverbal communication is expressed: 

Matching involves mirroring the client 's communication channel, reflecting the particular mode of the 
moment. To match movement, gesture, breathing or tone to that of another requires careful attention to the 
rhythm of change. Matching can be used simultaneously, with other patterns of both a verbal and 
nonverbal nature. 

Reversal involves an opposite response involving a deliberate projection or reverse of what the client is 
doing. For example, Erickson might speak slowly to a resistant client who is speaking rapidly, while 
making a paradoxical statement such as "You can 't go into a trance. " 

Disruption is a technique for interrupting the ongoing process and related associations. It may be 
accomplished in a number of ways, including distraction, humor, making an irrelevant comment and so 
forth. 

Just as several channels of verbal and nonverbal communication may exist at the same time. Two or more 
of these operations can occur simultaneously. Thus the hypnotist might match voice tone, tempo, volume 
and body posture while reversing the client's verbal content. 

Content Operations: Utilizing Patterns of Influence: 

In content operations, one utilizes various patterns to influence client verbal responses -specifying response 
questions, detailing communications and meta -comments. 

A Specifying Response Question is designed to elicit more complete ground information for assessment 
purposes. 

A Detailing Communication specifies desired behavioral responses. For example, Erickson might instruct a 
client to sit down, lean back uncross your legs like this, and listen to my words. Here, Erickson detailed 
four responses he expected from the client. 

A Meta-Comment is a comment about a communication. Meta-comment refers to both the simple labeling 
of an event and an ongoing explanation of some experience or communication. In Hypnotherapy, meta- 
comments allow the hypnotist to subtly shift the meaning an experience or symptom has for the client, as 
when the hypnotist says " Your unconscious mind wants one thing while your conscious mind wants 
something else. " Jay Haley (1963) speculated that Erickson employed such content operations to achieve 
therapeutic control. 



40 



Both process and content channels can be used singly or in combination. For example: the hypnotist could 
match body posture, voice tone and breathing of the client, while meta-commenting, " T, going to tell you 
the real reason why you came to see me today. ' Then follow with the detailing communication, "...so sit 
down in that chair, relax, close your eyes and listen to my words. " The very next moment, the hypnotist 
might employ a process reversal like, " Not that fast, I don 't want you to go into a trance this soon, " thus 
achieving response inhibition or fractionation which would serve to deepen the trance. 

Language/Linguistic Operations: Search Language, Induction Language and Metaphor 

The grammatical syntax of verbal communication used by the hypnotist can also be divided into three 
distinctive categories: 

Search Language initiates an internal search process within the client. This techniques utilizes unspecified, 
vague, and general language forms to stimulate the client to search for personal meaning. 

Induction Language employs embedded commands, indirect suggestion, and presuppositions of 
consciousness, time and number to suggest options to the client. 

Metaphor refers to a noncasual liking of facts which involves matching content and processes in the 
client's situation, or to an illustrative anecdote or explanation used which incorporates symbolism. 
Metaphor develops a theme using search language and induction language. 



Input Operations: Packaging, Directing and Associating Input 

Involve the differing effects upon client visual, kinesthetic and auditory experiences, due to the verbal and 
nonverbal communications of the hypnotist or therapist. 



Packaging input consists of the communicator's determining a client's perception of reality, then 
incorporating these subjective needs into his response patterns through the verbal matching of language 
processing words. 

Directing input assists the client in selecting the most useful sensory processing mode. 

Associating or Anchoring , pairing a particular stimulus with a specific client experience, may be induced 
consciously or unconsciously, using any of the sensory input channels or verbal labeling. Cueing is used as 
re-induction signal in hypnotherapy . 



Stephen Lankton The Occurrence and Use of Trance Phenomena in Non-hypnotic Therapies, Ericksonian Approaches to 
hypnosis and psychotherapy, 1982, pi 34- 136 



41 



The Boundaries of Suggestion: 

B.A. T. s, Cues of Immediacy, and New Strategies for the School of Tomorrow 



Effective teaching is equated with successful control of students in the classroom (Hoy, 1968) 

If you're reading these words right now, you can thank the classroom for the role it played. The 
Educational Systems we have today are the result of where we've been. When I think about possible 
classroom applications, I recall a tracking model effective with children; as so much of children's 
experiences are altered states which approximate trance- Patterns II page 94. The reason to examine 
early childhood education is simply this: our future exists in the minds of the youth and it's 
encapsulated by their imagination. Advertising makes a lot of money using children and their sponge 
like brains. Kids pick it all up without a fight. Those in control of their minds can have control over 
the world. Reality is shaped easily when the minds of the youth can be exploited with little or no 
resistance at all. They have no defense. Early childhood learning and development trains us to live in 
society full of mind control. The point of the matter is: life training starts early and right away. 

Non-verbal messages typically provide the framework for interpreting verbal messages. (Burgoon, 1980) Teacher 
non-verbal behaviors in the classroom may well provide the context for student 's interpretations of those verbal 
control messages teachers employ. Non-verbal behaviors that, in that combination, have been shown to 
communicate an approach or liking orientation are referred to as immediacy cues 

(Anderson, 1979: Mehrabian 1967) 

Selective use of Behavioral Alteration Techniques (B.A.T. 's) and specific messages of those techniques (Behavioral 
Alteration Messages- B.A.M. 's) were most recently found to be associated with different levels of student affective 
learning. 

(McCrosky 1985) 

Collectively, the non-verbal behaviors that comprise the immediacy construct indicate an approach orientation 
towards others, resulting in interpersonal closeness, sensory simulation, warmth and friendliness. As originally 
conceived, immediacy characterizes the role of these approach behaviors in determining attitudes between 
communicators 

( Mehrabian, 1967, 1968, 1969: Weiner & Mehrabian 1968) 

Immediacy is based on approach avoidance. All communication is comprised of relational and content 
components. Both co-exist to assist in the eventual assignment of meaning. (Watzlawick, Beavin and Jackson 1967-, 
they worked at Palo Alto like Bandler and Grinder, all studying Erickson) 

The relational Component defines the nature of the relationship between interacting the framework for 
understanding the content component of the message exchange. Relational messages are communicated primarily 
through non-verbal channels, whereas content messages are reflected primarily in verbal channels 

(Burgoon et al, 1984: Burgoon and Saine, 1978) 

Conceptually then, verbally based BAT's ( i.e. content) may be interspersed within the framework of nonverbally- 
based immediacy cues ( i.e. relational). An attempt to address the role of teacher non-verbal immediacy in the 
selective use of verbal control strategies and students attitudes toward the learning environment. POWER IN THE 
CLASSROOM VI: Verbal Control Strategies, nonverbal immediacy and affective learning. Plax Kearney, McCorsky 
and Richmond: Communication Education Volume 35, Jan 1986) 

T.X. Barber defined hypnosis in terms of non-hypnotic behavioral parameters, such as task motivation 
and the labeling of situations as "hypnotic ". In addition to Erickson and Hull, modern scientific 
research into hypnosis is often associated with a period of intense experimental research in the 
latel950's and early 1960's by other notables such as J.P Sutcliffe, M.T. Orne, E.R. Hilgard, R.E. 
Shor, and T.R. Sarbin. The work of these researchers had been particularly influential on the current 
scientific view of hypnosis, especially as viewed in medicine. Secretly, they all researched for our 
government on mindcontrol projects. Dr Cameron, Dr. Delgado and Dr. Mengele are just but a few 
who worked for the "Government ". They were all teachers. . . now let's get back to hypnosis. 



42 



The 'skeptical' modern conception of hypnosis was pioneered by Theodore Sarbin in 1950, as a 
social-psychological alternative to the views that (1) a single distinctive neurological and 
psychological state underlies all hypnotic phenomena (Paris school), and (2) that suggestions 
somehow mechanically produce responses without the participation of the subject (Nancy school). 

Sarbin instead saw hypnosis as a social encounter, in which the hypnotist and subject play out pre- 
determined roles. Sarbin's role theory was influenced by R.W. White, who in his "A Preface to a 
Theory of Hypnotism," in The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology in 1941 discussed various 
serious limitations of both the ideo-motor action and dissociation theories. He pointed out that the 
responses of hypnotic subjects are too complex to consider them as automatic results of suggestions, 
that subjects often creatively and actively improvise a performance based on their interpretation of 
suggestions. Thus for just about the first time, posing hypnotic behavior as creative and goal directed; 
rather than mechanical. 

In addition to the use of social role theory to replace mechanistic theories of hypnotic response, 
'skeptical' theories of hypnosis often refer to empirical research to illustrate that hypnotic subjects do 
not in fact transcend the behavioral capabilities of non-hypnotic subjects. The empirical objective 
approach to hypnosis, effectively introduced to the study of hypnosis by Clark Hull in the 1930's, 
involves an implicit mistrust of verbal reports of subjective experience, and the use of quantifiable 
response indices. 

Key questions remaining in the modern study of hypnosis within active role theory and other non- 
special-state frameworks include: (1) whether a hypnotic procedure is necessary (first studied by T.X. 
Barber in the late 1960's and in the 1970's); (2) in what specific ways active cognitive functioning 
might be altered in hypnotic contexts (studied by Orne and by Shor starting in the late 1950's), and (3) 
the degree to which dissociation of aspects of consciousness actually occurs in each of the various 
hypnotic phenomena (Janet, Prince, later E.R. Hilgard). 

All this leads to the crucial theoretical distinction of whether it is meaningful and useful to postulate 
such a thing as unconscious goal directed activity. What exactly is the nature of volition, compliance, 
belief, and imagination? Who are we and where are we going? Is there a truth that can really be said?" 

Brainwashing is all really about education anyhow. Like the way we invade somewhere to bring in 
education. Invade the little village to bring books, bring schools that teach our ways. Spread the word 
and enjoy conforming to a more civilized way. Why speed up development in little villages where the 
men may still live off the hunt and civilization can still study its roots? Change, it is what it is and 
maybe it's easier not to ask questions. Maybe we should never wonder, its hard work. 

The boundaries of suggestion exist all around us. Soon we'll find out the results of what's been done 
here in the US. Today, we face a new direction in childhood education: One involving more security, 
accountability and direction. There's not much than can be done to avoid the manipulation of their 
minds. Children pick up their cues from role models and those that set the pace of their realities. We 
must realize that it is our own conditioning which is dependent upon socio/psycho-ecological 
parameters and ultimately. . . cultural conformity. Be aware of "Mob Psychology and Mass Mindsets". 
When you begin to realize that manipulation occurs on all levels of government and religion, the 
urgency of our own self -education becomes paramount. We ask ourselves, "What are the effects of the 
words and thoughts that we've been programmed with?" Results are obvious everywhere, everyday. 



43 



Sub-Natural 
Strategy 



44 



Sub-Natural Strategy 



Patents, research and technology leading us into the next century 

"Some say hypnotic strategies are too powerful to impress upon people. Although some minds 
crumble, I disagree because our survival and happiness are at stake. " 

Charles A. Sherwood 

Sub-Natural Strategy: Those methods, which induce hypnotic behavior and waking suggestion "Sub -naturally". These 
types of strategy use machines and advanced scientific technology to hypnotize a subject. Sub-natural Strategies induce 
hypnosis by applying the laws of hypnosis, subliminal communication and para-psychophysical manipulation of the human 
nervous system. All together they form a purposeful "Invisible and Silent" way of modifying behavior and contexts. This type 
of strategy is usually kept top secret. In fact, it's usually best if people were made to believe these strategies could never exist. 
It's all a matter of national security. 

Today's technology sometimes leaves a trail that can be researched. These "Threads" lead 
to a bigger picture, one of complicity, one of enormous proportions. We have just begun to 
experience this new century and already we find ourselves besieged by all sorts of influence. 

When I talk about Sub-Natural Strategy, it's not just about the impact of commercial 
advertising on our collective unconscious. People live in the realm of ideas. It has everything 
to do with the cultural trends and the psychology behind suggestion, motivation, anchors 
and getting into peoples heads. Rulers, religions, governments, psychologists and everyone 
we come in contact with all have their turn in our heads and us in theirs. What's the point? 

"Unrecognized ideodynamic processes can be measured by electronic instrumentation. " 

Prokasey & Raskin (1973) 

A political TV campaign called "Daisy" was organized by Tony Schwartz for the 1964 
Barry Goldwater election. It's old but check it out, if you can. Through the power of the 
imagination, the fear of nuclear annihilation is transformed into a single hope found in 
placing your vote for Goldwater, it's all about saving Daisy and saving the world. Appeal has 
influenced culture and it's been researched. It existed long before newspapers and we can't 
NOT pay attention. Appeal exists, choice is contemplated and in this instance, it's your vote. 

When Apple launched a TV commercial during the super bowl in 1984, they introduced the 
Mac computer as the savior to a drove of mindless zombies seated in an archaic cave -like 
auditorium screen room. An athlete coming out of nowhere wielded a sledgehammer and 
ended the slavery of the masses. In reality we find web-cookies anchoring themselves to our 
profiles and surreptitiously recording every keystroke. BOOM, they got us. . .it's a pop up! 

Computing can be hypnotic. The very idea of an unconscious mind in and of itself means 
that things can go by, unnoticed by the conscious mind. The idea of using hypnosis to 
unlock the ways of influence can be found as a common theme with some patents. Combine 
that with an information hungry world, governments and religion. Be forewarned. 



45 



History of Experiments: the science of Mindcontrol Technology® 



There's a long history of experiments in hypnotic communication and human mental process functions. Research continues to this day 
and results of some of these experiments provide just a small glimpse into the actions and possible motives of those involved. This outline 
is just one way of making sense of strategy. The whole point of my book is to inspire you to research on your own and to seek out 
information for yourself. 



Real life examples of stimulus response, operant conditioning patterns and programming are everywhere. Investigating experiments done 
with Radio, Motion pictures and TV will help us gain better insight into the manipulation of the unconscious mind. The further history is 
researched, the more reality as we know it is questioned. Start with the fact that Hal C. Becker worked with Precon Process and Equipment 
Corporation and was granted US patent 3278676 on October 11, 1966. The significance here is that in the next couple of pages you'll read 
about all the fuss and claims it doesn't work yet here's a patent proving it does. What's more, he originally tiled for it May 7, 1958. Even 
before Becker, Philo T. Farnsworth fathered TV and Cold Fusion. 

Here's the situation, television is a subliminal behavior generator. Go look it up. Precon, Hal C. Becker and Robert E. Corrigan got the 
patents to prove they ushered us in to the subliminal days. . . 

Early Experiments are well documented. As early as 1956, a New Jersey Movie theater was experimenting with flashing words "Hungry? 
EA T POPCORN " and "Drink Coca-Cola ". They flashed it ever) 7 5 seconds at the subliminal level of one three-thousandths of a second 
during the film. This type of research was revolutionary. Later it was discredited. Yet it's patented so no one else can use it without 
permission. Experimental Films Inc., The Subliminal Projection Company & Precon Process and Equipment Corporation conducted early 
research in this field. 

For two weeks in September 1957, WTWO of Bangor Maine flashed: "If you have seen this message, write WTWO" ever} 7 11 seconds 
for l/80th of a second on alternate days. In 1956 England, BBC-TV experiments with subliminal projection 352 times, alternately 1/5 and 
1/2 of a second in duration. WAAF Chicago, WCCO, Minneapolis; KLTI, Longview, Texas; KOL, Seattle; and KYA, San Francisco ALL 
used added recall devices or phantom spots as they were known back then. People have been manipulated unknowingly for a long time. 

We can talk about early experiments with subliminal perception by investigating an old CIA research protocol dated May 1, 1958: MK 
ULTRA Sub-project No. 83 provided support of a) b) c) subliminal perception d) hypnosis e) £). - We can investigate a FCC public notice 
issued (FCC 57-1289) that entitled use of subliminal perception and advertising by television stations. Section 303 sub-paragraph (b)-(T) 
/// section 326, it's all there and we can uncover some it for ourselves. I believe the impact of this type of communication in the fields of 
advertising and media is all thanks to research like that that brought us the Weber fraction. Today's world can have Ambient Radio ( aR) and 
Ambient TV ( aTV) which are just two out of a zillion of ideas . . . 

In 1981, Dr. Norman Dixon Summarized over 748 references on subliminal stimulation in his book "Precon scious Processing." Dixon 
provides a model for understanding the flow of information and it's entry into the consciousness. According to his model, five factors 
determine whether a stimulus surfaces at the conscious level: Direction of Attention, Signal Strength, External Noise Level, Internal Noise 
Level and Signal Importance (Meaning). The point is, what year is it, what's the research about now? Are we involved? Are we? 



Dr. Weber's general area of research is known technically as psychophjsics. It deals with the relations between experienced intensity and 
physical intensity: and it's old. The methods used to study these relationships are known as psychophysical methods. It says so on page 586 of 
Psychology- The fundamentals of human adjustment- Fourth Edition Norman L. Munn Bowdoin college Houghton Mifflin Company; 
Boston. "Under the editorship of Leonard Carmichael, Director of tufts research laboratory of Sensory psychology and physiology. 

The powerful influence of advertising is due in part by the use of subliminal methods and hypnotic techniques. Check for yourself and 
you'll soon discover it's been going on for quite some time now. The methods for influencing are endless. Those reaching levels defined by 
brainwashing will focus on suggestively altering states to hypnotically induce and modify behavior. Science has researched human 
perception. The Weber fraction is just one odd result. What happened next is evident in today's youth and society. Imagine what's next now. 

Dr. Becker & Dr. Corrigan's had patents that utilized the Weber fraction to develop it's subliminal calculations. Review US Patent # 
3,060,795 which shows in diagram form how to use subliminals on TV and Movie screens. Yes, this is a real invention and patent that's 
registered. Go look it up to reall all the details. 



Indirect and Subliminal Communication: 

Weber, Miller and other cornerstones of research into the unconscious mind 



DR. E. H. Weber 




46 




CIA Study: the operational potential of subliminal perception 

by Richard Gafford -1958 



This CIA report on "The Operational Use of Subliminal Perception" was written by Richard Gafford and 
appeared in the Spring 1958 issue of the agency's classified journal Studies in Intelligence. Declassified in the mid- 
1990s, the document may be the CIA's first serious assessment of subliminal persuasion. 



Perception is demonstrated to have occurred below the threshold of conscious sensory experience when a person responds to a 
stimulus too weak in intensity or too short in duration for him to be aware of it. Individual behavior without awareness of the 
stimulus, of which subliminal perception is a subtype, has been a subject of study in psychological laboratories for at least 70 years, 
and a great deal of technical data has been collected on the subject. Recently it has been associated with some theories of depth 
analysis and popularized for possible commercial exploitation by the advertising world. 

In the most sensational of these popularized experiments, an increase in popcorn sales in a New Jersey movie theater is said to 
have been stimulated by subliminal interruptions of the feature film with an advertisement urging the patrons to buy popcorn. The 
exposure time used, a small fraction of a second, was too brief for conscious discrimination by an observer absorbed in the film 
story but presumably long enough to have some stimulating effect. The advertising men who re currently interested in this 
phenomenon as a sales technique argue that the short-duration stimulus appeals to a positive motive, for example an appetite for 
popcorn, without arousing the rational, conscious sales-resistance of the individual, based perhaps on the desire to save money or 
lose weight. The argument becomes more complicated with respect to a product, which there is no specific preexisting positive 
motive to acquire. The appeal is now said to be directed to a "deep" underlying motive presumed to be always operating, never 
satiated, say the sex drive. The masked stimulus arouses some aspect of this ubiquitous sex drive, a drive which can hardly be 
directly satiated in polite society and one of which the conscious recognition is more or less anxiety-producing. 

The vague discomfort the individual feels as a result of subconscious stimulation must be allayed by some associated gratification, 
and this gratification — the advertiser hopes — is the socially acceptable acquisition of the product, which he is trying to promote. 
It is evident that there are several mighty leaps in logic in the advertising man's argument, and a great many places where his 
scheme can go astray. He has taken several psychological phenomena, which have been demonstrated to a limited degree in 
controlled laboratory experiments and strung them together into an appealing argument for a "technique." Because part of what he 
is promoting is supported by laboratory data, however, it has enough status to warrant serious attention. 

The operational potential of other techniques for stimulating a person to take a specific controlled action without his being aware 
of the stimulus, or the source of stimulation, has in the past caught the attention of imaginative intelligence officers. Interest in the 
operational potential of subliminal perception has precedent in serious consideration of the techniques of hypnosis, extrasensory 
perception, and various forms of conditioning. By each of these techniques, it has been demonstrated, certain individuals can at 
certain times and under certain circumstances be influenced to act abnormally without awareness of the influence or at least 
without antagonism. 

After careful research on each of these methods, however, it has become apparent that although they occasionally produce 
dramatic results, their lack of reliability and their requirement for extremely precise controls to obtain the desired effect have 
limited their operational utility to a very few very specialized instances — situations where just the right persons can be put together 
at just the right moment under closely controlled circumstances. 

The primary danger observed in connection with this unreliability is that of a "flashback," of inadvertently producing just the 
opposite effect to that desired. Subliminal perception as a practical control or persuasion technique is prone to the same 
difficulties. 



THE OPERATIONAL POTENTIAL 
OF SUBLIMINAL PERCEPTION 



47 



There are four principal categories of behavior without awareness. 



The individual may be unaware of: 



a) His behavior itself. 

He may be whispering without realizing he is whispering, or he may be moving into a trap without knowing that the trap is there. 
A special case here is abnormal behavior in which the individual fails to realize what he is doing because his normal awareness and 
self-control have been interrupted by disturbing agents such as fear, anxiety, illness, drugs, or hypnotic suggestion. 

b) The relation of his behavior to some stimulus. 

The individual may be unaware of the fact that his interrogator is influencing him by saying "Right" after certain statements and by 
remaining noncommittal after others. The process called "operant conditioning" falls into this category. 

c) The stimulus itself, because of its slight impact. 

The individual may be unaware of a very faint sound or a quick flash of light, unaware in the sense that he lacks the usual visual 
sensations. Subliminal perception falls into this category. 

d) The precise nature of the stimulus, as well as its relation to his behavior, because of inattention. 

The individual may be aware of vague sensations, but he is not aware either of the source or of the significant content of the 
stimulation, although his behavior may change in accordance with changes in the stimulus. This category includes a great deal of 
perceptual activity affecting ordinary social behavior. A person is often unaware of the specific cues and clues to which he is 
reacting not because the stimulus is insufficient to reach the consciousness but because the effort to be fully aware of all the cues 
all the time would create too great a cognitive strain. 

In persuading a person to do something he normally or rationally would resist doing an intelligence operative can make use of any 
one of these categories of psychological processes. Usually the purpose is to produce behavior of which the individual is unaware. 
The use of subliminal perception, on the other hand, is a device to keep him unaware of the source of his stimulation. The desire 
here is not to keep him unaware of what he is doing, but rather to keep him unaware of why he is doing it, by masking the external 
cue or message with subliminal presentation and so stimulating an unrecognized motive. 

In order to develop the subliminal perception process for use as a reliable operational technique, it would be necessary a) to define 
the composition of a subliminal cue or message which will trigger an appropriate preexisting motive, b) to determine the limits of 
intensity between which this stimulus is effective but not consciously perceived, c) to determine what preexisting motive will 
produce the desired abnormal action and under what conditions it is operative, and d) to overcome the defenses aroused by 
consciousness of the action itself. 

As to the composition of the subliminal cue, it cannot be supposed that just any message presented close below the threshold of 
recognition will be translated into appropriate action. The determination of the right land of message in terms of content, number 
and type of words or symbols, grouping of symbols, and so forth has been the object of a great deal of psychological experiment. 
There is a good deal of lore and a few rather vague principles available, but generally they concern rather trivial areas of action 
from the viewpoint of the intelligence operative. Since the effectiveness of the procedure depends on not arousing the person's 
defense mechanisms, and since defense mechanisms are nor only peculiar to each individual but hard to discover, it is difficult to 
specify even what is to be avoided in the composition of the subliminal cue in order not to arouse the defenses. 

Thresholds of recognition are variable and difficult to determine. If the intensity of the stimulus is much below an individual's 
threshold it doesn't get through to even the most automatic areas of his sensorium. But recognition thresholds vary tremendously, 
not only among individuals, but also in the same individual from one time or another, in accordance with his physical situation, his 
physiological condition, and above all the degree to which he is psychologically attuned to the particular content of the message. A 
normal human being is an infinitely more complex receiving instrument than any electronic gadget, and adjusting a stimulus for 
such a variable receiver is difficult. In most of the laboratory studies on which the current theory of subliminal perception is based 
(1) there has been a long pretrial period requiring the subject's full cooperation to zero him in on the subliminal signal. Such 
preparation is clearly not feasible for operational use. The message must therefore be transmitted on a much wider intensity band 
and may frequently not get through or may on the other hand penetrate to the subject's consciousness and arouse his defenses. 



48 



The message once received is presumed to trigger some sensitive subconscious motivation to action. There are numerous 
psychological theories about such inner functions, but little definitely known about them. If a somewhat homogenous sample of 
people is tested a number of times, most of them will be sensitive most of the time to the subliminal cue; but some individuals, for 
a great variety of reasons we can little more than guess at, will be insensitive. In this minority of instances the individual may do 
nothing, may do something trivial and irrelevant, or may do the exact opposite of what was intended. 

If the subliminal cue is to work by tripping off an existing motive to action, one must know what motives are positive and operant 
at the moment. The obvious basic drives (e.g. hunger, sex) are sometimes satiated and sometimes subordinated. With a great deal 
of knowledge about the individual, some predictability can be attained, but it is still a matter of probabilities. The percentage of 
instances will be high where the opposite motive to that desired will be tripped off. 

There appears thus to be such a myriad of factors that even the most simplified empirical tests carried out with the best possible 
cooperation of the subjects are rarely marked by really significant reliability. Furthermore, with such a large number of variables 
and relatively low reliability, it is difficult to determine whether the controlled variable or uncontrolled artifacts are producing 
whatever results one does observe. 

Finally, the subliminal device to avoid alerting an individual's defenses by masking the cue and the basic motive does not cover the 
effect of awareness of the resultant abnormal action itself, with its implications and consequences. Assuming that one could 
persuade to such action by presenting a cue subliminally, there is no way of effecting the action without awareness and without 
tripping off defenses and rational resistance. It must be concluded that there are so many elusive variables and so many sources of 
irregularity in the device of directing subliminal messages to a target individual that its operational feasibility is exceedingly limited. 



[document ends] 



Well, there you have it folks. Here's more proof as to where we've been - where we were headed 
back in 1958. They presented factual information, evidence that early experiments existed. This 
next segment of official documents comes from the same era. It's a spotlight on some of the 
official communication that addressed these types of concerns some had back then. I'm sure 
you're aware that today few acknowledge what's happened and what continues to happen 
everyday. We're transfixed. Impervious to a subjugated reality: Just like sheep, many are 
unknowingly herded throughout this make believe world. 

It's a Wonderful world; yes it's a wonderful World indeed. 

CHARLES A. SHERWOOD 



49 



Subliminal Telecasts, the FCC and denials from 1958 



This collection of materials was entered into the Congressional Record on January 28, 1958 by Representative William Dawson, 
who led the legislative fight against subliminal advertising when the technique first came into use. In a statement included here, 
Dawson gives his arguments for banning subliminals. Also included are several letters between Dawson and the chairman of the 
Federal Communications Commission, in which the two men debate the FCC's power to clamp down on the use of SNEAK 
PITCH and Subliminal Advetrising. The end result is both obvious and dubious, just turn on the television and prepare to be 
manipulated beyond your conscious control. Becker filed his patent in May 7,.1958 He also filed for another patent with Robert E. 
Corrigan - another subliminal design. Some where designed to deter shoplifting, while others encouraged you shop ... Great! 

CHARLES SHERWOOD 

[document begins] 

Proceedings and Debates of the 85th Congress, Second Session 
Volume 104 - Part 1, pp. 1228-1230. 

House of Representatives, January 28, 1958 

NEED FOR REGULATING USE OF SUBLIMINAL PERCEPTION TELEVISION ADVERTISING 

Representative William A. Dawson (R-UT): Mr. Speaker, I hate to add to the current troubles of the Federal Communications 
Commission. But I feel that it is my duty to inform the Members of the House of my to-date unsuccessful campaign to get the 
Commission to take action to protect the public from a new television-advertising technique, at least until such time as it can 
definitely be determined whether the technique is effective. 

I refer to the so-called subliminal projection advertising, or sneak pitch, as I prefer to regard it. Using this technique, a television 
station flashes a slogan of advertising message on the television screen so instantaneously that the viewer cannot see it. The 
promoters of this technique, however, maintain that the message infiltrates the viewer's subconscious and is all the more effective 
because the viewer does not realize that he has been subjected to salesmanship or propaganda. 

This technique should not be used until it is definitely determined by a controlled experiment whether or not it works. If it does 
not work, television stations should be so informed. If it does work, it should be strictly regulated, if permitted at all. Heaven 
knows, the blandishments of visible advertising are hard enough to resist. Contemplate, if you will, the effect of an invisible but 
effective appeal to drink more beer being poured into the subconsciousness of teen-age television viewers. 

I first called this matter to the attention of the FCC in early October. At that time and again on November 5 and still again on 
December 17, 1 asked the Commission to advise stations against using this SP advertising technique until its effectiveness could be 
determined. 

As I said in my most recent letter — as yet unanswered — the Commission should make its position clear. 
I wrote- 

"In the present limbo, television stations are not sure whether they can use subliminal advertising, but the public is not sure they 
cannot. I see no reason for extending this ambiguous situation when most of the television industry itself agrees that the process 
should not be used until it has been fully evaluated." 

In defense of the FCC's inaction, I can say that the Commission has received assurance that it will not be used over the major 
networks. It does not have the assurance, however, that SP will not be used by independent stations. And because of the nature of 
the advertising, the viewer himself does not when he is being subjected to it. 

Now, apparently emboldened by the FCC's inaction, at least one independent station is going for sneak pitch propaganda. I submit 
to the RECORD a copy of an Associated Press story which appeared in the Alexandria, Va., Gazette, January 24. 

Once again, I urge Members of the House and particularly those in the Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee to join me in 
getting the FCC to take a definite position on subliminal advertising. 



50 



For the information of the House I also am submitting a chronological copy of my letters to the FCC and replies thereto. 
[From the Alexandria (Va.) Gazette of January 24, 1958] 

SUBLIMINAL PERCEPTION: LATEST METHOD OF COMMUNICATION 

HOLLYWOOD. — Let's suppose, now, that in a couple of months some strapping young chap springs from his chair in front of 
the TV, grabs his coat and streaks downtown to join the Army — without knowing why. 

Well, some people might say it was a simple case of subliminal perception. 

This hard-to-pronounce combination is actually nothing more than a somewhat creepy device for sneaking things into your head 
without your conscious knowledge. 

Television station KTLA here says that in 60 days or so it will become the first station in the country to undertake a planned 
program of subliminal communication. 

To pull the trick off, the station will employ special transmitting equipment that will (Q) an image or a message across the screen. 
It will be on and off so fast that the home viewer won't consciously know he's seeing anything. But, if it works, the flash will leave 
an impression in his mind. 

Lew Arnold, KTLA's general manager, said the gimmick will be used at first only for public service messages. "We'll flash on 
something like 'Join the Army' of Give to the 'March of Dimes.'" 

"The next step would be to promote our own shows. Then — and I have a feeling this in a long way off — we might go into the 
commercial end of it." 



HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 
Washington, D.C., October 5, 1957 
John C. Doerfer, 

Chairman, Federal Communications Commission, Washington, D.C. 
Dear Chairman Doerfer: 

Publicity has been given recently to a new device in television advertising — the so-called subliminal perception, usually referred to 
as SP, for brevity's sake. 

Secret pitch perhaps would be more meaningful to the uninitiated. An advertising symbol or slogan is flashed on the television 
screen so instantaneously that the viewed cannot see it. Allegedly, however, the message infiltrates the viewer's subconscious, all 
the more effectively because the viewer does not realize he has been subjected to salesmanship. 

A call to your Commission has disclosed that the Commission has no official knowledge of this new process and that there is some 
doubt whether the Commission would have the authority to regulate or supervise such advertising methods. 

The purpose of this letter is to request that you look officially into the entire proposal under your general regulatory powers, 
determining whether controls are necessary and whether additional legislation would be required to provide such controls, if 
needed. 

If this revolutionary advertising means is as effective as claimed, it offers some worrisome, if not frightening, aspects. Put to 
political propaganda purposes it would be made to order for the establishment and maintenance of a totalitarian government. Even 
in the commercial usage for which it is intended, surely the potential customer has a right to know he is being advertised at. His 
prerogative of exercising buyer's resistance is as much an American tradition as the advertising industry itself. 

Sincerely yours, 
William A. Dawson, 
Member of Congress. 



51 



FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 
Washington, DC, October 10, 1957. 
Hon. William A. Dawson, 
House of Representatives, 
Washington, D.C. 

Dear Congressman Dawson: 

This is with reference to your letter of October 5, 1957, concerning subliminal projection advertising. You request information 
concerning this matter. 

You may be interested to know that I have referred this matter to the staff to determine whether this method of advertising may be 
adapted for use on television under our present rules and, if so, what further action on the part of the Commission may be 
necessary or advisable in handling this problem. I will advise you of the developments in this matter. 

Sincerely yours, 
John C. Doerfer, 
Chairman. 



FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 
Washington, DC, November 1, 1957. 
Hon. William A. Dawson, 
House of Representatives, 
Washington, D.C. 

Dear Congressman Dawson: 

This is in further reference to your letter of October 5, 1957, concerning subliminal perception advertising, and to the telephone 
conversations between our staff and the Commission's staff concerning the subject. 

Subliminal perception advertising appears to be a new technique concerning which the Commission has little information and no 
experience. According to the trade press, subliminal perception is described as "the faculty of absorbing fleeting visual information 
without being consciously aware of it." It is stated that the technique was tested by having the symbols of a nationally known soft 
drink flashed for one three-thousandths of a second once every 5 seconds during a dramatic film presentation in a theater. At this 
writing, there is some indication in the trade press that the above technique may have been used on television. 

The Commission is, of course, interested in the above matter and its staff is accumulating pertinent available information on the 
subject. When sufficient data has been acquired, it will be studied by the Commission. Please be assured that the matter will receive 
the Commission's most careful consideration, consistent with its authority under the Communications Act of 1934, as amended. 
As you may know, under existing law, the Commission does not determine the particular programs or types of programs to be 
presented over the air, the content of advertising copy, or the manner of its presentation. Indeed, under the provisions of section 
326 of the Communications Act, the Commission is prohibited from exercising the power of censorship over broadcast material. 
Accordingly, the selection and presentation of program material, including advertising, is the responsibility of the individual station 
licensees. However, such licensees are required to operated in the public interest and periodically, usually upon application for 
renewal of license, the Commission reviews the overall operation of station licensees to determine whether their obligation to 
operate in the public interest has been met. If, for example, it were determined that a particular station had knowingly or 
deliberately engaged in fraudulent or deceptive advertising, or permitted its facilities to be so used, or to be used for some other 
unlawful purpose, a substantial question would be raised as to the station's continuing ability to serve the public interest. The 
Commission would consider such activities in the course of its licensing proceedings involving the station. 

As we have indicated above, this problem is so new that specific data is not readily available and no conclusive information has 
been received which we can predicate an informed opinion. At the present time, we are unable to state whether controls are 
necessary or whether additional legislation may be required in the event controls are needed. I am sure you will understand that, as 
additional facts are made known to us, we will be in a position further to evaluate the situation and to arrive at a definitive position. 
You may be sure that you will be advised or our ultimate determination. 

Sincerely yours, 

John C. Doerfer, 
Chairman 



52 



HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 
Washington, DC, November 5, 1957. 
Mr. John C. Doerfer, 

Chairman, Federal Communications Commission, 
Washington, D.C. 

Dear Mr. Doerfer: 

Thank you for your letter of November 1 (reference 8420) advising me of the present status of your staffs investigation into the 
new television advertising technique, subliminal perception. 

I can appreciate the difficulties of compiling substantial information about such a new and little -known process, and I commend 
you for the progress made so far. 

However, I am concerned ~ as I am sure you are — at your finding that SP may already have been used on television. Reports 
reaching me indicate that the device is being perfected and actively promoted by at least two commercial firms. It would certainly 
seem anomalous to permit random usage of this device during the very time a study is being made to determine whether the public 
interest requires its regulation. 

For that reason I strongly urge the Commission to protect the buying public against any possible advertising abuses by advising all 
television stations and networks that subliminal perception is under investigation and requesting them to forego its usage until a 
determination has been made. I am sure the stations would lend their cooperation in the public interest upon which their licenses 
are based. 

The bulk of the mail which I have received has been in definite opposition to this type of invisible selling. I am convinced that the 
general public feels it is entitled to know when it is being subjected to advertising. If subliminal projection techniques are eventually 
allowed to be used at all, a minimum regulation should require prominent announcement during the program of products being so 
advertised. 

Again let me congratulate you and the Commission staff on the energetic and direct way in which you have addressed this 
problem. 

May I be advised whether you agree that the television stations should be asked to reject subliminal advertising pending your study? 

Sincerely yours, 

William A. Dawson, 
Member of Congress. 



FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 
Washington, DC, November 12, 1957. 
Hon. William A. Dawson, 
House of Representatives, 
Washington, D.C. 

Dear Congressman Dawson: 

This is with reference to your letter of November 5, 1957, concerning subliminal perception advertising. In your letter you urge 
that, to protect the buying public from possible abuses by this advertising technique, the Commission advise all television stations 
and the networks that subliminal perception advertising is being investigated by the Commission and request the stations and 
networks to forgo its usage until a determination has been made. 

As you are doubtless aware, the determination to take the action you recommend could be made only by all of the Commissioners. 
Accordingly, you will be interested to know that I have made arrangements to have your recommendation presented to the full 
Commission. I wish to assure you that the Commission will give careful consideration to the views you have expressed in your 
letter in arriving at a decision. 

I appreciate your writing to me concerning this matter. You will, or course, be advised promptly of the disposition of this problem. 

Sincerely yours, 

John C. Doerfer, 
Chairman. 



53 



FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 
Washington, DC, November 27, 1957. 
Hon. William A. Dawson, 
House of Representatives, 
Washington, D.C. 

Dear Congressman Dawson: 

This letter concerning subliminal perception advertising is with further reference to your letter of November 5, 1957, and 
supplements the response thereto dated November 12, 1957. In your letter, you urge that the Commission advise all television 
stations and the networks that subliminal perception advertising is being investigated by the Commission and request that they 
forgo its usage until a determination has been made. 

At the outset, it should be pointed out that on November 21, 1957, the Commission was advised that one station in Bangor, 
Maine, had tried the technique of subliminal messages with respect to station promotional announcements and hadn't been able to 
make them work. The Commission knows of no other television station which has engaged in subliminal perception advertising. 
As you indicate in your letter, two companies are known to be promoting the above technique. They are the Subliminal Projection 
Co., Inc., and Experimental Films, Inc. Since the previous letter to you, we have communicated with the first-named firm and have 
been advised that there has been no demonstration of the technique on a television broadcast station; that the firm has used the 
facilities of a private closed circuit system for testing the technical operation of its apparatus; and that the firm is prepared to 
demonstrate the technique on a closed circuit system should the Commission so desire. This offer is being considered by the 
commission. 

We have also communicated with the local representative of the second company and are awaiting a reply to specific questions 
submitted to him for transmittal to the company. 

As you may know, on November 13, 1957, the television code of the National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters 
announced that it had recommended to its subscribers that any proposals to use the television medium in the process called 
subliminal perception be referred to the board immediately for review and consideration. The board stated that "experimentation 
or the use of the process should not be permitted on the television broadcast medium pending such review and consideration." 
Additionally, we have communicated with representatives of each of the major television networks and have been advised that 
have not used the above technique. 

The Commission, at this time, with the exception of the unsuccessful attempt noted above, is not aware that subliminal perception 
advertising has been used by any television broadcast station. In view of this, and the fact that the Commission's consideration of 
this matter includes consideration of the extent of its statutory powers with respect to thereto, it is believed that a caveat to the 
licensees may be inappropriate at this time. In this connection, we would like to point out that the Communications Act contains 
no provisions which deal specifically with subliminal perception. From present indications, however, it seems fair to say that 
reasonable protections may be available to the public under the general provisions of the act. For instance, by the Commission's 
licensing procedures the United States maintains control of and regulates radio transmission in the channels of interstate 
commerce. Various sections of the act, including sections 303, make it clear that in exercising the power of control and regulation 
the Commission must be guided by public interest, convenience, or necessity. It would appear that the use of the subliminal 
perception technique may be subject to our control under such provisions of section 303 as subparagraph (b) on the nature of the 
service to be rendered by each station; subparagraph (e) on the type of apparatus to be used; subparagraph (g) authorizing studies 
of new and experimental uses; and subparagraphs (f) and (r), as well as section 4, subparagraph (i), giving the Commission wide 
authority to make rules and regulations in carrying out its functions and the provisions of the act. 

As you may know, under existing law the Commission does not determine the particular programs or types of programs to be 
presented over the air, the content of advertising copy, or its presentation. Moreover, the act prohibits the Commission from 
exercising the power of censorship over broadcast material, which includes advertising. However, at this time it does not appear 
that the regulation of this particular technique would necessarily constitute censorship. It may be pertinent to draw attention to 
section 317 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, which reads as follows: 

"All matter broadcast by any radio station for which service, money, or any other valuable consideration is directly or indirectly 
paid, or promised to or charged or accepted by, the station so broadcasting, from any person, shall, at the time the same is so 
broadcast, be announced as paid for or further furnished, as the case may be, by such person." 

Undoubtedly section 317 would prohibit broadcasters from subjecting audiences to messages received from undisclosed sources. 

We have attempted to discuss the question with you fully at this time even though the matter is in its formative stage. We are sure 
you will understand that as additional facts are made known to us, we will be in a position to further evaluate the situation and to 
arrive at a definitive position. You may be assured that you will be advised of our ultimate determination herein. 

By direction of the Commission: 

John C. Doerfer, 

Chairman. 



54 



HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 
Washington, DC, December 1 7, 1 957. 
Hon. John C. Doerfer, 

Chairman, Federal Communications Commission, 
Washington, D.C. 

Dear Chairman Doerfer: 

Recently I suggested that, in view of the widespread interest in, and the apparent imminence of, subliminal advertising, the 
Commission put the television broadcasting industry on official notice that this technique is being investigated by the Commission 
to determine what regulation may be needed in the public interest. 

Your reply indicated that the Commission feels "a caveat to the licensees may be inappropriate at this time." You go on to say, 
however, that reasonable protections may be available to the public under the general provisions of the act. 

It is true that a major part of the television broadcasting industry, including the major networks and the television code board, 
voluntarily have recognized the potential dangers of subliminal advertising. Nonetheless, my mail continues to reflect widespread 
public concern over this method of manipulating minds. 

That these fears are not entirely baseless is implied in the enclosed article from the Wall Street Journal of December 5, 1957, 
concerning the reaction of one of the subliminal projection firms to the networks' ban on the secret pitch. I direct your attention to 
the quotation attributed to one of the company's vice presidents: 

"We never tried to sell TV networks subliminal advertising. All we wanted was an industrywide test. But if they don't want to use it, 
we've still got plenty of interested independent stations." 

In view of the concern over premature usage of this invisible selling method, it would appear timely to me for the Commission to 
remove the uncertainty by a definite prohibition against television use of subliminal advertising until your investigation has been 
completed and a final determination made. 

In your letter of November 17 you point out that one of the available protections is section 303 of the Communications Act giving 
the Commission control over services rendered and apparatus used by stations. Another is section 317, requiring sponsor 
identification, which you say "undoubtedly would prohibit broadcasters from subjecting audiences to messages received from 
undisclosed sources." 

Since the Commission does have this authority, I recommend that subliminal advertising be specifically prohibited for the duration 
of your present study. 

In the present limbo, television stations are not sure whether they could use subliminal advertising but the public is not sure they 
could not. I see no reason for extending this ambiguous situation when most of the television industry itself agrees that the process 
should not be used until it has been fully evaluated. 

May I be advised whether there is any reason why this definite prohibition should not be put into effect? 

Kind regards and best wishes for a joyous holiday season. 

Sincerely yours, 

William A. Dawson, 
Member of Congress. 



55 



CONSCIOUSNESS 

© CO. Evans e> J. Fudjack 

Addendum A - The Concept of Generalised 'Reality-Orientation 



In an article entitled "Hypnosis and the Concept of Generalized Reality-Orientation", Roland Shor speaks of a 'usual orientation to reality', 
a frame of reference existing in the background of attention which, as he puts it, "can temporarily disintegrate in special states of mind." In 
the following passage he introduces this notion of a 'usual generalized reality- orientation. The point we understand Shor to be making is 
that in entertaining an object of attention in normal states of consciousness we are subsidiarily aware of a frame or context that can 
consequently be understood to have an orientational function. 

A series of twelve propositions has been formulated in regard to the processes that produce the altered state, along with their 
implications and ramifications for Irypnosis, related states, and cognitive theory in general. 

The usual state of consciousness is characterised by the mobilisation of a structured frame of reference in the background of attention which supports, 
interprets, and gives meaning to all experiences. This frame of reference will be called the usual generalised reality-orientation. 

Perhaps the best way to explain what is meant by this proposition is to describe a state of consciousness in which the usual 
generalized reality-orientation is not mobilized, in order to see more clearly the psychic functions that are imputed to it Many 
experiences could be cited as illustrations — from literature, "mystic" experiences, or pathologic states. 

The best of these have the quality of merging of self and world (as in the typical Nirvana experience), whereas the clearest 
illustration of our proposition would be an instance of the loss of self and world entirely. 

We find this passage consistent with our descriptions of altered states of consciousness in Part III; note especially that the loss of the usual 
generalized reality-orientation, it s temporary disintegration in special states of mind, is connected with a concomitant loss-of-self 
experience. 

Having connected the sense-of-self that we experience in normal states of consciousness with the presence of the generalized reality- 
orientation it is not surprising that he should go on to identify the generalized reality-orientation as the Freudian 'ego' in the following way. 

Those who wish to view our discussion in general Freudian terminology may consider the generalized reality-orientation 
roughly equivalent to the cognitive components of the ego or the secondary-process orientation. 

We might recall that for Freud there is a special connection between secondary process and the preconscious: 

We have found that processes in the unconscious or in the id obey different laws from those in the preconscious ego. We name 
these laws in their totality the primary process, in contrast to the secondary process which governs the course of events in the 
preconscious, in the ego. 

We have suggested relating the concept of subsidiary awareness to Shor's concept of generalized reality-orientation. Now we see that the 
latter is intimately associated with the notion of the 'preconscious'. Can we expect, then, that the concept of the preconscious could be 
articulated in terms of the concept of subsidiary awareness? The next section investigates this possibility and related matters. 

Generalized Reality-Orientation was brought to us by Roland Shor. He termed so a structured frame of reference that characterizes a 
normal state of consciousness and supports, interprets and gives meaning to all the experience of an individual. (Shor 1959, 585) Shor 
stated that hypnosis is a complex of two processes, one of which is the construction of a special, temporary orientation and the other is 
the relative fading of the generalized reality-orientation into non-functional unawareness. 

R.E. Shor, "Hypnosis and the concept of the generalized reality-orientation." In CT. Tart (ed.), Altered states of consciousness (Garden 
City: Anchor Books,1969), p.243. 

S.Freud, "An outline of psycho-analysis." In J. Strachey (ed.), Standard edition , vol. 23 (London:Hogarth Press, 1964), p. 164 

According to Webster's dictionary, "trance" implies an inability to function or being in a state of dase or stupor. For this reason the light trances of everyday life (I'll 
give some examples of them in a minute) are frequently confused with the trances of deep hypnosis, where a person has only limited contact with her surroundings and 
may be quite unable, afterward, to recall what went on during the trance. 

Those deep states are certain kinds of trance, to be sure, but in actual fact they are neither the only ones nor the most prevalent. Tight trance states, which are 
familiar to everyone, do not ordinarily possess alamiing qualities. Dr. Ronald Shor, a specialist in hypnosis, has pointed out that these light trances are daily, 
commonplace occurrences for all of us. They simply involve a sharp narrowing of our attention, winch becomes focused on one or only a few, objects or events or 
thoughts. Because of this narrowing of attention, our generalised reality-orientation — that is, our awareness of our surroundings and of our usual ways of thinking 
and perceiving — begins to fade, creating a "trance" effect. Shor describes his own experience with a spontaneous "everyday" trance this way: 

"I was reading a rather difficult scientific book which required complete absorption of thought to follow the argument. I had lost myself in it and was unaware of the 
passage of time or my surroundings. Then without warning something was intruding upon me; a vague, nebulous feeling of change. It all took place in a split-second 
and when it was over I discovered that my wife had entered the room and addressed a remark to me. I was then able to call forth the remark itself which had 
somehow etched itself into my memory even though at the time it was spoken I was not aware of this. " 

(R. E. Shor, "Hypnosis and the concept of the generalized reality orientation" in Altered States of Consciousness, (C. T. Tart, Ed.). NY: 
Wiley, 1969, pp. 233-250)) 



56 



Pavlov, Russian Woodpeckers, Chinese-North Korean 
Brainwashing Protocols and the American Neurophone 



■ Pavlov was amazing. I recommend reading about him and his experiments. Somebody else gave 
"The Soviet Art of Brainwashing: A Synthesis of the Russian Textbook on Psycho-politics and the 
Suppression of Man and Civilization" as a talk given by Stalin's head of the KGB at the Lenin 
School of Psycho-politics. It was delivered to a group of American/Marxist Psychology students in 
1933. Read that and it will all start to make more sense. As for Russian Woodpeckers/ Soviet ELF 
mass entrainment programs, they are not common knowledge. Research of embassy micro-wave 
espionage and experimentation on unknowing citizens is available. It all even continues to this day. 
Let's talk about Dr. Flanagan. Below is a current Ad Piece from the company. More sophisticated 
state of the art is out there and unknown. Behold, here's a good place to start. 

■ Pavlov IP: Conditioned Reflexes. London, Oxford University Press, 1927 

■ Pavlov IP: The identity of inhibition with sleep and hypnosis. Scientific Monthly 17:603-608, 1923 



The Flanagan Neurophone 

Model GPF-1011 

The Neurophone transmits ultra sound frequencies through the skin to the brain, bypassing normal hearing channels. The Neurophone 
delivers a 40 kHz energy frequency through sensors, which are placed on the skin near the temples. For several decades, audiologists have 
experimented with the application of sound frequencies through the skin. 

The Neurophone has a variety of beneficial uses such as: 

1. to help concentration while studying 

2. to assist in learning languages or other study materials 

3. to listen to recorded music in a new way 

4. to help achieve harmony and emotional balance personally or with partners 

5. to help students and professionals improve grades and test scores 

6. to assist in gaining a sense of calm mindedness, relaxation, and well being 

7. to assist in meditation 

8. to assist sound perception 



The Neurophone is not a hearing aid for deaf people. However, it may help some who have auditory nerve damage depending on the type 
and severity. It is not meant to be a hearing aid, nor to diagnose or treat deafness. 

The Neurophone can be connected to any audio device such as tape or CD player 

HOW DOES IT WORK? 

The skin is our largest and most complex organ. In addition to being the first line of defense against infection, the skin is a gigantic liquid 
crystal brain. The skin is piezo-electric. When it is vibrated or rubbed, it generates electric signals and scalar waves. Every organ of 
perception evolved from the skin. When we are embryos, our sensory organs evolved from the folds in the skin. Many primitive organisms 
and animals can see and hear with their skin. We now know that the skin transmits ultrasonic impulses to an organ in the inner ear known 
as the Saccule. The skin vibrates in resonance with the ultrasonic ( 40 KHz) Neurophone modulated carrier wave and transmits the sound 
from the carrier through multiple channels into the brain. When the Neurophone was originally developed, neurophysiologists considered 
that the brain was hard-wired and that the various cranial nerves were hard-wired to every sensory system. The eighth cranial nerve is the 
nerve bundle that runs from the inner ear to the brain. Theoretically, we should only be able to hear with our ears if our sensor organs are 
hardwired. 



57 



Now the concept of a holographic brain has come into being. The holographic brain theory states that the brain uses a holographic 
encoding system so that the entire brain may be able to function as a multi-faceted sensory encoding computer. This means that sensory 
impressions, like hearing, may be encoded so that any part of the brain can recognize input signals according to a special type of signal 
coding. Theoretically, we should be able to see and hear through multiple channels not just our eyes and ears. 

The key to the Neurophone is the stimulation of the nerves of the skin with a digitally coded signal that carries the same time-ratio code 
that is recognized as sound by any nerve in the body. 

AH commercial digital speech recognition circuitry is based on so-called dominant frequency power analysis. While speech can be 
recognized by such a circuit, the truth is that speech encoding is based on time ratios. If the frequency power analysis circuits are not 
phased correctly, they will not work. The intelligence (sound) is carried by phase information. The frequency content of the voice gives our 
voice a certain quality, but frequency does not containinformation. All attempts at computer voice recognition and voice generation are 
only partially successful. Until digital time-ratio encoding is used, our computers will never be able to really talk to us. 

The computer that we developed to recognize speech for the Man-Dolphin communicator used time-ratio analysis only. By recognizing 
and using time-ratio encoding, we could transmit clear voice data through extremely narrow bandwidths. In one device, we developed a 
radio transmitter that had a bandwidth of only 300 Hertz while maintaining crystal clear transmission. Since signal-to-noise ratio is based 
on bandwidth considerations, we were able to transmit clear voice over thousands of miles while using milliwatt power. 

Improved signal-processing algorithms are the basis of a new series of Neurophones that are currently under development. These new 
Neurophones use state-of-the-art digital processing to render sound information with much greater clarity. 

ELECTRONIC TELEPATHY 

The Neurophone is an electronic telepathy machine. Several tests prove that it bypasses the eighth cranial nerve, the hearing nerve, and 
transmits sound directly to the brain. This means that the Neurophone stimulates perception through a seventh or alternative sense. 

All hearing aids stimulate tiny bones in the middle ear. 

Sometimes when the eardrum is damaged, the bones of the inner ear are stimulated by a vibrator that is placed behind the ear on the base 
of the skull. Bone conduction will even work through the teeth. In order for bone conduction to work, the cochlea or inner ear that 
connects to the eighth cranial nerve first must function. People who are nerve-deaf cannot hear through bone conduction because the 
nerves in the inner ear are not functional. 

A number of profoundly nerve-deaf people and people who have had the entire inner ear removed by surgery have been able to hear with 
the Neurophone. If the Neurophone electrodes are placed on the closed eyes or on the face, the sound can be clearly 'heard' as if it were 
coming from inside the brain. When the electrodes are placed on the face, the sound is perceived through the trigeminal nerve. We 
therefore know that the Neurophone can work through the trigeminal or facial nerve. When the facial nerve is deadened by means of 
anesthetic injections, we can no longer hear through the face. In these cases, there is a fine line where the skin on the face is numb. If the 
electrodes are placed on the numb skin, we cannot hear it but when the electrodes are moved a fraction of an inch over to skin that still has 
feeling, sound perception is restored and the person can 'hear'. 

This proves that the means of sound perception via the Neurophone is by means of skin and not by means of bone conduction. There was 
an earlier test performed at Tufts University that was designed by Dr. Dwight Wayne Batteau, one of my partners in the United States 
Navy Dolphin Communication Project. This test was known as the "Beat Frequency Test". It is well known that sound waves of two 
slightly different frequencies create a 'beat' note as the waves interfere with each other. For example, if a sound of 300 Hertz and one of 
330 Hertz are played into one ear at the same time a beat not of 30 Hertz will be perceived. This is a mechanical summation of sound in 
the bone structure of the inner ear. There is another beat, sounds beat together in the corpus callosum in the center of the brain. This 
binaural beat is used by the Monroe Institute and others to simulate altered brain states by entraining (causing brain waves to lock on and 
follow the signal) the brain into high alpha or even theta brain states. 

These brain states are associated with creativity, lucid dreaming and other states of consciousness otherwise difficult to reach when awake. 
The Neurophone is a powerful brain entrainment device. If we play alpha or fheta signals direcdy through the Neurophone, we can move 
the brain into any state desired. Batteau's theory was that if we could place the Neurophone electrodes so that the sound was perceived as 
coming from one side of the head only, and if we played a 300 Hertz signal through the Neurophone, if we also played a 330 Hertz signal 
through an ordinary headphone we would get a beat note if the signals were summing in the inner ear bones. When the test was conducted, 
we were able to perceive two distinct tones without beat. This test again proved that Neurophonic hearing was not through bone 
conduction. When we used a stereo Neurophone, we were able to get a beat note that is similar to the binaural beat, but the beat is 
occurring inside the nervous system and is not the result of bone conduction. The Neurophone is a 'gateway' into altered brain states. Its 
most powerful use may be in direct communications with the brain centers, thereby bypassing the 'filters' or inner mechanisms that may 
limit our ability to communicate to the brain. If we can unlock the secret of direct audio communications to the brain, we can unlock the 
secret of visual communications. The skin has receptors that can detect vibration, light, temperature, pressure and friction. All we have to 
do is stimulate the skin with the right signals. We are continuing Neurophonic research. We have recently developed other modes of 
Neurophonic transmission. We have also reversed the Neurophone and found that we can detect scalar waves that are generated by the 
living system. The detection technique is actually very similar to the process used by Dr. Hiroshi Motoyama in Japan. Dr. Motoyama used 
capacitor electrodes very much like those we use with the Neurophone to detect energies from various power centers of the body known 
as chakras. 



58 



THE NEVROPUONE-author unknown 



The Neurophone is an electronic invention that may enable us to hear by a completely new information channel to the 
brain. Ordinary hearing is the result of the stimulation of bones in the inner ear by means of vibration. Sound waves 
may reach these bones through ear canal via the ear drum, or by bone conduction in which sound waves are conducted 
to the inner ear vibrations in the cranial bones. When the sound waves reach the inner ear, a vibration is set up in the 
cochlea which then converts the waves into nerve inpulses that travel up the 8th Cranial Nerve to the sound recognition 
centers of the brain. 

In 1958, Dr Flanagan, then a child of 14 developed a radio transmitter that made the brain into a radio receiver. This 
device transmits acoustic information to the brain by means of radio waves into the skin, bypassing the 8th Cranial 
Nerve. When he applied for a patent on the device, the patent examiner rejected the whole thing saying that such a 
device would go against all known laws of science. Over the following years, Dr Flanagan fought against 
insurmountable odds to prove that the device did indeed work. In the meantime, LIFE magazine ran a major article on 
Flanagan and the Neurophone, naming him as one of the top ten scientists in the US at the age of 17! In a final 
desperate move Flanagan flew to the patent office with a model of his invention and successfully demonstrated the 
device on a deaf employee in the patent examiner's office. The deaf man heard music for the first time in 15 years and 
broke down into tears. The examiner declared that the Neurophone was indeed a basic patentable device and approved 
the patent for release. Patent # 3,393,279 dated 16 July 1968 

In the years that Dr Flanagan fought to receive deserved recognition by the patent office, he grew into manhood and 
was working on Man- dolphin Communications for the US Navy when the patent was finally issued. While involved in 
Man-Dolphin research, he became interested in nerve signal information encoding, and began to develop electronic 
circuits that duplicated the process of pattern recognition observed in the human nervous system. This work led to 
research in Cryptography. During that period he developed a top secret sound scrambler that was virtually impossible 
to decode. Part of the scrambler was based on his research into nerve encoding. 

Dr Flanagan believed that the pattern of nerve encoding used in the human speech recognition system could be used to 
make a better Neurophone. He succeeded in perfecting an electronic circuit that he believes duplicates the precise 
encoding of the Cochlea and 8th Cranial Nerve. When he applied for a patent on the new circuit, the patent application 
was immediately placed under top secrecy by the National Security Agency. The only explanation given at the time 
was that the circuit had potential uses in the defense of the country. Dr Flanagan was happy that the government 
considered that his device could be used in his country's defense. The only problem was that the government wanted 
the device free, and he spent 14 years on it. 

He hired attorneys and challenged the secrecy order for over five years. At the end of that period, the patent was 
released from secrecy and was approved for issue by the patent office. Patent # 3,647,970 dated 7 Mar 1972. Dr 
Flanagan then perfected the circuit for another five years. This circuit recognizes time-relationships in the signal 
waveform, and generates a square wave that is time encoded. Dr Flanagan believes that the nervous system uses a 
complex delay line time recognition computational system that recognizes time information. (50KHZ square wave 
pulse width audio modulation with double differentiator output) In July of 1978, he successfully applied the Time 
Recognition Processor to his Neurophone. When an audio signal is processed through his circuit, it is converted into a 
form which he believes is an electronic analog of the nerve signal released from the human cochlea, but with one major 
difference; in the cochlea hundreds of nerves carry the time-encoded signal to the brain. In the case of the Neurophone, 
the full signal processing is complete and may be carried to the brain by alternate pathways -Through the skin itself. In 
the original Neurophone, a 3000 volt amplitude modulated radio wave carried the signal to a pair of insulated 
electrodes that were placed on the head of the subject. In the present Neurophone, the voltage has been reduced to a 50 
volt (maximum) square wave. This signal is applied to the body by means of ceramic disks. (Zirconium titanate) The 
ceramic disks allow the energy field to affect the skin without a current flow. The small electric field causes the skin to 
vibrate internally in rhythm with the stimulation. The intra-dermal vibration can be heard by others if they place their 
own ears near the point of electrode skin contact. The vibration is not powerful enough however, to vibrate the bone 
below the skin surface. 



59 



US Patent # 3,647,970 and find it in Life magazine May 1958. Ten years later. In 1969 a Yale 
Psychologist named Dr. Jose Delgado published his book "Physical Control of the Mind, Toward 
a Psychocivilized Society" which represented 30 years of research in mapping out the relations 
between different points in the brain and all kinds of activities, functions and sensations of 
humans and animals. His work below indicates he's been researching for decades. In the book 
"Body Electric" by Robert Becker, you'll find results of an experiment by J.F. Schapitz who in 
1974 researched the use of Hypnosis conveyed by modulated electromagnetic energy directly into 
the subconscious parts of the human brain. That was even back then, imagine right now. 

CHARLES SHERWOOD 



Below are some additional threads for follow up: 

Anderson, Jack (1972) Washington Merry-Go-Round: "Brainwash" attempt by Russians ? Washington Post 1972.5. 10 
Anderson, J. (1975) Soviets aim rays at U.S. The Paterson News. 1975.5. 16. 
Berkley C (1976) A new occupational disease? - of diplomats. Editorial. Med. Res. Eng. 12(3) , 3-7. 
Owertzman, B. (1976) Moscow rays linked to U.S. bugging. NYT 1976.2.26. P. 1,4 

Gwertzman, B. (1976) US radio spying in Sovit suffers: microwaves end usefulness of embassy's listening post in 
Moscow. NYT 1976.5.2. P.9 

Gwertzman, B. (1976) Soviet dims beam at U.S. Embassy, NYT 1976.7.8. P. 1, 10 

Kholodov, Y.A. (1966) The Effect of Electromagnetic and Magnetic Fields on the Central Nervous System Moscow, USSR, 
Nauka, p. 283. 

Orlov, Alexander (1963) Handbook on Intelligence and Guerilla Warfare- Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press 

Pursglove, S.D. (1966) The eavesdroppers: 'Fallout' from R&D, Electronic Design 14(15):34-49. 

Shipler, D.K. (1976) U.S. radiation report worried foreign diplomats in Moscow, NYT 1976.2. 11 

The microwave furor, Time 1976.3.22,2.23. 

Toth, R.C. (1976) Soviet radiation at U.S.Embassy, NYT 1976.2.7 ? 

Wren, C.S. (1976) Bugging in Moscow causes Health scare, NYT 1976.2.9 P 



FOR THOSE WHO SEEK MORE SOURCES & THREADS: 



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Adey, W.R., Kado, R.T.., & Didio, J. (1962) Impedance measurements in brain tissue of animals using microvolt signals. 
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Adey, W.R. & Walter, D.O. (1963) Application of phase detection and averaging techniques in computer analysis of EEG 
records in the cat. Exp. Neurol. 7, 186-209. 



60 



Adey, W.R., Dado, R.T., Mcllwain, J.T. & Walter, D.O. (1966) The role of neuronal elements in regional cerebral 
impedance changes in alerting, orienting and discriminative responses. Exp. Neurol. 15, 490-510. 

Adey, W.R., Elul, R., Walter, R.D., & Crandall, P.H. (1966) The cooperative behavior of neuronal population sduring 
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N.Y.Acad. Sci. 238, 236-241. 

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61 



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physiological effects.. BEM 7, 315-328. 

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uo de Lorge, J. (1974) A psychobiological study of rhesus monkeys exposed to extremely low frequency low intensity 
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ft de Lorge, J.O. (1984) Operant behavior and colonic temperature of Macaca mulatta exposed to radio frequency fields 
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uo DelGiudice, S., Doglia, S., Milani, M. et al (1989) Magnetic flux quantization and Josephson behavior in living 
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ft Delgado, J.M.R. (1985) Biological effects of extremely low frequency em fields. 
J. Bioelectricity 4, 75-92. 



62 



uO Diebolt, J.R. (1978) The influence of electrostatic and magnetic fields on mutation i drosophila melanogaster 
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uO Dixey, R., Rein, G. (1982) Noradrenaline release potentiated in a clonal nerve cell line by low-intensity pulsed 
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uo Edelwejn, Z., Elder, R.L., Klimkova-Deutschova, E., & Tengroth, B. (1974) Occupational exposure and public health 
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486.u£6iae_eH 



63 



Delgado, J.M.R. (1959) Prolonged stimulation of brain in awake monkeys, J.NeurophysioL, 22, 458-475. 
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a E.S.O'Doherty (Eds.), Electrical Studies on the Unanesthetized Brain, New York, Hoeber, pp. 133-158. 

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Delgado, J.M.R. (1961) Chronic implantation of intracerebral electrodes in animals. In D.E. Sheer (Ed.), Electrical 
stimulation of the brain. 

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Delgodo, J.M.R. (1963) Telemetry and telestimulation of the brain. In: L.Slater (Ed.), Biotelemetry, Pergamon, New 
York, 231-249. 

Delgado, J.M.R. (1963) Cerebral heterostimulation in a monkey colony. Science 141, 161-63. 

Delgado, J.M.R. (1963) Social rank and radio-stimulated aggressiveness in monkeys. J. Nervous and Mental Diseases 
114, 383-90. 

Delgado, J.M.R. (1963) Effect of brain stimulation on task-free situations. EEG clin. N. Suppl. 24, 260-280. 

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methods, Vol. V, Part A: Physical techniques in biological research. New York: Academic Press. 

Delgado, J.M.R. (1964) Free behavior and brain stimulation. Int. Rev. Neurobiology, 6, 349-449. u£6Tae_e1|ew66 

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, 1361-1363. 

Delgado -->!! bull. New York Times 1965.5.17 p. 1 & 20. 

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Delgado, J.M.R. (1966) Emotions. Self-Selection Psychology Textbook. W.C. Brown. Cubuque, Iowa, 56pp. 

Delgado, J.M.R. (1966) Aggressive behavior evoked by radio stimulation in monkey colonies. Amer. Zool., 6, 669-681. 

Delgado, J.M.R., & Mir, D. (1966) Infatigability ofpupillary constriction evoked by hypothalamic stimulation in monkeys. 
Neurology, 16, 939-950. [DotyaBartlett, 1981] 

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Delgado, J.M.R. (1967) Limbic system and free behavior. In Progr. Brain Res. 27, 48-68. 

Delgado, J.M.R. (1967) Social rank and radio-stimulated aggressiveness in monkeys. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. , 144, 383-390. 

Delgado, J.M.R., Mark, V., Sweet , W., Ervin, F., Weiss, G., Bach-y-Rita, G., a Hagiwara, R. (1968) Intracerebral radio 
stimulation and recording in completely free patients, J. of Nervous and Mental Disease, 147, 329-340. u£6iae_eH 

Delgado, J.M.R. (1969) Physical Control of the Mind (Harper and Row) 

Delgado, J.M.R. (1969) "Offensive-defensive behavior in free monkeys and chimpanzees induced by brain radio 
stimulation." In S.Garattini and E.BSigg(Eds.), Aggressive Behavior. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Biology of 
Aggressive Behavior, Milan, May, 1968, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, 109-119. 



64 



Delgado,J.M.R., Bradley, R.J., Johnston, V.S., Weiss, G., and Wallace, J.D. (1969) Implantation of Multilead Electrode 
Assemblies and Radio Stimmulation of the Brain in Chimpanzees. Technical Documentary Report No. ARL-TR-69-2, 
Holloman Air Force Base, NM, 19pp. 

Delgado, J.M.R. (1969) Radio stimulation of the brain in primates and in man. Anesth. Anlag. 48, 529-543. u£6Tae_el 

Delgado,J.M.R.,and Mir, D. (1969) Fragmental organization of emotional behavior in the monkey brain, Ann. N.Y. Acad. 
Sci., 159 , 731-751. 

Delgado, J.M.R. (1970) Multichannel Transdermal Stimulation of the Brain. Technical Documentary Report No. ARL-TR- 
70-1, Holloman AirForce Base, NM, 24pp. 

Delgado, J.M.R., V.S., Johnston, J.D.Wallace & R.J. Bradley (1970) Operant conditioning of amygdals spindling in the 
free chimpanzee, Brain Research, 22, 347-362. 

Delgado,J.M.R., Maria Luisa Rivera & Diego Mir (1971) Repeated Stimulation of Amygdala in Awake Monkeys, Brain 
Research, Vol.27, No.1 

Delgado, J.M.R. & Bracchitta, H. (1972) Free and instrumental behavioral in monkeys during radio stimulation of the 
caudate nucleus. Int. J. Psychobiol., 2, 233-248. 

Delgado JMR (1972) [re. freewill] The Humanist. 1972. [Camellion (1978)] 

Delgado, J.M.R., Obrador, S., & Martin-Rodriquez, J.G. (1973) Two-way radio communication with the brain in 
psychosurgical patients, In L.V.Laitinen & Livingston (ed.), Surgical approaches in psychiatry, Lancaster, England, 
Medical & Technical Publishing. 

Delgado, J.M.R., Sanguinetti, A.M., & Mora, G. (1973) Aggressive behavior in gibbons modifies by caudate and central 
gray stimulation. Interntional Research Comunications System Medical Science, Spt., 16-2-32. 

Delgado, J.M.R. & et al.(1975) Two-Way Transdermal Communication with the Brain, Am. Psychologist , March 1975. 

Delgado, J.M.R. (1975) Inhibitory systems and emotions. In Levi Emotions - their parameters and measurement, pp. 183- 
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Quantum cryptography based on Bell's theorem - Artur K. Ekert (1991) 

Merton College and Physics Department, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3PU, United Kingdom 

Practical application of the generalized Bell's theorem in the so-called key distribution process in cryptography is reported. The 
proposed scheme is based on the Bohm's version of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen gedanken experiment and Bell's theorem is used to 
test for eavesdropping. ©1991 The American Physical Society 



The Mind (machine) control systems that followed are a matter of national security. 
Some systems out of Taiwan, late 1970s can be translated as "Psychological Language 
Machine." In Mandarin it sounds as "Sin_Lee_Yue_Yan_Gi," and its words means the 
machine can be used to read the human mind. You can research the Tavistock Institute. 
They formed in 1947 and developed brainwashing techniques too, which were first used 
experimentally on American Prisoners of war in Korea. It works with the Stanford 
Research Institute; Tavistock controls the National Education Association too... 

CHARLES A. SHERWOOD 



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The History of Mind Control: 

What we can prove and what we can't 
Lecture by Dr. Alan Scheflin 

From the Ryerson CKLN FM (88.1 in Toronto) Mind Control Series 
CKLN-FM 88.1 Toronto the International Connection 
Producer/interviewer Wayne Morris 

Alan Scheflin: 

... for you in the next two hours, is that mind control is a valid subject, we can prove a good deal of its history and its 
postulates, and especially in this litigious climate when people argue that therapists and others are crazy in believing in things 
like mind control, it's my function to show that the subject has validation across several centuries, and especially a rich history 
in this century. What I want to do is use slides to illustrate my talk, and so if we could lower the lights you'll be able to see the 
slides better, and let's begin, let me begin. 

Can we... Yeah. Great. Let me see... {pause} All right. Naturally, the history of mind control begins with the proverbial hole 
in the head. This is the, an illustration of a trephined skull, the first known medical intervention for mental illness. There are 
many such skulls that have been recovered from civilizations throughout the world, suggesting that trephining, which is as you 
can tell an early form of lobotomy, was well-practiced by many ancient civilizations. The reason why the proverbial hole-in- 
the-head here is important to us, is that this was a therapeutic procedure built upon a medical philosophy, and the philosophy 
is one of possession. It seems to me that in many ways as I'll suggest to you, these notions have come back again in the 
twentieth century, and so I thought it appropriate to start with them now. The possession idea carried through well into the 
Middle Ages, when possession theories of mental illness were prevalent, and cures based on them were equally as prevalent 
and indeed necessary. This is an illustration of medieval Moon Madness, and some of the dancing episodes that went 
throughout the Middle Ages. The treatment of choice was exorcism which you seen an illustration of here, if you look all the 
way over on the left, the woman being held by a group of men, there's a devil coming out of her head. 

This was, of course, the early equivalent of Multiple Personality Disorder and the notion of possession theory, the body being 
inhabited by other beings, is an important aspect of dissociation. The theory may have changed somewhat, but there is 
certainly a direct history from the possession ideas to the dissociation ideas that we experience today. The first, the first real 
treatise, I think, in mind control, which brought together possession ideas in to a textbook, is THE MALLEUS 
MALEFICARUM, which is written in 1484, it's called THE WITCH'S HAMMER, and I was interested to note that in the 
latest issue of, I think, NEWSWEEK MAGAZINE, with the cover story on the brain, there is a one -page description of THE 
MALLEUS MALEFICARUM by a novelist who wrote a woman's novel based on its terms. 

THE MALLEUS was used as a bible for witch-hunting, and it tells you how to identify witches and how especially to 
interrogate them, and how to cure them—the cure usually being killing them—but the value of THE MALLEUS, I think, is two- 
fold. It is probably the second known text book in history on cross-examination techniques, the first one being THE 
PLATONIC DIALOGUES. And so, we get in THE MALLEUS, a systemization of the knowledge of how to do interrogations 
to lead people to give confessions that you want them to give, and so in the history of mind control it plays a very important 
role, because this is, this is the work that was used by the inquisitors throughout the Middle Ages and thereafter to obtain 
confessions and indeed false confessions. THE MALLEUS itself then was read by police departments centuries later and used 
as the beginning of the development of police manual. Let me jump ahead a couple of centuries until last century, the #1800's, 
with the birth of psychiatry, and it perhaps is no surprise that there is a common link to possession theories and the birth of 
psychiatry, in that most psychiatric treatments had the same elements of violence that we see in THE MALLEUS and that we 
see in the exorcism, and beyond that. It's the cast-the-demons-out... I'm gonna run through a series of slides here, all taken 
from psychiatric text books, on the way in which people were treated. This one is an individual who was chained to a wall, and 
this is a form of a straitjacket as you can see, where a person is tied directly to a drain pipe in the wall. Here is an early version 
of the, of the straightjacket itself. It was beliefs that these people were inhabited by demons, and that in order to get those 
demons out exorcism was replaced either with violence or with severe restraint. But a century ago they also had something 
that we tend to consider as modern but is not— shock treatment. The shock done, however, was usually a different form than 
electricity since they had not yet invented electricity. This is a water shock treatment, and another version of it appears here, 
where an individual is left blind-folded on the platform, suddenly the platform falls from beneath him and he's dumped into a 
bucket of ice cold water. This was intended to be shocking. Another form of shock treatment was to fire a cannon behind 
somebody without them knowing that it was gonna happen. Again, the idea was to use a form of violent cure because of a 
theory of violent possession. Interestingly enough, even electric shock has a history in antiquity. It did not... We did not need 
the development of electricity to have electric shock. 



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The ancient Egyptians used to take a torpedo fish and slap it on the forehead of people who were possessed, and the fish 
would discharge an electric current, and that's the earliest record of electroshock treatment. This is a device that {pause) 
nobody can ever guess the importance of. It's an ovary compressor, and I'll leave it to your imagination to, to consider how 
painful it must be to have experienced it. Seclusion in its worst form is the wooden crib here. This is a form of containment in 
which you can see that person is totally strapped into a crib with no way to move. This, however, was not the worst form of 
restraint. It took a leading psychiatrist to develop that. This is the rotating chair. A person could last only a few seconds in this 
chair without becoming nauseous and eventually losing consciousness. And then there was the tranquilizing chair, all of these 
devices were used in the late #1800's, the last two of them were developed by Benjamin Rush, a signer of the Declaration Of 
Independence, and his face appears on the seal of the American Psychiatric Association as its founder. It's not my desire to 
criticize psychiatry here, but rather to make the point, in terms of mind control, that we began studying the human mind and 
mental illness with a theory of possession and a theory of cure based on violence, and from that we'll see the various 
refinements. Perhaps the first of the refinements, and the one that's notoriously wrong, was the leading psychological theory of 
the 1800's, and that is phrenology—that you can measure the exterior of the brain or rather of the skull in order to understand 
the interior of the mind, and this is an illustration of a phrenologist's chart, the theory being that there is a direct correlation 
between a person's characteristics as an individual, and their skulls and the lumps and other aspects to be found on the skull. 
The theory, of course, is completely wrong, but it occupied a good deal of the 1800's and was the leading theory of psychology 
at that time. It led to further variants in terms of face- reading... 

The importance of the theory is not that it was wrong, but rather that it led people to begin to try to measure internal states. 
And so, from an erroneous theory people began to look inside the brain to see how you can find external correlations with the 
brain, and we come across what I think is the great paradox in all of healing, and that is that the more you learn how to cure 
people the more you learn how to harm them, and for every step forward in relieving mental illness you can take a step 
backwards in causing it. And so, for people whose interest is in control of the mind, their data comes from how to help the 
mind, and so there is no step forward that does not involve equally, in the hands of malevolent people, a step backwards. The 
idea of mind control turned more serious however and in our concerns more contemporary when we come to hypnosis. This is 
Hypnos, the Greek god of sleep. Of course, hypnosis is not sleep and so the name itself is deceptive as to the mechanism of 
hypnosis, but hypnosis began the modern era with Mesmer, whose theories were also wrong not only wrong but plagiarized, 
on inter planetary or planetary magnetism affecting mental states and so forth. What Mesmer really happened upon without 
realizing it was the beginning of the idea of the laws of suggestion, and what he did is set up what is called a baquet, and you 
can see here it's an oak tub from which iron bars extrude, and the French nobility would come and touch the iron bars which 
were in the tub, the tub was filled with water with iron filings, and people would then have convulsive states which were 
pleasant enough for them to repeat quite frequently. Some slides of the baquette... 

This was high society, not only treatment but also entertainment. You can see at the left a woman has fainted. That was quite 
common. Here's a color slide of the same kind of event. Mesmer was, his work was studied by a Presidential Commission or 
rather a King's Commission. King Louis XVI appointed a special commission to study Mesmerism. At the time it was 
receiving rave notices from the public and condemnation from medical societies. Here's a cartoon of the time of animal 
magnetism, you can see the animal doing the hypnosis, and another cartoon debunking animal magnetism. The report that was 
issued on the work of Mesmer's student des Lond, was highly critical. The commission found that there was nothing to the 
interplanetary theories and the magnetic theories, but they were then forced to explain why Mesmer got so many curs, and 
they attributed the cures to the power of imagination, and rather than study the power of imagination as a way to cure 
individuals, the commission left the issue alone, and it took a hundred years for people to pick up that essential point, that 
manipulation of the imagination could be used to manipulate the mind. The commission also issued a secondary report that 
was stamped "eyes only" for the King's eyes only, and in that report the commissioners said that there was an aspect of 
magnetism that was so dangerous that the practice would be stopped at once. It was a menace to morals, that the attraction that 
developed between the magnetizer and the subject being magnetized was so great that seductions were inevitable, and 
therefore we have the first inkling of the relationship between hypnosis and hypnotic seduction in this secret report for the 
King's eyes only. 

Mesmer died in disgrace and in exile after the report appeared, and hypnosis, which was still called animal magnetism at the 
time, fell into disgrace but not into complete abandonment. It wasn't until about fifty or sixty years later that James Braid, a 
Scottish physician, coined the term hypnosis and hypnotism, and it wasn't until about fifty years after that that hypnosis begins 
to be studied in a serious way, and the problems of mind control, using hypnosis as the vehicle again resurface. The Victorians 
were interested in hypnosis 'cause it was fun to be hypnotized. They lacked the joys that we have, such as Geraldo, and so they 
had to entertain themselves by using hypnosis for their parlor games. And you can see a man here drinking milk out of a 
saucer on the floor, he had just been hypnotized. And so, stage hypnosis at the turn of the century, from the 1890's to the 
1910's and '20's, was one of the most well-known and well-attended and lucrative forms of entertainment. ... just a couple of 
artifacts from that time. Here's a brochure from a stage hypnotism show. Walter Bodey, an English hypnotist, was perhaps one 
of the most famous of the stage performers. He had a hypnosis and electrical show. You can see on there that, a statement, 
"The real Trilby," going back to Svengali. We'll return to that in a moment. This is James Bodey. He lives on in history for a 
reason people don't remember any more, and that is, he was the inspiration for an extremely young comic who got his start by 
mimicking Bodey, and here's the young comic, here's the two of them together, Bodey on the right and Charley Chaplain on 
the left. And so, Charley Chaplain's career began by studying Bodey's mechanisms and his mannerisms on stage, and then 
making comedy of them. 



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During the Victorian era people's exposure to hypnosis was not only as a form of entertainment, but it seemed like a form of 
mind control as well. You could get people to do anything that you asked of them. You could have them be suspended 
between two chairs, you could even stand on them when they were suspended between two chairs, and you could do a lot 
worse as well. If you're sensitive, please don't watch the next two slides. This is an iron bar held by eyelets, put into the eye 
lids of a subject, and this a stage hypnotist in Georgia, and as if that isn't bad enough to suspend an iron bar from the eye lids, 
he took it one step further and then pulled a young woman on roller skates. So, it's not always fun to be hypnotized, and some 
people have taken the idea of stage hypnosis, it seems to me, far beyond where it should be entitled to go. One of those people 
is Barry Konnikoff, who traffics under the name of Potentials Unlimited. In one of his later... He has self -hypnosis tapes which 
were available all over the place. I've heard he's gone bankrupt now and I certainly hope that's true. In his later round of tapes 
he argued that women who have been sexually abused or raped deserve it because of what they did in prior lives. Now, the 
First Amendment perhaps protects that. On the other hand, it is... There aren't words that would describe a person who would 
make money out of that kind of a theory, so I won't waste our time on him. I want to get back to the central theme of mind 
control, which starts with Jean Martin Charcot, who was the foremost neurologist of the time. While the stage hypnotists were 
persuading people that minds could be controlled by hypnosis, the professionals were learning hypnosis as well, and they were 
learning it largely from a small group of people, the most influential of whom was Charcot. Charcot, as the greatest 
neurologist in Europe at the time, was frequently visited by kings and princes and certainly all of the most elite of the medical 
profession from around the world, and in his clinic at La Sault Petrier in Paris, he would demonstrate hypnotic phenomena. He 
would, in his demonstrations, induce neurotic symptoms in people. People who came in with an inability to move one limb, in 
hypnosis would be able to move that limb, but he would transfer the neurotic symptom to the other limb, and so he could 
create and destroy and eliminate and transpose neurotic conditions, and this was a remarkable demonstration which impressed 
a number of people in the audience, but his theories were at odds with his major contemporaries, le Beau who was on the left 
and HipoHypolee Bernheim who was, on the right. 

There was in France at the time, this second school of thought about hypnosis. Charcot believed that people who could be 
hypnotized were hysterics and that hypnosis was a form of hysterical dissociation. Bernheim, based on the work of le Beau 
and his own work thereafter, believed that hypnosis was a form of suggestion, and that the manipulation of suggestion did not 
need a former neurotic condition. Here's Bernheim. Bernheim and Charcot often appeared against each other in a series of 
criminal cases that appeared throughout France, on the issue of the anti- social production of crime with hypnosis. A person 
who studied from both of these people and was influenced by both of them was Sigmond Freud. This is a picture of him on his 
wedding day, and a better-known portrait of him in his old age, and then the infamous couch. In his London office over the 
couch Freud had a picture of Charcot's demonstration, doing the demonstration that I showed you a few slides back. Let me 
get to that. This was the, a picture that hung over the couch in Freud's office in England. Now, Freud was very much 
influenced by the hypnosis theories, and worked with hypnosis for a year, but then abandoned it, and it wasn't clear why he did 
abandon hypnosis. Some theorists have argued, and I think correctly, that he was a lousy hypnotist, {laughter from audience) 
and that seemed to be true, and he couldn't, as a result, get deep enough trances to have effect on his patients. Other theorists 
have argued, and Freud's own writings tend to support a secondary hypothesis, and that is that Freud was scared of the 
seductive power of hypnosis, that the ability to move people into altered states of consciousness gave a feeling to the hypnotist 
of some such omnipotence that it was in itself seductive. And Freud wrote that in one of his patients, as soon as the hypnotic 
encounter had ended she jumped up and threw her arms around him and hugged and kissed him, and he did not attribute that to 
his handsome demeanour. He said it must be some other force at work and it so frightened him, he said, that he never used 
hypnosis again. And I think that he's harking back to the Mesmer Commission's noticing that there is a manipulative power in 
hypnosis that the subject may not be able to resist, but also the hypnotizer may not be able to resist as well. Bernheim, by the 
way, and Albert Muhl, a German hypnotist in the 1880's and the 1890's, had already given the world the false memory 
syndrome. They called it retroactive hallucinations at the time, and they wrote quite openly in their works that they were 
concerned that through the power of suggestion you could create an impenetrable witness for a court of law. 

That by hypnotizing somebody, you could induce them to tell a false story, that story would be impervious to cross- 
examination, because the individual would sincerely believe in the truth of what he or she was saying, and therefore you 
would never be able to effectively cross- examine that person, because they would continually insist on the truth of what they 
were reporting. And so, by the early 1890's the phenomenon of false memory had already been noted and been written about 
extensively, and its application for courts of law had already been written about. There is absolutely nothing new in the false 
memory issue. It is simply a failure to read the literature from a hundred years ago. What's more important is, where are we 
gonna go from now with false memory, and I think the answer is where we have already come from a hundred years ago. The 
next step beyond false memory was the beginning to use these techniques deliberately for purpose of mind control. And 
essentially the first steps are taken by A. R. Luria in his institute in Moscow. Luria reasoned that if you can get people to have 
false confessions with hypnosis, you probably could build affective complexes on those false confessions. In other words, you 
could not only get people to report things that never happened, you could get them to experience the entire range of emotions 
affiliated with those events. And so, Luria and his colleagues in Moscow in the 1920's began doing research on developing 
neuroses built upon the implantation of false memories. That work was replicated in the 1930's by Milton Erikson, Lawrence 
Cubey, and others, who verified the truth of what Luria was reporting. Now, Luria's work was not merely academic. 



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It had its operational uses in the next decade in the Moscow Show Trials, which are an extremely important historical event 
for our purposes. During the Moscow Show Trials, Stalin purged his old enemies. Now, one way you can do that is simply 
have them disappear, or you could have public executions. It is generally true throughout histories that regimes try to improve 
their own legitimacy by discrediting their predecessors. Stalin's way of doing it was to put on trial all his former friends, and 
what was different about the Moscow Show Trials is that when these defendants went on trial they not only confessed to a 
series of crimes and sins, they could not possibly have committed, but they begged to be shot as enemies of The State. 

Some recent books on the prosecutor's role in programming during the Moscow Show Trials have added some new 
information to our understanding of them. It was at this point that American intelligence agencies began to take notice of the 
mind control potential that seemed to be apparent from the Moscow Show Trials. The actual paper record though is hard to 
trace from the 1930's, easier to trace from the 1940's, and the trial that ultimately set the C.I.A. off on its investigation of mind 
control was the trial of Cardinal Mindszenty. Mindszenty was a staunch anti-Communist who was then arrested by the 
Communists and put in the Androsi Street Prison in Hungary. The... Six months later he was put on trial, and as his 
predecessors a decade before, he confessed to crimes and sins that could not possibly have been true. These are a series of 
slides showing him at trial. The experience of Mindszenty was so frightening to American intelligence agencies, that they 
began to investigate whether or not the Soviets possessed some new form of mind control unknown to The West. 

Here two stories develop that are both true and completely contradictory. In secret C.I.A. files you will find both of these 
stories validated. On the one hand the C.I.A. argued that it was afraid that it was losing the war for control of the mind, and 
that the Soviets had developed this new, sophisticated psychology or whatever to control the way people think and act, and 
that America had to catch up. We were on the defensive now and we had to, a lot of work that had to be done. One the other 
hand, in a document that was extremely highly classified, eyes-only for the Director of the C.I.A.'s Eyes-only, it turned out 
that there was a spy in the Androsi Street Prison who was reporting back to the C.I.A. everything that was happening to 
Mindszenty, and this Eyes-only report which I've read is a wonderful document. It details exactly what happened to 
Mindszenty. It names the Soviet hypnotists who did the work and the drugs that they used to assist them in that work. It's a 
step-by-step manual for the programming of Mindszenty. And what's particularly interesting is if you read Cardinal 
Mindszenty's autobiography of the events, he really doesn't know what happened to him, and at this point the C.I.A. had a 
better knowledge of the programming of Mindszenty than he had of his own programming. And so, on the one hand the 
Soviets, the C.I.A. knew everything that the Soviets were doing, yet on the other hand they were reporting that they were 
afraid that they were losing the war, and I think both of those stories are true, though they're contradictory, and both are 
supported by secret C.I.A. documents. Meanwhile, a related event begins to happen. 

In the late 1940's, Edward Hunter in 1949 for the first time coins the term, "brain washing," and writes a book on it. This is 
one of the two books that Hunter wrote. It turned out that Hunter was an O.S.S. and later C.I.A. propagandist, and the word 
brainwashing was particularly useful because American prisoners of war were starting to give confessions of using germ 
warfare during the Korean War, and America needed a way of stopping that kind of propaganda, and the term brainwashing 
which had been coined by Hunter to explain the thought control programm in Communist China proved a useful vehicle. This 
is Edward Hunter. I was able to do one of the last interviews with him before his death. In the deep literature on brainwashing, 
the more academic literature on brainwashing, his view of it is called The Robot Theory, the notion that with brainwashing 
techniques you can turn somebody into an automaton. The Robot Theory of brainwashing is not the only theory of 
brainwashing, but it is the most flamboyant and it's also the most frightening. The idea of brainwashing then in the 1950's 
became the object of a lot of study and books like IN EVERY WAR BUT ONE, people who had actually gone through the 
experience wrote about what had happened to them and researchers like Biederman in books like this were reporting what 
happened to American prisoners of war and other prisoners of war. 

In Hawaii, an American camp was set up to be a mock prisoner of war camp to use the techniques that were being used of 
brainwashing. This an illustration from that camp. These are actually all Americans, but it's a simulated exercise in 
brainwashing because Americans were searching for a way to inoculate our soldiers if they should get captured and put 
through a brainwashing experience. Would it have been possible for us to inoculate them previously so that the brainwashing 
would not take? While the brainwashing studies were going on, another development was happening simultaneously important 
to the development of mind control and these are the sensory deprivation experiments that began in Canada with Donald Hebb 
and others. It was... Hebb's original work was essentially on what's called highway trance, the phenomena that people who will 
drive on highways in long stretches of road that's pretty monotonous will to into trance. And this is a form of sensory 
deprivation, if you've got... If it's dark at night, there's a long road, there's no scenery, you probably all have had the experience 
of realizing that suddenly you've driven a couple of miles but have no memory for that couple of miles passing, or you've 
gotten very drowsy. Well, the phenomenon of sensory deprivation became the subject of a good deal of study in the 1950's. 
What would happen to the mind if it were deprived of sensory input, since the mind needs sensory input the way the body 
needs food? And in a series of studies, this is on isolation, inside the black room, students across the country in Canada and 
other places were put in a black room. Here's an illustration of it. There's essentially almost no sensory input at all. What 
happens to the mind? Floatation tanks and other ways of decreasing sensory input, all had the effect of causing the mind when 
it is deprived of sensory input to throw out a hallucinated world in order to get input back from that hallucinated world. And 
people, in fact, kept in isolation too long could become psychotic. 



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Books studying the phenomena of isolation and also in conjunction with manipulating people's mind through techniques of 
brainwashing began to appear. THE BRAIN BENDERS is one, THE BATTLE FOR THE MIND by William Sergent is the 
foremost British book on the subject. Robert J. Lifton's study, THOUGHT REFORM AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF 
TOTALISM is the classic work on the Chinese thought reform programme. Edgar Shein's book on coercive persuasion on the 
Americans taken prisoner in the Korean War, RAPE OF THE MIND by Mirrileau, another classic. 

As all of this was happening, this was what you could call a form of coercive persuasion as Shein had suggested, but there 
was another event that was occurring simultaneously. The 1950's is, in many ways, the birth of mind control experimentation, 
because you have the brainwashing issue, the hypnosis issues, the isolation and sensory deprivation studies, and you now get 
the next stream of research, which involves obedience to authority studies. I mentioned the other night Solomon Ashe's studies 
on opinions and social pressure, and what Ashe did at Yale was the simplest of experiments on conformity. He drew on a 
blackboard a line that was one foot long and another line directly under it, parallel to it, that was two feet long. He then got six 
or seven people in a room, all of whom except one had been bribed, and the last one had no knowledge of the bribing of the 
others. He then asked them in order which one was the shorter line, and to the horror of the one who was not bribed, everyone 
reported that the two-foot line was the shorter line, and it was visually obvious that that was untrue, but everybody else in the 
room was reporting it as true. And what Ashe discovered was that the subject would report seeing the longer line as the shorter 
line, that he would conform to peer pressure. Cynics dismissed it on the grounds that it just showed the stupidity of Yale 
graduates, {slight laughter from audience} but that was not a sufficient scientific explanation, and as Walter reported the other 
night the experiments were done in the Navy and other places as well. 

Now, I want to distinguish this group of work from the others that I've just reported on. Here we're talking about a form of 
manipulation of the mind that does not involve physical coercion. In the brainwashing work, in the isolation work, there is a 
form of physical intimidation that involves taking over the body and controlling the body, controlling all of the input in the 
mind and so forth, and so this is... A person in that situation that he or she is in that situation, that they are captive in some 
way. With this kind of experiment, we have what I call conversational persuasion. This is the beginning of the attempt to 
develop theories of social influence on free- standing populations where people are not aware that they are being held captive 
in any way, and indeed they're not. The next step along the lines of obedience research, and some ways the most frightening, is 
the work done by Milgrim and his book OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY. If you're not familiar with Milgrim's work I'll give 
you a very brief explanation of it. Milgrim wanted to test the hypothesis that people in Germany, good people in Germany, 
during the Nazi regime, were manipulated in a way to do evil, or let me restate that, Milgrim wondered why so many good 
people in Nazi Germany could allow such evil to happen around them knowingly. And his thesis was not the idea that there's 
something inherent in the German character, but rather that there's something inherent in people, and he was interested in 
showing whether or not if a Hitler-type character arose in the United States, that person would be able to get good people to do 
evil in this country. And so, he built a box, I don't have a slide of it here, he built a box with thirty switches, just little light 
switches, and the thirty switches were in fifteen-volt increments. They were marked in fifteen-volt increments. 

As you moved over towards the right of the box there began to be some writing which said, "Caution! Danger! Extreme 
danger!," and the last group of switches were marked in triple red X's. Now, he then put an advertisement, again this is at 
Yale, so you know, maybe the cynics are right. He put an advertisement in the local New Haven newspaper for people to 
volunteer for the experiment. People came in and they were told that the experiment involved pain and learning, and that they 
would be the teachers, and that there was a student and that they could see the student, and the student they were told was 
hooked up to an electric grid, and every time that... The teacher was to give the student a question, and every time the student 
gave a wrong answer one of the switches was to be pushed. When Milgrim and his associates talked about the experiment, 
they concluded that nobody would push all the switches, and most people would stop pushing the switches about halfway 
through, because each switch was intended to deliver a higher voltage shock. The subject as about half the switches were 
pulled, would increasingly flinch and then scream and then yell, would then say, "I don't want to do this any more," would 
then say, "I have a heart condition! Please stop!," and then would refuse to answer any question and would slump over. If the 
teacher balked at pushing the next switch, there was an experimenter there in a long, white laboratory coat with a clipboard 
and a pencil, who was instructed to say first, "Continue," and then, "Please continue," and then, "You must go on with the 
experiment," and finally, "I will take responsibility." And what Milgrim discovered is that the overwhelming number of 
people pushed all of the switches, and that the simple reenforcement of saying, "I will take responsibility," or that there was an 
experiment going on, was sufficient to allow them to do that. Now after Milgrim's experiments were replicated in other places, 
and what eventually evolved is that the horror of what he was proving was so ghastly that the scientific literature turned away 
from it and instead focussed on the ethics of doing that kind of experiment. Because after all, what he was doing was taking 
people from the street and not telling them that they were what he was studying. 

They thought he was studying the subject. And a lot of these people as you can imagine had severe emotional reaction once 
they realized that they had shocked somebody with a heart condition on a machine that went beyond extreme danger to triple 
X's in red, and so the ethics of doing that type of work then created a movement in universities and other places for 
institutional reviews boards, etc., and the research can't be done any more, and what Milgrim was proving, how easy it is to 
manipulate people by the simplest of commands, was no longer being studied and certainly not in that manner. But books like 
COMPLIANT BEHAVIOUR: BEYOND OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY, were being written to increase and replicate and 
extend the work of Milgrim, and here's a report called CONFORMITY, COMPLIANCE AND CONVERSION, from the Air 
Force in I think around the 1950's, an Air Force report using Milgrim's work in Air Force conditioning. Let's go back and talk 
some more about hypnosis since it plays a central in the rest of the development of mind control. Let me say that also, given 



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the nature of the subject of mind control, there are a lot of things I'm not talking about. I'm not gonna be talking to you about 
the physiological aspects of mind control, to take you through the lobotomy and psycho- surgery and electrical-stimulation-of- 
the-brain literature, and I won't be talking about the pharmacological aspects of mind control, the use of drugs and botanicals 
and chemicals for mind control, you know, but that should give you an idea of how vast the subject is. We're just 
concentrating here on the psychological aspects of mind control. All right. The notion of hypnotic seduction had been noticed 
in the secret report to the King in France, it had been noticed by Freud in his work, and it had been noticed by many others —a 
series of slides on hypnotic seduction. The idea of hypnotic seduction got, I think, its greatest impetus in an #1894 book called 
TRILBY. And this is illustration from it with the infamous Svengali as the hypnotist, and to this day the portrait of Svengali as 
a hypnotist is almost as powerful as Sherlock Holmes as a detective. It's almost the stereotype of the field. Trilby, today, 
would be a No. #1. Best-seller, the equivalent of a No. #1. Best-seller, and even bigger. It was probably the first block-buster 
novel. It was published in a magazine in serial form, and after the first issue appeared the magazine had to print an additional 
one hundred thousand copies because of the desire for people to continue the story. It... 

The author, George du Maurier, was launched into such public light that he ultimately hid from all, in order to preserve his 
privacy. He had lecture tours through the United States and Britain. Do you remember PATEN PLACE, how huge a novel that 
was at the time? This was the equivalent and even bigger. The story of TRILBY is the story of a hypnotist who gets total 
control over the personality of a young woman, and the novel itself I find to be incredibly boring, but the portrait of portrayed 
of the hypnotist is tremendously exciting and has lived on almost as an icon of the subject itself. There was a town in Florida, 
and I haven't checked to see whether this is still true, that changed its name to Trilby, and at the centre of town they have 
Svengali Square. There were TRILBY parties, TRILBY hats, TRILBY clothes. It was an enormously popular and influential 
novel, which introduced people to the idea of the potential for hypnotic seduction, and also even worse. Let me... Since I don't 
want to dwell on this aspect of mind control, let me sum it up and say that the traditional thinking has been that you cannot get 
people to do with hypnosis what they would not otherwise do. There is value in that thinking, because it then doesn't 
encourage people to try, but if you go and talk to the hypnotists who will tell you that and you talk to them in private, they will 
tell you the opposite story, that within certain parameters you can get people to do things they would otherwise not do, with 
hypnosis, and that while hypnosis is not a magic wand or a magic potion, it is an effective facilitator for seduction or anti- 
social conduct. There is an increase in court cases of hypnotic seduction now, but I want to turn to the more frightening 
prospect of using hypnosis for the creation of anti-social crimes. Can you get... "You are in my power, you will do what I tell 
you." How far can you get control of somebody using hypnosis and forms of social influence? This has been the subject of a 
lot of fiction, just from my library here are some of the books. THE DARKER THE NIGHT, WAS THE HYPNOTIST THE 
KILLER, SEEING IS BELIEVING, YOUR EYELIDS ARE GROWING HEAVY, MURDER IS SUGGESTIVE, TELEFON, 
which of course is a movie as well. And there are academic books like HYPNOTISM AND CRIME. Interestingly there has 
been no major work on the anti- social aspects of hypnosis either in the legal literature or in the psychiatric, hypnotic, or 
psychological literature for over thirty years. 1960 is the last time we have a full discussion of the issue of hypnotic coercion, 
and 1972 was the last time a hypnosis journal directed itself primarily to that issue. The texts suggest that there are cases in 
which people, through hypnosis, have been induced to commit crimes, but the hypnosis community has been divided as to 
whether those are pure cases. There is what I call the methodological dilemma that arises at this point. If you... Usually the 
hypnotic encounter requires a certain amount of time and a certain amount of trust, and so hypnosis researchers argue that it's 
not hypnosis that facilitates either seduction or the production of anti-social acts, rather it is the relationship between the 
hypnotist and the subject, and therefore hypnosis is not at fault. The experimentalists discount any clinical, anecdotal material, 
because it's not rigorously scientific and therefore can't prove the conclusion of hypnotic coercion. But the experimental 
literature itself is discounted, because as Albert Muhl wrote a hundred years ago and Martin Orne has written as well, at some 
level a subject always knows that he or she is participating in an experiment. And so, there is no way to test the validity of the 
hypothesis that you can induce through hypnosis anti-social conduct. On the other hand, such conduct is produced on a regular 
basis whatever the explanation. The one place where the studies were done, where there was no fear of ethical violation or 
legal consequences, was in work done by the Central Intelligence Agency, and since the work has never been fully published, 
I have an article that will be coming out in THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL HYPNOSIS, on the CIA. hypnosis 
experiments. It's not my function here to criticize the intelligence agencies or to condemn what they have done. I'm instead 
trying to argue the point that the hypnosis community in general and psychologists and psychiatrists as well, need to know the 
data that was produced and which still exists in C.I.A. files. 

If we are going to be accused by the false memory people of using undue suggestion to get people to do things they wouldn't 
otherwise do, we need to know the limits of those possibilities, and that material is in C.I.A. files, therapists are being sued 
across the country, they need access to that information to help defend themselves. And so, it is in the spirit of science and in 
the spirit of protecting therapists and patients, you know, for the good of the country, that I present this material so that we can 
hope that the full amount of it is ultimately revealed. I also must make a caveat. I can only report on information that I've seen, 
either through my search of C.I.A. files and my interviews with C.I.A. hypnotists and other hypnotists. There may be mistakes 
in what I present. I cannot correct that unless I have access to all of the material. And so, if I have made a mistake, it is a 
mistake that comes from not being given the material. Of course, I have in good faith worked through the material I have to 
tell as accurate a story as I know how. 



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The C.I.A. began experimenting as soon as it was born in the late 1940's. The experimentation in mind and behavior control 
had already begun in the O.S.S. with hypnosis experiments, truth cerems, truth tablets, and lethal pills, as well as other kinds 
of experiments, but it was after the Cardinal Mindszenty episode that the C.I.A. began to really become concerned about the 
possibility of hypnotic coercion, and let me quote to you from a C.I.A. document at the time. This is a February 10, 1951, 
C.I.A. Top Secret Memo, called DEFENSE AGAINST SOVIET MEDICAL INTERROGATION AND ESPIONAGE 
TECHNIQUES, "Hypnotism has been reported to have been used in some cases by the Soviets as an adjunct to interrogation. 
It would be possible for a skilled Soviet operator to lower a prisoner's resistance to questioning, and yet leave him with no 
specific recollections of having been interrogated. With respect to inducing specific action on the part of a subject by 
hypnotism, it would be possible to brief a prisoner or other individual, subsequently dispatch him on a mission, and 
successfully debrief him on his return, without his recollection of the whole proceeding." A June 1951 C.I.A.Memo says, 
"C.I.A. interest is in the specific subject of devising scientific methods for controlling the minds of individuals." And so, in the 
late 1940's some essentially uncontrolled experimentation was begun by various people within the C.I.A., and a more 
structured programm was also undertaken which had the name Blue Bird, and that name was then changed to Artichoke, and 
under Projects Blue Bird and Artichoke the attempt was made to bring together all known knowledge of interrogation 
techniques, truth serums, polygraphs, and hypnosis, to create essentially an elite interrogation team with facility in all of those 
endeavors, and have them do the work that would be needed, first of all to protect against infiltration by enemy agents, and 
also to protect the minds of American agents who might get captured by Communist individuals. 



Part 2 

Wayne Morris: 

We have been in the middle of an extended series on mind control here on the International Connection. This is Week #11, 
and we have heard so far, if you haven't been listening for the last few months a lecture by Dr. Colin Ross and an interview 
with him about the U.S. government CIA and military use and creating Manchurian Candidates by creating Multiple 
Personality Disorder. We also heard testimony given at the Human Radiation Hearings ... survivors of this ... and we also 
heard the story of Ronald Howard Cohen, writer and activist who was abducted and drugged by CIA military. We are hearing 
this week, a lecture Part Two of a lecture given by Dr. Alan Scheflin, and this is entitled "The History of Mind Control: 
What we can prove and what we can't". This was given back in 1995 in Dallas, Texas at a conference and we are going to 
listen to Part Two today. 

Alan Scheflin: 

It is not my function here to criticize the Intelligence Agencies or condemn what they have done. I am instead trying to argue 
the point that the hypnosis community in general and psychologists and psychiatrists as well need to know the data that was 
produced and still exists in CIA files. If we are going to be accused by the False Memory people of using undue suggestion to 
get people to do things they wouldn't otherwise do, we need to know the limits of those possibilities and that material is in 
CIA files. Therapists are being sued across the country. They need access to that information to help defend themselves. And 
so, it is in the spirit of science and in the spirit of protecting therapists and patients, and for the good of the country, that I 
present this material so we can hope that the full amount of it is ultimately revealed. 

I also must make a caveat. I can only report on information that I have seen, either through my search of CIA files and my 
interviews with CIA hypnotists and other hypnotists. There may be mistakes in what I present. I cannot correct that unless I 
have access to all of the material. If I have made a mistake, it is a mistake that comes from not being given the material 
because I have in good faith worked through the material I have to tell as accurate a story as I know how. 

In the late 1940's, some essentially uncontrolled experimentation was begun by various people within the CIA, and a more 
structured program was also undertaken which had the name BLUEBIRD and that name was then changed to ARTICHOKE, 
and under projects BLUEBIRD and ARTICHOKE, the attempt was made to bring together all known knowledge of 
interrogation techniques, truth serums, polygraphs and hypnosis to create essentially an elite interrogation team with facility in 
all of those endeavours, and have them do the work that would be needed. First of all, to protect against infiltration by enemy 
agents, and also to protect the minds of American agents who might get captured by Communist individuals. 

In the early 1950's, Walter Smith, the Director of Central Intelligence in an EYES ONLY MEMO said he wanted to know the 
issue in order to know the answer to the question, "...whether effective practical techniques exist whereby an individual can be 
caused to become subservient to an imposed control, and subsequently that individual be unaware of the event." The purpose 
of the CIA experiments by the early 1950's was to discover the ways to control the minds of individuals. BLUEBIRD and 
ARTICHOKE were only one part of it. There were other parts as well. 

The CIA's facility in Langley did not exist at that time. They used office buildings throughout the Washington area, and safe 
houses around the country and throughout the world. Eventually in 1953 we get a new program from the CIA which is the 
most expansive mind control program in the history of the world. It's genesis begins in 1953 with a speech given by Allen 
Dulles who was the new CIA Director. In his speech, Dulles said that we were losing control of the battle of the mind, that we 
were at war with the Soviet Union. He called it brain warfare, and the Soviets possessed knowledge with the United States did 



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not. A top-secret memo two months later in June, 1953 states, "...interrogations of the individuals who had come out of North 
Korea across the Soviet Union to freedom recently, apparently had experienced a blank period or a period of disorientation 
while passing through a special zone in Manchuria." By 1953 in other words, the notion of the Manchurian Candidates in 
almost those exact terms, had been theorized by the CIA. I will come back to that point in a moment, but in Dulles' public 
speech on April 10, 1953 to Princeton Alumni in Hotsprings, West Virginia, he argued we had to do something to make sure 
we did not lose the war with the Soviet Union. About a week and a half later, he signed into law what was called MKULTRA. 
Walter Bowart has speculated, and I think it is a good speculation, that the MK stands for Mind Kontrol, and ULTRA was the 
code name given to breaking the Japanese and German codes, and so this was the code name given to breaking the code of the 
human mind. MKULTRA was the umbrella for 149 sub-projects. All of them were under the auspices of Sidney Gottlieb, and 
later directed by his boss, Richard Helms. The 149 sub-projects - you can read something about this in government 
documents. This is a project MKULTRA from a Joint Hearing from the United States Senate and some of the material has 
been made public by the Congress. Other material has not been made public but the existence of MKULTRA is not a secret, 
and its contours are known to some extent. Another government document explores the same territory. This one is on 
biomedical and behavioral research by the government. 

The goal of all 149 sub-projects was mind and behavior control. Some of them involved botanical. Some of them involved 
psychosurgery and electrical stimulation of the brain. 9 of the sub-projects involved hypnosis. Some of the sub-projects 
involved things like voodoo. One of them involved circumcision to create anxiety and then manipulate the anxiety. Almost 
anything you could think of and things you wouldn't think of were funded and studied. Maybe one of the more well known 
studies, and one of the more notorious is the work that was done by Ewen Cameron in Canada. Cameron was the President of 
the Canadian Psychiatric Association, the American Psychiatric Association, and the World Psychiatric Association. In his 
work at the Allen Memorial Institute in Montreal he had a theory that sounds unique but actually exists in "Brave New World 
Revisited" and even goes back to the Ancient Greeks — his notion was that you could completely erase personality by 
regressing an individual back to an infantile state - process he called de-patterning. Then you could program that individual 
with a new personality - a process he called psychic driving. In order to destroy the original personality, Cameron put his 
subjects to sleep for up to two months, injected them with LSD, mescaline and other psychoactive chemicals, and essentially 
engaged in a form of regression therapy. Age regression may be a hypnotic phenomenon, but in this sense regression was an 
actual regression. This was the attempt to manipulate people back to a state of infantilism. These were people who came to 
him who were depressed ... this was the local psychiatric institute. This is where you went when you needed help. One of the 
people who came to him, I don't have a slide of her, but I have done some TV shows with her, was the wife of a Member of 
the Canadian Parliament, Val Orlikow was her name. She is dead now. Val had just had a baby and she was suffering from 
post-partum depression. This meant she didn't feel she was able to care for her baby, or for herself, and in general she was 
feeling unequal to the task of wifehood and motherhood, and her husband suggested maybe she could benefit from some 
psychiatric care, and she thought that was a good idea. They made the mistake of winding up going to Ewen Cameron and 
Cameron destroyed her life. She along with 10 or 11 other people ultimately sued the Canadian government and the CIA 
because the CIA contributed funding to Cameron's experiments. SIXTY MINUTES did a show on this that I show from time 
to time. One of the people went there because he was feeling badly, and he went through the same kind of process, and they 
later discovered he had a minor skin disease and a single shot of cortisone would have cured it. His life was ruined, and as he 
put it, "Where do I go for help? I don't trust any psychologists, or psychiatrists or therapists any more after what they did to 
me, and I know I need their help, but I am programmed to not trust them, so where do I go for relief?" 

The experiments have been written about in detail in a number of books. This is the least reliable, Gordon Thomas' "Journey 
Into Madness". Harder to find, a Canadian book "I Swear By Apollo" is more accurate. Perhaps the best of the books is Anne 
Collins', "In the Sleep Room". In some ways the most compelling and the most, I wouldn't want to say important, but the one 
that is most emotional perhaps, is Harvey Weinstein's, "A Father, A Son and the CIA". This is the Canadian edition. There is a 
slightly revised version printed by the American Psychiatric Press, "Psychiatry and the CIA". Harvey's father was one of those 
people who was depressed and went into the Allen Memorial Institute as a human being and came out as a vegetable. He never 
did become a whole human being again. Indeed, it was what happened to his father that led Harvey into psychiatry and 
Harvey's conclusion is something that should be read by everybody in the mental health field. "After all of the knowledge of 
the CIA experiments, and the Army experiments and Air Force and Navy experiments have come out, after all of what we 
know ... NOT A SINGLE RESEARCHER HAS BEEN SUBJECTED TO A SINGLE LAW SUIT OR EVEN CENSURE BY 
A PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR WORK THAT WAS CLEARLY ILLEGAL AND CLEARLY UNETHICAL, 
EVEN AT THE TIME. THE MESSAGE MUST BE, IF THERE ARE NO CONSEQUENCES TO DOING THIS KIND OF 
WORK, THE WORK WILL CONTINUE." And indeed, this is most likely what has happened. Harvey's conclusion is that if 
the professional organizations are not going to step up and condemn this kind of experimentation, then it will be repeated and 
other generations will suffer the horror that his family suffered. 

Cameron's experiment was simply considered a part of a series of brainwashing tests to regress people back to this infantile 
state. Now the Greeks had sleep temples that had a similar focus, but modern technology added to Cameron's work. He used a 
tape loop. He would interview an individual. You have heard about Erikson's "power words" ... Cameron would use words that 
were important to his patients, and he would program those words in messages that he would construct on tape loops that 
would be played into their brain one half a million, to a million to a million and a half times ... in fact these people were quite 
literally "programmed". 



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In a state of infantilism Cameron wrote that they could endure sensory deprivation indefinitely, whereas most people would 
crack in about 8 hours, those people could stay there indefinitely. The psychic driving in which the tape loops were used was 
the attempt to reconstruct the personality and I wondered where such a fiendish idea would have come from and I found it in a 
1951 science fiction novel called "The Demolished Man" by Alfred Bester, and if you are a science fiction buff I certainly 
encourage you to find that book and read it. Basically the theory of the novel is that when somebody commits a crime, that 
shows a certain boldness that society should appreciate, but it's in the wrong direction. What they do is take criminals to the 
hospital and they regress them back to infantilism and then they re-build a new personality — exactly the idea that Cameron 
was working on with his subject had been written about a few years before he began as a science fiction novel. I won't ever 
know if he had read that novel, but the studies from his work shows that it did not work and indeed it caused a great deal of 
pain to a great number of people. 

The idea of manipulating people with hypnosis in ways that are effective, and in ways that are quite bizarre, was born in the 
brain of George Estabrooks. Estabrooks, a very interesting character, was working in Morton Prince's laboratory at Harvard in 
the 1920's and he had the idea that if you could cure a multiple personality with hypnosis, maybe you could create one with 
hypnosis. Why in the world would anyone want to create a multiple personality? Estabrooks had the solution. You could 
create then, a super spy or a super assassin, somebody who would do the bidding of his country and have no knowledge that 
he was engaged in those acts. Estabrooks said in 1928 that "...my views are somewhat different than most psychologists. I 
believe the hypnotist's power to be unlimited, or rather only to be limited by his intelligence and his scruples." In the 1920's he 
went around trying to convince the military to create hypnotically controlled individuals, create a multiple personality and use 
that one as a courier. They thought he was crazy and ignored him until the Moscow Show Trials, and then they took him 
seriously, and in the archives of his work at Colgate ... there is a notation that he stopped publishing in the mid-1930's because 
his work had then become classified. If you read his book, this is Morton Prince's "Dissociation of a Personality" ... the classic 
work on multiple personality ... if you read Estabrooks' book "Hypnotism" through its various editions, what you discover is 
that each edition is more assertive about the validity of creating hypnotically programmed couriers and finally in an interview 
he gave in a local Rhode Island newspaper in 1963, he claims that, "... this is not science fiction, it is fact, I have done it." 
Working for the FBI and the CIA, he would create a multiple personality, program that personality to be a courier, send that 
personality somewhere in the world have them return and be amnesic for all of that. 

The idea may have originated with Estabrooks but he may not have been the first to actually publish it as such. Writing in 
"The Psychoanalytic Review" of 1947, Major Harvey Leavitt of the U.S. Army Medical Corps described the hypnotic creation 
of a secondary personality, "... hypnotically induced automatic writing was established early in the course of treatment as a 
means of expeditiously gaining access to unconscious material. After this procedure as utilized for a time, a hypnotic 
secondary personality was produced by suggesting that the writing was under control of a certain part of his personality 
unaware to him." Leavitt then said that he created another personality in direct contrast to the one already established so he 
could work the two created personalities off against one another. He concluded, "... regardless of whether the production of 
multiple personalities by means of hypnosis could be construed as additional proof that hypnosis is an artificially induced 
hysteria or whether the multiple personalities were artificial entities resulting from direct suggestions ... there exists a close 
relationship with personalities spontaneously arising in hysterical dissociation. The importance of producing multiple 
personalities experimentally lies in the fact that certain elements of the original personality may be isolated which manifest a 
minimum of censorship influences and thus may serve as helpful ajuncts in hypno- analysis." 

That was not the purpose for the intelligence agencies in working with the idea of creating a multiple personality. The story 
of the intelligence agencies creating multiple personalities to use as couriers and assassins may have begun with Estabrooks, 
and indeed in CIA documents you can see Estabrooks' theories worked out and discussed, but the genesis of the work begins 
in 1951 in the CIA Office of Security where an official named Morris Allen got the idea that CIA agents should be trained in 
hypnosis and in order to train them in hypnosis, he arranged with them to go up to New York and get training from a stage 
hypnotist. As soon as he and the agents got to New York, the stage hypnotist spent an hour and a half with them, regaling 
them with tales of hypnotic seduction - of how when the hypnotist went on the road, the he would sleep with a different 
woman each night - some of them he would give hypnotic hallucinations that he was their husband, others he would use other 
techniques - but this was a technique he had found very productive for his own sexual favours. The CIA was of course 
delighted to hear all of this and reported so in the documents. If he could use the technique to manipulate people that way, this 
was what they wanted to learn and so that's how they got trained. 

Then from 2-3,000 pages of documentation going from 1951 to 1954 - Morse Allen and his group replicated all of the known 
hypnosis experiments involving people putting their hands in acid or jars of snakes, in shooting people dead, involving the 
French and Germans - there are all of those experiments American researchers, Estabrooks and others had conducted. But they 
(CIA) wanted to go further and explore the possibility of using hypnosis to create a programmed courier and a programmed 
assassin. The multiple personality itself may have come from Jekyll and Hyde which was very popular at the time. Another 
illustration of that idea in which two entirely different people can be within the same body - one being the embodiment of 
good, the other the embodiment of evil. It was good fiction, but it also was part of the genesis from Morton Prince's work, 
{slide: an Italian depiction of multiple personality - you can see the two faces pointing in other directions} 



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By the 1950's, the popular press was reporting in "The Three Faces of Eve", the existence of multiple personality - the three 
faces of course were more than three faces - and the final face was not the final face. Eve was Chris Sizemore finally telling 
the story with her real name and then telling it again in "A Mind of Her Own". Well, her mind may be her own, but her life 
isn't. She is now suing the film company which claims that the movie, "The Three Faces of Eve", means they own the story of 
her life. She claims they only own up to the time she had three faces, and that the other faces still belong to her. So she is still 
not in control of her identity and the fight goes on. [slide: here she is in person} Sybil was then the next known or highly 
reported case of multiple personality disorder. Herb Spiegel tells me that Sybil was not a multiple, and that when he treated 
her in Cornelia Wilbur's absence, that Sybil never had any need to express any other personalities with Herb. Herb admits she 
was brilliant, and also extremely mentally ill, but that she was not a multiple, and he refused to participate in the writing or 
publishing of the book if that was the spin they were going to take on her case. On the other hand Herb believes that multiples 
exist, but that the condition is extremely rare and so people have argued that she was smart enough to know he wouldn't 
believe it, and therefore smart enough to know to conceal the personalities so the debate goes on. 

The use of hypnosis to create multiple personalities and in general for intelligence purposes appears in a number of 
confidential secret documents just a few of which I will throw up on the screen. Some stories have leaked out about how the 
CIA hid it, and they didn't tell anybody about it. It's very simple. The CIA explodes the old theory of hypnotic moral curb. 
They came to the conclusion that people can be induced to do things that would violate their moral codes, and the folklore that 
you can't get people to do things against their will was simply untrue, and they carried those experiments further in to study 
ways to create unwitting killers. CIA documents tell of a 1954 project to create involuntary assassins. This is the end product 
of Morse Allen's work. By 1954 he had exploded the moral code theory; he had replicated all of the experiments of hypnotic 
coercision; and had conducted other experiments on his own, but all of these were in fact laboratory type experiments. He 
wanted to do more and see whether operational use could be put to these principles. His group prepared a film called, "THE 
BLACK ART". In the film, an "Oriental Character" is having a drink with an American agent. A drug is surreptitiously placed 
in the drink that causes the Oriental man to fall asleep. While dozing, he is hypnotized and programmed. The CIA had already 
experimented on hypnotizing people in sleep conditions and so forth. The next scene shows the Oriental man opening a safe 
that contains secret files. He removes the files and brings them to an American agent who reinforces the hypnotic suggestion. 
At this point, there is a voiceover by a narrator who asks, "Could what you have seen been accomplished without the 
individual's knowledge? Yes. Against the individual's will? Yes. With complete amnesia of performing the act? Yes. How? 
Through the powers of suggestion and hypnosis." 

Again by 1954, Morse Allen was pushing hard to have operational tests of the thesis that you could construct a multiple 
personality and have that personality commit crimes, come back, and have no knowledge in the host that that act had been 
committed. In other words, The Manchurian Candidate scenario had been worked out by the CIA five years before the novel 
was published. But would it work? In order to know whether it worked, you had to conduct what Morse Allen called "terminal 
experiments". These were experiments that could result in the death of the subject. The CIA gave clearance for those 
experiments to be done and in reference to one researcher who was asked if he would participate in them, he said, "if you set 
up terminal experiments, I will do them for free." By 1954, the literature demonstrates that Morse Allen's concerns had 
reached the higher levels of the CIA and that they were willing to engage in a field test for the Manchurian Candidate type 
scenario. By January, 1954, an ARTICHOKE memo says, "Could an individual of a certain descent be made to perform an act 
of attempted assassination involuntarily under the influence of ARTICHOKE?" Then later in the memo it says, as a trigger 
mechanism for an even bigger project, the CIA proposed that, "an individual of a certain descent, approximately 35 years old, 
well educated, proficient in English, and well established socially and politically in a foreign government be induced under 
ARTICHOKE to perform an act involuntarily of attempted assassination against a prominent foreign politician or if necessary, 
against an American official." 

It was clear then, by summer of 1954, that the ARTICHOKE team said we can create an artificial personality, program that 
personality to conduct an assassinatiion, that assassination would occur. If in fact the individual was captured, he would never 
reveal the knowledge that he had engaged in the assassination, the host would know nothing about the alter, the amnesia 
would be impenetrable, and even under torture the host would not reveal the secrets. CIA research in many universities around 
the country explored topics such as programming people by way of telephone, whether somebody could answer a telephone, a 
secret word would be given, they would slip automatically into a trance, nobody around them would know they were in trance, 
they wouldn't know they were in trance, so forth. Experiments on pain, experiments on creating unconscious recorders, 
experiments were done on whether people would commit suicide under hypnotic instructions, and so on. Albert Mole had 
written one hundred years ago that it would be possible to give people hypnotic instructions to have them commit suicide. 
These were the subjects of CIA experiments. What ultimately happened, we don't know because the government files closed 
up at the point of reporting on the assassination attempts. But a year later, in May, 1955, a top secret report called "Hypnotism 
and Covert Operations begins with the following paragraph: 

"Frankly I now mistrust much of was written by academic experts on hypnotism, partly because this is because many of them 
seem to have generalized from a very few cases, and partly because much of their cautious pessimism is contradicted by 
Agency experimenters. But more particularly because I have personally witnessed behavior responses which experts have said 
are impossible to obtain." By 1954, the Manchurian Candidate scenario had already been thought of and was already under 
operational testing. 

This is Richard Condon who wrote The Manchurian Candidate, as Walter Bowart discovered when he wrote him, he had no 



76 



idea he was writing fact. He thought he was writing fiction. The only case that has come out of the literature that suggests that 
someone may have been an experimental subject is the control of Candy Jones. Candy was quite a beautiful woman, second 
only to Betty Grable. She was a pin-up girl during WWII, but her artificial personality, Arlene Grant, was programmed by the 
CIA according to the book to be a hypnotic courier and she was sent around the world, and occasionally captured and 
tortured. Her last instruction was to have a two week vacation in Berlin and then jump off a cliff. It did not happen because her 
husband, John Neville, who was a very famous all night disc jockey in New York and an amateur hypnotist, shortly after they 
were married began to feel he had actually married two different women and could not account for the mood swings and the 
differences in personality. Using hypnosis with her, this story unravelled. Candy was sent to Herb Speigel for evaluation. Herb 
did a work-up on her using the hypnotic induction profile and other tests, and found she was very very high in the positive. 
And while he couldn't conclude that what she was saying was true, he could conclude that it would be true with her if it were 
true. In other words, she was the kind of person that this manipulation would have worked with. The Candy Jones story, which 
we cannot validate and we cannot invalidate ... I have seen a CIA file marked "Grant", but I have not been able to get the 
contents. It may be true, it may not be true. But the story about hypnotically programming couriers and assassins clearly is 
true. That book was published before the CIA documents were made available. 

All of this of course violates the Nuremburg Standards but those Standards have had no application in covert activities. We 
found a document from the Attorney General of the United States to the Director of Central Intelligence which said if any 
of your agents are caught during their work, they will not be prosecuted for crimes' and therefore there is essentially the 007 
license to kill that CIA agents will not be prosecuted for their crimes, therefore Nuremburg Standards do not apply. 

It wasn't until the Nelson Rockefeller Report to the President in June, 1975 that we had any inkling about this material and 
then basically just a paragraph or maybe even a sentence mentioning mind and behavior control sent researchers looking for 
the files. In his testimony before Congress Stansfield Turner corroborated the existence of the mind control programs. 

Some people wrote about them at the time. Peter Watson's book (from England) "The Military Uses and Abuses of 
Psychology" touch on but do not give in any detail the experiments done by the CIA and Army, but do talk in general about 
the use of psychology for military purposes. The classic works are of course, Walter Bowart's book, "Operation Mind Control" 
which is hard to find, and a collector's item, an extremely important book. John Marks' book, "The Search for the Manchurian 
Candidate", and my book, "The Mind Manipulators" — these were the only three books to appear on the subject of mind and 
behavior control by the CIA and the Army experimental programs. 

I want to move the story forward some more, from the CIA experiments in the 1950's into the 1960's and beyond. The 1960's 
brought us a new variation in operational utilization of the techniques of brainwashing and sensory deprivation and so forth 
that had been explored in the 1940's and especially in the 1950's, and this is the religious cult issue. This is Steve Hassam's 
book, "Combatting Cult Mind Control" - there is a revised edition available for sale, probably the best of the deprogramming 
books on mind control. But it was in the 1960's that the idea of using these techniques on essentially freestanding populations 
was experimented with and the cults provide the laboratory setting for social influence processes where the people are not 
taken into complete physical custody. The cults themselves represent, I think, the step from the laboratory experiments into 
real world operational use and then beyond them, there are books like "Mindbending on Cult Deprogramming". Then we 
move into the books on satanism and programming. This one I think is available for sale ... "Satan's Children", linking the 
multiple personalities with satanism. Can we prove this? Where do we stand with our knowledge of satanism? 

Speaking as a lawyer, it's going to be very rough going to prove a widespread, intergenerational network of satanic cults in 
court. Part of the reason for that is the report issued, "In Pursuit of Satan", by Ken Lanning FBI, who has concluded that 
though instances of satanic abuse do exist, there is no evidence to suport intergenerational, widespread, multinational networks 
of satanic abuse. Also, within the next two months, the most major study in the country on this issue will reach the same 
conclusions as Ken Lanning. And that report is due in about two months. But the tentative conclusion which will be the final 
conclusion, will be that Lanning's perception is correct. That the evidence does not exist for intergenerational satanic cults. 
Now, the methodology can be challenged, in any event the question of whether therapists who work with people who claim to 
be abused in satanic cults should be sued, is a separate issue from what can be proven. 

Is it reasonable for you to believe that widespread satanic abuse occurs? The answer to that I think, is yes. Despite the 
Lanning Report and despite the conclusion that will come out later on, it is your job to believe your patients, at least within the 
therapy setting, and if they say it happened, then you work effectively with them by believing that it happened. It's when there 
is a real world corollary that the trouble begins. I am using my lawyer hat now. Do not tell your patients to go out and sue their 
parents or sue other people. Do not tell them to give newspaper accounts and so on, and to protect yourself in your clinical 
notes, say that this is the story your patient told, you have no way of knowing whether it is true or not, in any event, that's not 
your function. Your function is to make the person whole with whatever material they present to you. As long as you do not 
advise that they do not go out and sue other people, you can advise them to seek legal help if they say, "should I sue?" You 
say, "that's not my job, I am not a lawyer ... you should go to a lawyer and see what the lawyer thinks ... I will support you in 
this session whatever you decide to do ... but what you decide to do in the outside world is a decision that must be made by 
you and other professionals, not by me." As long as you do that, there should be no legal liability. If your patient sues you for 
believing all the crap that you are being told, in your notes somewhere should be "it's not my job to evaluate the historical 
validity of this information, but I will work with it as if it is true, because for my client at this point in time it is true." That 
should protect you. 



77 



There are isolated instances, there is also a large accumulation of information from local police departments who are not as 
influenceable as the FBI - the FBI did deny the existence of the Mafia - when I went to an FBI friend of mine who oversees 
the Behavioral Science program there - I said why does the FBI deny the existence of widespread satanism - he looked at me 
and said they also denied the existence of the Mafia. Their conclusions can be rebutted in court by a lot of data from local 
police that have found ritualistic killings. The book "Mortal Remains" is an illustration of a case in Massachusetts where a 
satanic cult was practicing ritual murder. There are instances in which it can be proven. The existence of satanism is provable 
for over many centuries and the existence of cults and mind control programming is provable beyond question. For therapists 
to believe that there are some cults that are satanic is true, to believe that those satanic cults may be more widespread than we 
think or thought beforehand is reasonable, to believe that they engage in a bunch of horrendous practices - look what the Nazi 
experimenters did and look what Ewen Cameron did and how can you say there is a limit on human depravity? It is not 
unreasonable to believe that these kinds of things can occur, and in any event, when you work with trauma, you work more 
effectively by believing the story that it has come from. 

Let's go further. In breaking bodies and minds, the role of psychiatric abuse and mental health professionals in creating 
torture victims and mind control victims is discussed - the complicity between torturers and professionals who help them to 
torture has been documented - this is the Irving Janus report from 1949 that validated the use of hypnosis as part of 
conditioning techniques being used by the Soviets; Rand report in 1958 again reaches the same conclusions; the involvement 
of hypnosis and other forms of programming - the book "Why Men Confess" is written by a former Assistant Attorney 
General of the United States, traces modern mind control back to the Malleus Maleficorum through the Moscow Show Trials 
and other places. It's a good legitimate source for understanding the modern "False Memory" stuff which I will get to right 
now. 

There has been only one completely litigated case involving false memory. Can you implant false memories? Of course. We 
knew that 100 years ago. We have come a long way since then as you can see in this talk. This is Eileen Franklin and her 
daughter - this case is the only criminal case that has gone to trial in which repressed memory played a major role. She 
claimed that her father killed her friend, Susan Nasen. The story that Eileen Franklin tells us, that she was looking into her 
daughter's eyes one day and suddenly the image of watching her father kill her friend Susan (when Susan was 8 years old 
twenty years earlier) came into her mind, and then the memories started to flood back about that experience. {This is her father 
when he was arrested. Take a good look at him. Here is at trial on the right. } You learn a lesson about lawyering. That's his 
lawyer on the left. You clean up the client. You don't bring him into court looking like that ... you bring him in looking like 
that - on the right. You can introduce pictures but it is not as powerful as the present appearance. 

The Franklin case is a very troubling one, and we have to be very honest about that because we are first and foremost 
scientists, and unlike the False Memory, do not need to have a political agenda here. Eileen Franklin is a liar. She told four 
different stories about the genesis of her memory one of which was that she was hypnotized in therapy. If that story were true, 
she would have been disqualified as a witness in California courts. When she learned that, or we hypothesize that when she 
learned that, she went back to her brother and said I told you I had been hypnotized. Forget that. That's tampering with 
evidence. She told actually four different stories about how she recovered her memories, and that's grounds to disbelieve her 
because there is clear evidence of lying in the way she presented herself. On the other hand the fact that she is a liar does not 
mean that the story she told is false. The False Memory make that assumption but that's bad logic. They may be right that she's 
a liar and her story is false, but you cannot make that jump as a logical matter. On the other hand her father is ... my first real 
knowledge of the case came from a cab ride with Beth Loftus on my left and David Spiegel on my right in Chicago when Beth 
and I were both plenary speakers at the ISSMPD in Chicago a few years back. Both of them had just come from testifying in 
the case, both of them testified against Eileen Franklin and each of them in the cab in my presence concluded that if her story 
were true, and it might be true, it would have been true of this man. This man physically abused his son and sexually molested 
his daughters. 

He had a violent past. It is well documented. When he was arrested he had a large collection of child pornography. He had an 
active correspondence to have sexual relations with their seven and eight year old daughters. He had pictures of those 
activities involving him. 

Her memories may be true, and they may not be true. He is the kind of person it would be true of. It was independent 
physical corroboration of his pedophilia, of his violence, and the fact that this is the kind of man who would have committed 
that sadistic molesting and murder. It is the up to the jury then to decide if that evidence is enough. But her repressed memory 
was not the only basis of the testimony. The defense argued that everything she remembered was available in a newspaper 
somewhere. She had no independent memory of anything apart from what was in a newspaper somewhere and that point was 
made to the jury. The jury convicted, and Franklin, the father, is now in jail for life. The California courts have rejected his 
appeal and his lawyers have filed a motion in federal district court. They have imported Richard Ofshe, a specialist in social 
influence to work over the mother who testified against her husband in the trial and she has now changed her mind. Of course, 
this is not an unusual phenomenon. Now that he is in jail and she can have recriminations she might have changed her mind 
anyway, but the introduction of a social influence specialist with a political agenda to spend a lot of time with her to reach the 
certain conclusion, seems to me if there is a new trial is a point that will be raised at that new trial. 



78 



What I found very interesting is I interviewed the prosecutor, his lawyer, and his appellate lawyer and in their brief on appeal, 
the appellate lawyers wrote that ... no responsible person would believe that the concept of robust repression was false ... in 
other words the Ofshe/ Singer hypothesis that you cannot forget traumatic events over a sustained period of time and that it is 
the "scientific quackery of the twentieth century" is, in the opinion of these lawyers, irresponsible thinking, and I agree. The 
evidence shows that the Ofshe/Singer hypothesis is wrong. The evidence comes from biological studies of memory and how 
the brain processes traumatic memories differently than ordinary memories and it also explains how Loftus' research on 
normal memory is irrelevant to the issue of traumatic memory, a point which she is now reluctantly starting to recognize. 

Is Eileen Franklin on trial? Is Freud dead? If you knock out the notion of robust repression as the False Memory people have 
been trying to do, you have a very simplistic idea. If a person can be repeatedly traumatized as a child, have no adult 
recollection of that trauma, go into therapy and then have a recollection, then the therapist must have implanted it if robust 
repression is not real ... So the existence of robust repression as the underpinning of the scientific foundation for the False 
Memory argument is quite crucial, but that argument is now shown to be scientifically invalid which doesn't mean that the 
False Memory position is wrong. They are right about what therapists should be doing and shouldn't be doing - on the issues 
of social influence procedures - but they are wrong about the robust repression. That means that somebody can go to a 
therapist and have that memory refreshed and that memory can be true 

And then memory can be true. Which makes it a harder case, the world is no longer black and white. You cannot use the 
iatrogenic cause argument in every case of robust repression. The Father Porter cases are an illustration of robust repression, 
memories that were recovered without hypnotic intervention and in the absence of a therapeutic encounter. You may know the 
Father Porter story. My time is short, so I can't go through it with you now. In any event he recovered the memories of having 
been molested. He was able to validate those memories as to himself and Father Porter is now in jail having confessed to 
having molested between 50 and 100 young boys and girls. In the search for the unravelling of the human mind, mind control 
is real. It has a rich history. I have only given you a fraction of the history. We haven't touched on the physiological or 
pharmacological aspects. We haven't talked about behavior modification and conditioning techniques, and so forth, we have 
just concentrated on the issues that are closer to the work that you will be doing. We haven't talked about social influence 
theories in general, but the existence of mind control its work in secret laboratories, its work in CIA and Army experiments, its 
spilling over into religious cult settings, and its use in freestanding populations are all validated and that ought to give mind 
control the kind of respectability it deserves, and give you the background to believe the kinds of stories that your patients are 
telling you as at least possible. Thank you. 

You have been listening to a lecture by Dr. Alan Scheflin, "The History of Mind Control: What we can prove, and what we 
can't". CKLN 88.1 on this series on Mind Control. Next week we are going to be featuring an interview with Claudia Mullen, 
Valerie Wolf and Chris Ebner the day that they had given the mind control testimony to the President's Advisory Committee 
on Human Radiation Experiments in March 1995. If you have missed any of the shows, stay tuned for this message and find 
out how you can remedy that. CKLN is rebroadcasting a ground-breaking radio series, Mind Control in Canada, currently 
airing on the Sunday morning show, The International Connection. Starting June 2nd on alternative radio, Monday nights 
from 10pm to 11pm, the eight month radio series, Mind Control in Canada, will be aired. This series looks into the Canadian 
and U.S. government history of mind control experimentation, and particularly the experiments done to children in creating 
programmed multiple personalities by means of severe trauma and abuse. If allegations of the survivors are true, and what 
government documentation would point to, the leaders, intelligence agencies and militaries of North America have been using 
mind control for political, military and criminal purposes for decades. To hear interviews and lectures with survivors, 
researchers and therapists on this important topic, tune into CKLN 88.1 FM Monday evenings 1 0pm to 1 1pm for re-broadcasts 
or Sunday mornings, 9.30am to 10.30am for the breaking story on mind control. 



79 



Mk-Ultra & Intelligent Interrogation® 



1950 - Project Bluebird 

1952 - Project Moonstruck CL4-HF/ ELF transceiver implants-ESB / electronic stimulation of brain 

1953 - Project MK-Ultra CIA-149 sub-projects - 

1958 - Project Orion USAF - ELF 'Modulation " : Dreamland" vhf/hf/uhj 'modulated at ELF- Electronic Dissolution of Memory 

1960 - Project MK-Delta CIA - vhf / hf / uhf modulated at ELF "Deep Sleep" Fine tuned subliminal programming 

1983- Project PHOENIX II USAF- NSA / Radar, Microwaves, EHF UHF modulated - " ZAP- Rainbow" 

1989- Trident ONR- NSA / UHF - 100,000 watts Black Triad - AEMC-Large group mgmnt/ behavior-riot control 

1990- RF MEDIA - CIA- ULF VHF HF Phase Modulation " Bu ZZ Saw " EEMC 

1990 - TOWER CIA- NSA - Microwave EHF SHF Programming through neural resonance and encoded information 

1995 - HAARP CIA NSA ONR Atmospheric phase-locked resonant UHF VHF 

1997 - PROJECT CLEAN SWEEP - CIA NSA ONR -Emotional wavelengths-broadcast through G WEN Networks 



Forget the fact that nowadays most interrogations are done by civilian professionals on payroll to private companies... That today 
we live in a different world than before. What's next? Well, let's take a look first at where we've been recently. In the mid-1970s, 
congressional committees investigating MKULTRA discovered that the CIA had become involved with a startling array of 
brainwashing experiments. The methods studied under MKULTRA included electroshock, subliminal communication, sensor)' 
deprivation and stimulation, the use of drugs (from "truth serum" to hard narcotics to LSD), and yes, even hypnosis. Many of 
these experiments were conducted on unwitting human subjects, and several MKULTRA projects are listed among the most 
appalling CIA abuses on record. Hypnosis, in fact, had attracted the interest of military and intelligence agencies years before 
MKULTRA. In The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate, " a thorough history of the CIA's mind control work, author John Marks 
devoted an entire chapter to the study and use hypnosis. "No mind-control technique has more captured popular imagination — 
and kindled fears — than hypnosis," Marks noted. For the CIA officials tasked with turning mental abilities (and vulnerabilities) into 
Cold War weapons, "hypnosis offered too much promise not to be pursued." 

The CIA's first major involvement with hypnosis originated in the Office of Security, which in 1950 formed special interrogation 
squads — each of which was staffed with an expert hypnotist — for the purpose of evaluating potential foreign agents and defectors 
from enemy countries. Code-named BLUEBIRD, the program was put under the command of Morse Allen, a former officer of 
both Naval Intelligence and the State Department, who developed an avid interest in hypnosis when he joined the CIA's Office of 
Security. (Shortly thereafter, BLUEBIRD took on the new code -name ARTICHOKE, the project that directly preceded 
MKULTRA.) 

According to Marks, not only did Allen consult with and employ some of the top academic experts on hypnosis, he also conducted 
his own experiments: 

"He asked young CIA secretaries to stay after work and ran them through the hypnotic paces — proving to 
his own satisfaction that he could make them do whatever he wanted. He had secretaries steal SECRET files 
and pass them on to total strangers, thus violating the most basic CIA security rules. He got them to steal 
from each other and start fires. He made one of them report to the bedroom of a strange man and then go 
into a deep sleep." 



Allen recorded the observation that "this activity clearly indicates that individuals under hypnosis might be compromised and 
blackmailed." Those were helpful abilities for a spy agency, to be sure, but Allen later envisioned a more extreme use of hypnosis. 
In 1954 he hypnotized another secretary, and convinced her while in the trance to pick up and shoot an (unloaded) gun at another 
secretary. 

The implications were serious: agents could conceivably be induced to assassinate a target without knowing what they were doing. 
However, Allen had learned enough about hypnosis to be skeptical that such an operation could actually be pulled off. No one 
could be sure that such experimental successes could be carried over into the operational realm. Hypnosis was surely attractive, but 
it was also unreliable; there were simply too many variables in how subjects might act under hypnosis or under the power of post- 
hypnotic suggestion. 



One CIA psychologist who was heavily involved in later hypnosis research, John Gittinger, saw promise but pratfalls with the 
technique. "Predictable absolute control is not possible on a particular individual," he concluded, and absolute control, after all, 
was the objective. The pre-programmed assassin remained an elusive goal. 



80 



Still, the CIA would do everything in its power to identify intelligence uses of hypnosis. In 1977, the agency informed Congress 
that of the 149 subprojects that were launched under MKULTRA, eight dealt with hypnosis — including two that studied "hypnosis 
and drugs in combination." Hypnosis research was conducted by several world renowned scientists, whose funding would later be 
traced to the CIA. At major universities and top research institutes, as well as military bases and prisons, subjects were put into 
trance in experiments that were intended first and foremost to advance the CIA's ability to operationalize hypnosis. In 1960, the 
CIA's counterintelligence (CI) staff became involved in the effort. Intent on discovering and improving on the Soviet Union's 
mind games, the CI officers saw hypnosis as a "potential breakthrough in clandestine technology," as it was described in one CIA 
document. 

For the CI staff, interest in hypnotism went beyond the theoretical into the operational. In July 1963, the CIA issued a 128-page 
"Counterintelligence Interrogation" manual, a document that was not made public until 1997. Among the tactics described for 
"coercive" interrogation of "resistant sources" was hypnosis. (ParaScope has made available both an online and a print version of 
this startling document.) 

"The problem of overcoming the resistance of an uncooperative interrogatee is essentially a problem of inducing regression to a 
level at which the resistance can no longer be sustained," the manual said. "Hypnosis is one way of regressing people." 

The manual cited the work of Martin Orne, a famous psychologist who received several CIA subsidies under MKULTRA for his 
research on hypnosis and interrogation. Like other experts, Orne concluded that hypnosis would probably be of marginal use for 
this purpose. To the CI staff, Orne's generally skeptical view of the technique was "somewhat too cautious or pessimistic." 

The manual suggested, for example, that a CIA interrogator "could tell a suspect double agent in trance that the KGB is 
conducting the questioning, and thus invert the whole frame of reference" for the interrogatee. "[Ojnce the subject is tricked into 
believing that he is talking to friend rather than foe, or that divulging the truth is the best way to suit his own purposes, his 
resistance will be replaced with cooperation. The value of hypnotic trance is not that it permits the interrogator to impose his will 
but rather that it can be used to convince the interrogatee that there is not valid reason not to be forthcoming." 

The manual added that hypnosis "offers one advantage not inherent in other interrogation techniques or aides: the post-hypnotic 
suggestion." In certain cases, the manual instructed: 

"[I]t should be possible to administer a silent drug to a resistant source, persuade him as the drug takes effect 
that he is slipping into a hypnotic trance, place him under actual hypnosis as consciousness is returning, shift 
his frame of reference so that his reasons for resistance become reasons for cooperation, interrogate him, 
and conclude the session by implanting the suggestion that when he emerges from trance he will not 
remember anything about what has happened." 

Although the CIA's hypnosis work had advanced considerably by the early 1960s, you wouldn't know it from reading Deshere's 
report for Studies in Intelligence. At the same time, Deshere does have plenty to say about potential roles for hypnosis in the spy 
trade, exploring several crucial questions about the utility of the technique. Can interrogatees under trance be made to tell the truth 
and nothing but the truth? Can they be hypnotized without their quiescence or their knowledge? Can they, though post-hypnotic 
suggestion, be turned into virtual spy-robots to do the CIA's bidding? Can amnesia be induced by the hypno-handlers to erase 
memories of spy missions? 

After conducting a lengthy analysis, Deshere concluded that there was probably some use for hypnosis in interrogations, of a very 
limited nature. He wrote that "the hypnotic sil/int'/oii, rather than hypnosis itself, could be used to relieve a person of any sense of 
guilt for his behavior, giving him the notion that he is helpless to prevent his manipulation by the interrogator." Deshere described 
how such an operation could work: 

"A captive's anxiety could be heightened, for example, by rumors that the interrogator possesses semi-magical techniques of 
extracting information. A group of collaborating captives could verify that interrogees lose all control over their actions, and so on. 
After such preliminary conditioning, a 'trance' could be induced with drugs in a setting described by Orne [the MKULTRA 
researcher discussed above] as the 'magic room,' where a number of devices could be used to convince the subject that he is 
responding to suggestions." 

Once the interrogatee was persuaded that he was under the control of his handlers, Deshere reasoned, "the individual could 
legitimately renounce responsibility for divulging information, much as if he had done it in delirium." 

Deshere's elaborate plan was pretty dry stuff, when compared to some of the more grandiose CIA hypnosis schemes hatched 
during the early years of the Cold War. Just how far did the CIA take its investigation of the uses of hypnosis? We may never know 
all of the answers, but this once-secret report offers more clues as to why the trance technique was added to the CIA's arsenal of 
mind-control weapons. Today people are encouraged to vote and empower themselves in electing an official to office. They should 
feel proud of themselves for doing that and should feel happy to have the freedom to do that. Electing puppets to read from 
teleprompters and to "Stand for something". It all makes sense. You may even question things a little differently now, who knows. 



81 



KUBARK 

COUNTERINTELLIGENCE 
INTERROGATION 

July 1963 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 



I. INTRODUCTION 1-3 

A. Explanation of Purpose 1 -2 

B. Explanation of Organization 3 

II. DEFINITIONS 4-5 

IE. LEGAL AND POLICY CONSIDERATIONS 6-9 

IV. THE INTERROGATOR 10-14 

V. THE INTERROGATEE 15-29 

A. Types of Sources: Intelligence Categories 15-19 

B. Types of Sources: Personality Categories 19-28 

C. Other Clues 28-29 

VI. SCREENING AND OTHER PRELIMINARIES 30-37 

VII. A. Screening 30-33 

B. Other Preliminary Procedures 33-37 

C. Summary 37 



VII PLANNING THE COUNTERINTELLIGENCE INTERROGATION 38-51 

A. The Nature of Counterintelligence Interrogation 38-42 

B. The Interrogation Plan 42-44 

C. The Specifics 44-51 



VIII. THE NON-COERCIVE COUNTERINTELLIGENCE INTERROGATION 52-81 

A. General Remarks 52-53 

B. The Structure of the Interrogation 53-65 

1. The Opening 53-59 

2. The Reconnaissance 59-60 

3. The Detailed Questioning 60-64 

4. The Conclusion 64-65 

C. Techniques of Non-Coercive Interrogation of Resistant Sources 65-81 



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IX. THE COERCIVE COUNTERINTELLIGENCE 
INTERROGATION OF RESISTANT SOURCES 82-104 



A. Restrictions 82 

B. The Theory of Coercion 82-85 

C. Arrest 85-86 

D. Detention 86-87 

E. Deprivation of Sensory Stimuli 87-90 

F. Threats and Fear 90-92 

G. Debility 92-93 

H. Pain 93-95 

I. Heightened Suggestibility and Hypnosis 95-98 
J. Narcosis 98-100 

K. The Detection of Malingering 101-102 
L. Conclusion 103-104 

X. INTERROGATOR'S CHECK LIST 105-109 
XL DESCRIPTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY 110-122 
XII. INDEX 123-128 



VIII. The Non-Coercive Counterintelligence Interrogation 
A. General Remarks 

The term non-coercive is used above to denote methods of interrogation that are not based upon the coercion of an unwilling 
subject through the employment of superior force originating outside himself. However, the non-coercive interrogation is not 
conducted without pressure. On the contrary, the goal is to generate maximum pressure, or at least as much as is needed to 
induce compliance. The difference is that the pressure is generated inside the interrogatee. His resistance is sapped, his urge to 
yield is fortified, until in the end he defeats himself. 

Manipulating the subject psychologically until he becomes compliant, without applying external methods of forcing him to 
submit, sounds harder than it is. The initial advantage lies with the interrogator. From the outset, he knows a great deal more 
about the source than the source knows about him. And he can create and amplify an effect of omniscience in a number of 
ways. For example, he can show the interrogatee a thick file bearing his own name. Even if the file contains little or nothing 
but blank paper, the air of familiarity with which the interrogator refers to the subject's background can convince some sources 
that all is known and that resistance is futile. 

If the interrogatee is under detention, the interrogator can also manipulate his environment. Merely by cutting off all other 
human contacts, "the interrogator monopolizes the social environment of the source."(3) He exercises the powers of an all- 
powerful parent, determining when the source will be sent to bed, when and what he will eat, whether he will be rewarded for 
good behavior or punished for being bad. The interrogator can and does make the subject's world not only unlike the world to 
which he had been accustomed but also strange in itself - a world in which familiar patterns of time, space, and sensory 
perception are overthrown. He can shift the environment abruptly. For example, a source who refuses to talk at all can be 
placed in unpleasant solitary confinement for a time. Then a friendly soul treats him to an unexpected walk in the woods. 
Experiencing relief and exhilaration, the subject will usually find it impossible not to respond to innocuous comments on the 
weather and the flowers. These are expanded to include reminiscences, and soon a precedent of verbal exchange has been 
established. Both the Germans and the Chinese have used this trick effectively. 

The interrogator also chooses the emotional key or keys in which the interrogation or any part of it will be played. 
Because of these and other advantages, " [approx. 6 lines deleted] ."(3) 



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B. The Structure of the Interrogation 

A counterintelligence interrogation consists of four parts: the opening, the reconnaissance, the detailed questioning and the 
conclusion. 



1. The Opening 

Most resistant interrogatees block off access to significant counterintelligence in their possession for one or more of four 
reasons. The first is a specific negative reaction to the interrogator. Poor initial handling or a fundamental antipathy can make 
a source uncooperative even if he has nothing significant or damaging to conceal. The second cause is that some sources are 
resistant "by nature" - i.e. by early conditioning - to any compliance with authority. The third is that the subject believes that 
the information sought will be damaging or incriminating for him personally that cooperation with the interrogator will have 
consequences more painful for him than the results of non-cooperation. The fourth is ideological resistance. The source has 
identified himself with a cause, a political movement or organization, or an opposition intelligence service. Regardless of his 
attitude toward the interrogator, his own personality, and his fears for the future, the person who is deeply devoted to a hostile 
cause will ordinarily prove strongly resistant under interrogation. 

A principal goal during the opening phase is to confirm the personality assessment obtained through screening and to allow 
the interrogator to gain a deeper understanding of the source as an individual. Unless time is crucial, the interrogator should 
not become impatient if the interrogatee wanders from the purposes of the interrogation and reverts to personal concerns. 
Significant facts not produced during screening may be revealed. The screening report itself is brought to life, the type 
becomes an individual, as the subject talks. And sometimes seemingly rambling monologues about personal matters are 
preludes to significant admissions. Some people cannot bring themselves to provide information that puts them in an 
unfavorable light until, through a lengthy prefatory rationalization, they feel that they have set the stage that the interrogator 
will now understand why they acted as they did. If face-saving is necessary to the interrogatee it will be a waste of time to try 
to force him to cut the preliminaries short and get down to cases. In his view, he is dealing with the important topic, the why . 
He will be offended and may become wholly uncooperative if faced with insistent demands for the naked what . 

There is another advantage in letting the subject talk freely and even ramblingly in the first stage of interrogation. The 
interrogator is free to observe. Human beings communicate a great deal by non-verbal means. Skilled interrogators, for 
example, listen closely to voices and learn a great deal from them. An interrogation is not merely a verbal performance; it is a 
vocal performance, and the voice projects tension, fear, a dislike of certain topics, and other useful pieces of information. It is 
also helpful to watch the subject's mouth, which is as a rule much more revealing than his eyes. Gestures and postures also tell 
a story. If a subject normally gesticulates broadly at times and is at other times physically relaxed but at some point sits stiffly 
motionless, his posture is likely to be the physical image of his mental tension. The interrogator should make a mental note of 
the topic that caused such a reaction. 

One textbook on interrogation lists the following physical indicators of emotions and recommends that interrogators note 
them, not as conclusive proofs but as assessment aids: 

(1) A ruddy or flushed face is an indication of anger or embarrassment but not necessarily of guilt. 

(2) A "cold sweat" is a strong sign of fear and shock. 

(3) A pale face indicates fear and usually shows that the interrogator is hitting close to the mark. 

(4) A dry mouth denotes nervousness. 

(5) Nervous tension is also shown by wringing a handkerchief or clenching the hands tightly. 

(6) Emotional strain or tension may cause a pumping of the heart which becomes visible in the pulse and throat. 

(7) A slight gasp, holding the breath, or an unsteady voice may betray the subject. 

(8) Fidgeting may take many forms, all of which are good indications of nervousness. 

(9) A man under emotional strain or nervous tension will involuntarily draw his elbows to his sides. It is a protective defense mechanism. 

(10) The movement of the foot when one leg is crossed over the knee of the other can serve as an indicator. The circulation of the blood to the lower leg 
is partially cut off, thereby causing a slight lift or movement of the free foot with each heart beat. This becomes more pronounced and observable as the 
pulse rate increases. 



84 



Pauses are also significant. Whenever a person is talking about a subject of consequence to himself, he goes through a process 
of advance self-monitoring, performed at lightning speed. This self-monitoring is more intense if the person is talking to a 
stranger and especially intense if he is answering the stranger's questions. Its purpose is to keep from the questioner any guilty 
information or information that would be damaging to the speaker's self-esteem. Where questions or answers get close to 
sensitive areas, the pre-scanning is likely to create mental blocks. These in turn produce unnatural pauses, meaningless sounds 
designed to give the speaker more time, or other interruptions. It is not easy to distinguish between innocent blocks — things 
held back for reasons of personal prestige — and guilty blocks — things the interrogator needs to know. But the successful 
establishment of rapport will tend to eliminate innocent blocks, or at least to keep them to a minimum. 

The establishment of rapport is the second principal purpose of the opening phase of the interrogation. Sometimes the 
interrogator knows in advance, as a result of screening, that the subject will be uncooperative. At other times the probability of 
resistance is established without screening: detected hostile agents, for example, usually have not only the will to resist but 
also the means, through a cover story or other explanation. But the anticipation of withholding increases rather than 
diminishes, the value of rapport. In other words, a lack of rapport may cause an interrogatee to withhold information that he 
would otherwise provide freely, whereas the existence of rapport may induce an interrogatee who is initially determined to 
withhold to change his attitude. Therefore the interrogator must not become hostile if confronted with initial hostility, or in 
any other way confirm such negative attitudes as he may encounter at the outset. During this first phase his attitude should 
remain business-like but also quietly (not ostentatiously) friendly and welcoming. Such opening remarks by subjects as, "I 
know what you so-and-so's are after, and I can tell you right now that you're not going to get it from me" are best handled by 
an unperturbed "Why don't you tell me what has made you angry?" At this stage the interrogator should avoid being drawn 
into conflict, no matter how provocatory may be the attitude or language of the interrogatee. If he meets truculence with 
neither insincere protestations that he is the subject's "pal" nor an equal anger but rather a calm interest in what has aroused the 
subject, the interrogator has gained two advantages right at the start. He has established the superiority that he will need later, 
as the questioning develops, and he has increased the chances of establishing rapport. 

How long the opening phase continues depends upon how long it takes to establish rapport or to determine that voluntary 
cooperation is unobtainable. It may be literally a matter of seconds, or it may be a drawn-out, up-hill battle. Even though the 
cost in time and patience is sometimes high, the effort to make the subject feel that his questioner is a sympathetic figure 
should not be abandoned until all reasonable resources have been exhausted (unless, of course, the interrogation does not merit 
much time). Otherwise, the chances are that the interrogation will not produce optimum results. In fact, it is likely to be a 
failure, and the interrogator should not be dissuaded from the effort to establish rapport by an inward conviction that no man in 
his right mind would incriminate himself by providing the kind of information that is sought. The history of interrogation is 
full of confessions and other self-incriminations that were in essence the result of a substitution of the interrogation world for 
the world outside. In other words, as the sights and sounds of an outside world fade away, its significance for the interrogatee 
tends to do likewise. That world is replaced by the interrogation room, its two occupants, and the dynamic relationship 
between them. As interrogation goes on, the subject tends increasingly to divulge or withhold in accordance with the values of 
the interrogation world rather than those of the outside world (unless the periods of questioning are only brief interruptions in 
his normal life). In this small world of two inhabitants a clash of personalities — as distinct from a conflict of purposes — 
assumes exaggerated force, like a tornado in a wind-tunnel. The self-esteem of the interrogatee and of the interrogator 
becomes involved, and the interrogatee fights to keep his secrets from his opponent for subjective reasons, because he is 
grimly determined not to be the loser, the inferior. If on the other hand the interrogator establishes rapport, the subject may 
withhold because of other reasons, but his resistance often lacks the bitter, last-ditch intensity that results if the contest 
becomes personalized. 

The interrogator who senses or determines in the opening phase that what he is hearing is a legend should resist the first, 
natural impulse to demonstrate its falsity. In some interrogatees the ego-demands, the need to save face, are so intertwined 
with preservation of the cover story that calling the man a liar will merely intensify resistance. It is better to leave an avenue of 
escape, a loophole which permits the source to correct his story without looking foolish. 

If it is decided, much later in the interrogation, to confront the interrogatee with proof of lying, the following related advice 
about legal cross-examination may prove helpful. 

"Much depends upon the sequence in which one conducts the cross-examination of a dishonest witness. You should never 
hazard the important question until you have laid the foundation for it in such a way that, when confronted with the fact, the 
witness can neither deny nor explain it. One often sees the most damaging documentary evidence, in the forms of letters or 
affidavits, fall absolutely flat as betrayers of falsehood, merely because of the unskillful way in which they are handled. If you 
have in your possession a letter written by the witness, in which he takes an opposite position on some part of the case to the 
one he has just sworn to, avoid the common error of showing the witness the letter for identification, and then reading it to him 
with the inquiry, 'What have you to say to that? 1 During the reading of his letter the witness will be collecting his thoughts and 
getting ready his explanations in anticipation of the question that is to follow, and the effect of the damaging letter will be 
lost.... The correct method of using such a letter is to lead the witness quietly into repeating the statements he has made in his 
direct testimony, and which his letter contradicts. Then read it off to him. The witness has no explanation. He has stated the 
fact, there is nothing to qualify." 



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2. The Reconnaissance 



If the interrogatee is cooperative at the outset or if rapport is established during the opening phase and the source becomes 
cooperative, the reconnaissance stage is needless; the interrogator proceeds directly to detailed questioning. But if the 
interrogatee is withholding, a period of exploration is necessary. Assumptions have normally been made already as to what he 
is withholding: that he is a fabricator, or an RIS agent, or something else he deems it important to conceal. Or the assumption 
may be that he had knowledge of such activities carried out by someone else. At any rate, the purpose of the reconnaissance is 
to provide a quick testing of the assumption and, more importantly, to probe the causes, extent, and intensity of resistance. 

During the opening phase the interrogator will have charted the probable areas of resistance by noting those topics which 
caused emotional or physical reactions, speech blocks, or other indicators. He now begins to probe these areas. Every 
experienced interrogator has noted that if an interrogatee is withholding, his anxiety increases as the questioning nears the 
mark. The safer the topic, the more voluble the source. But as the questions make him increasingly uncomfortable, the 
interrogatee becomes less communicative or perhaps even hostile. During the opening phase the interrogator has gone along 
with this protective mechanism. Now, however, he keeps coming back to each area of sensitivity until he has determined the 
location of each and the intensity of the defenses. If resistance is slight, mere persistence may overcome it; and detailed 
questioning may follow immediately. But if resistance is strong, a new topic should be introduced, and detailed questioning 
reserved for the third stage. 

Two dangers are especially likely to appear during the reconnaissance. Up to this point the interrogator has not continued a 
line of questioning when resistance was encountered. Now, however, he does so, and rapport may be strained. Some 
interrogatees will take this change personally and tend to personalize the conflict. The interrogator should resist this tendency. 
If he succumbs to it, and becomes engaged in a battle of wits, he may not be able to accomplish the task at hand. The second 
temptation to avoid is the natural inclination to resort prematurely to ruses or coercive techniques in order to settle the matter 
then and there. The basic purpose of the reconnaissance is to determine the kind and degree of pressure that will be needed in 
the third stage. The interrogator should reserve his fire -power until he knows what he is up against. 



3. The Detailed Questioning 

a. If rapport is established and if the interrogatee has nothing significant to hide, detailed questioning presents only routine 
problems. The major routine considerations are the following: 

The interrogator must know exactly what he wants to know. He should have on paper or firmly in mind all the questions to 
which he seeks answers. It usually happens that the source has a relatively large body of information that has little or no 
intelligence value and only a small collection of nuggets. He will naturally tend to talk about what he knows best. The 
interrogator should not show quick impatience, but neither should he allow the results to get out of focus. The determinant 
remains what we need, not what the interrogatee can most readily provide. 

At the same time it is necessary to make every effort to keep the subject from learning through the interrogation process 
precisely where our informational gaps lie. This principle is especially important if the interrogatee is following his normal 
life, going home each evening and appearing only once or twice a week for questioning, or if his bona fides remains in doubt. 
Under almost all circumstances, however, a clear revelation of our interests and knowledge should be avoided. It is usually a 
poor practice to hand to even the most cooperative interrogatee an orderly list of questions and ask him to write the answers. 
(This stricture does not apply to the writing of autobiographies or on informational matters not a subject of controversy with 
the source.) Some time is normally spent on matters of little or no intelligence interest for purposes of concealment. The 
interrogator can abet the process by making occasional notes — or pretending to do so — on items that seem important to the 
interrogatee but are not of intelligence value. From this point of view an interrogation can be deemed successful if a source 
who is actually a hostile agent can report to the opposition only the general fields of our interest but cannot pinpoint specifics 
without including misleading information. 

It is sound practice to write up each interrogation report on the day of questioning or, at least, before the next session, so that 
defects can be promptly remedied and gaps or contradictions noted in time. 

It is also a good expedient to have the interrogatee make notes of topics that should be covered, which occur to him while 
discussing the immediate matters at issue. The act of recording the stray item or thought on paper fixes it in the interrogatee's 
mind. Usually topics popping up in the course of an interrogation are forgotten if not noted; they tend to disrupt the 
interrogation plan if covered by way of digression on the spot. 

Debriefing questions should usually be couched to provoke a positive answer and should be specific. The questioner should 
not accept a blanket negative without probing. For example, the question "Do you know anything about Plant X?" is likelier to 
draw a negative answer then "Do you have any friends who work at Plant X?" or "Can you describe its exterior?" 



86 



It is important to determine whether the subject's knowledge of any topic was acquired at first hand, learned indirectly, or 
represents merely an assumption. If the information was obtained indirectly, the identities of sub-sources and related 
information about the channel are needed. If statements rest on assumptions, the facts upon which the conclusions are based 
are necessary to evaluation. 

As detailed questioning proceeds, addition biographic data will be revealed. Such items should be entered into the record, but 
it is normally preferable not to diverge from an impersonal topic in order to follow a biographic lead. Such leads can be taken 
up later unless they raise new doubts about bona fides . 

As detailed interrogation continues, and especially at the half-way mark, the interrogator's desire to complete the task may 
cause him to be increasingly business-like or even brusque. He may tend to curtail or drop the usual inquiries about the 
subject's well-being with which he opened earlier sessions. He may feel like dealing more and more abruptly with 
reminiscences or digressions. His interest has shifted from the interrogatee himself, who jut a while ago was an interesting 
person, to the atsk of getting at what he knows. But if rapport has been established, the interrogatee will be quick to sense and 
resent this change of attitude. This point is particularly important if the interrogatee is a defector faced with bewildering 
changes and in a highly emotional state. Any interrogatee has his ups and downs, times when he is tired or half-ill, times when 
his personal problems have left his nerves frayed. The peculiar intimacy of the interrogation situation and the very fact that the 
interrogator has deliberately fostered rapport will often lead the subject to talk about his doubts, fears, and other personal 
reactions. The interrogator should neither cut off this flow abruptly nor show impatience unless it takes up an inordinate 
amount of time or unless it seems likely that all the talking about personal matters is being used deliberately as a smoke screen 
to keep the interrogator from doing his job. If the interrogatee is believed cooperative, then from the beginning to the end of 
the process he should feel that the interrogator's interest in him has remained constant. Unless the interrogation is soon over, 
the interrogatee's attitude toward his questioner is not likely to remain constant. He will feel more and more drawn to the 
questioner or increasingly antagonistic. As a rule, the best way for the interrogator to keep the relationship on an even keel is 
to maintain the same quiet, relaxed, and open-minded attitude from start to finish. 

Detailed interrogation ends only when (1) all useful counterintelligence information has been obtained; (2) diminishing returns 
and more pressing commitments compel a cessation; or (3) the base, station, [one or two words deleted] admits full or partial 
defeat. Termination for any reason other than the first is only temporary. It is a profound mistake to write off a successfully 
resistant interrogatee or one whose questioning was ended before his potential was exhausted. KUBARK must keep track of 
such persons, because people and circumstances change. Until the source dies or tells us everything that he knows that is 
pertinent to our purposes, his interrogation may be interrupted, perhaps for years - but it has not been completed. 



4. The Conclusion 

The end of an interrogation is not the end of the interrogator's responsibilities. From the beginning of planning to the end of 
questioning it has been necessary to understand and guard against the various troubles that a vengeful ex-source can cause. As 
was pointed out earlier, KUBARK's lack of executive authority abroad and its operational need for facelessness make it 
peculiarly vulnerable to attack in the courts or the press. The best defense against such attacks is prevention, through 
enlistment or enforcement of compliance. However real cooperation is achieved, its existence seems to act as a deterrent to 
later hostility. The initially resistant subject may become cooperative because of a partial identification with the interrogator 
and his interests, or the source may make such an identification because of his cooperation. In either event, he is unlikely to 
cause serious trouble in the future. Real difficulties are more frequently created by interrogatees who have succeeded in 
withholding. 

The following steps are normally a routine part of the conclusion: 
a. [approx. 10 lines deleted] 

d. [approx. 7 lines deleted] 

e. [approx. 7 lines deleted] 

f. [approx. 4 lines deleted] 



87 



C. Techniques of Non-Coercive Interrogation of Resistant Sources 

If source resistance is encountered during screening or during the opening or reconnaissance phases of the interrogation, non- 
coercive methods of sapping opposition and strengthening the tendency to yield and to cooperate may be applied. Although 
these methods appear here in an approximate order of increasing pressure, it should not be inferred that each is to be tried until 
the key fits the lock. On the contrary, a large part of the skill and the success of the experienced interrogator lies in his ability 
to match method to source. The use of unsuccessful techniques will of itself increase the interrogatee's will and ability to 
resist. 

This principle also affects the decision to employ coercive techniques and governs the choice of these methods. If in the 
opinion of the interrogator a totally resistant source has the skill and determination to withstand any con-coercive method or 
combination of methods, it is better to avoid them completely. 

The effectiveness of most of the non-coercive techniques depends upon their unsettling effect. The interrogation situation is in 
itself disturbing to most people encountering it for the first time. The aim is to enhance this effect, to disrupt radically the 
familiar emotional and psychological associations of the subject. When this aim is achieved, resistance is seriously impaired. 
There is an interval — which may be extremely brief — of suspended animation, a kind of psychological shock or paralysis. It 
is caused by a traumatic or sub-traumatic experience which explodes, as it were, the world that is familiar to the subject as 
well as his image of himself within that world. Experienced interrogators recognize this effect when it appears and know that 
at this moment the source is far more open to suggestion, far likelier to comply, than he was just before he experienced the 
shock. 

Another effect frequently produced by non-coercive (as well as coercive) methods is the evocation within the interrogatee of 
feelings of guilt. Most persons have areas of guilt in their emotional topographies, and an interrogator can often chart these 
areas just by noting refusals to follow certain lines of questioning. Whether the sense of guilt has real or imaginary causes does 
not affect the result of intensification of guilt feelings. Making a person feel more and more guilty normally increases both his 
anxiety and his urge to cooperate as a means of escape. 

In brief, the techniques that follow should match the personality of the individual interrogatee, and their effectiveness is 
intensified by good timing and rapid exploitation of the moment of shock. 

1 . Going Next Door 

Occasionally the information needed from a recalcitrant interrogatee is obtainable from a willing source. The interrogator 
should decide whether a confession is essential to his purpose or whether information which may be held by others as well as 
the unwilling source is really his goal. The labor of extracting the truth from unwilling interrogatees should be undertaken only 
if the same information is not more easily obtainable elsewhere or if operational considerations require self-incrimination. 

2. Nobody Loves You 

An interrogatee who is withholding items of no grave consequence to himself may sometimes be persuaded to talk by the 
simple tactic of pointing out that to date all of the information about his case has come from persons other than himself. The 
interrogator wants to be fair. He recognizes that some of the denouncers may have been biased or malicious. In any case, there 
is bound to be some slanting of the facts unless the interrogatee redresses the balance. The source owes it to himself to be sure 
that the interrogator hears both sides of the story. 

3. The All-Seeing Eye (or Confession is Good for the Soul) 

The interrogator who already knows part of the story explains to the source that the purpose of the questioning is not to gain 
information; the interrogator knows everything already. His real purpose is to test the sincerity (reliability, honor, etc.) of the 
source. The interrogator then asks a few questions to which he knows the answers. If the subject lies, he is informed firmly 
and dispassionately that he has lied. By skilled manipulation of the known, the questioner can convince a naive subject that all 
his secrets are out and that further resistance would be not only pointless but dangerous. If this technique does not work very 
quickly, it must be dropped before the interrogatee learns the true limits of the questioner's knowledge. 



88 



4. The Informer 



Detention makes a number of tricks possible. One of these, planting an informant as the source's cellmate, is so well-known, 
especially in Communist countries, that its usefulness is impaired if not destroyed. Less well known is the trick of planting 
two informants in the cell. One of them, A, tries now and then to pry a little information from the source; B remains quiet. At 
the proper time, and during A's absence, B warns the source not to tell A anything because B suspects him of being an 
informant planted by the authorities. 

Suspicion against a single cellmate may sometimes be broken down if he shows the source a hidden microphone that he has 
"found" and suggests that they talk only in whispers at the other end of the room. 

5. News from Home 

Allowing an interrogatee to receive carefully selected letters from home can contribute to effects desired by the interrogator. 
Allowing the source to write letters, especially if he can be led to believe that they will be smuggled out without the 
knowledge of the authorities, may produce information which is difficult to extract by direct questioning. 

6. The Witness 

If others have accused the interrogatee of spying for a hostile service or of other activity which he denies, there is a temptation 
to confront the recalcitrant source with his accuser or accusers. But a quick confrontation has two weaknesses: it is likely to 
intensify the stubbornness of denials, and it spoils the chance to use more subtle methods. 

One of these is to place the interrogatee in an outer office and escort past him, and into the inner office, an accuser whom he 
knows personally or, in fact, any person — even one who is friendly to the source and uncooperative with the interrogators — 
who is believed to know something about whatever the interrogatee is concealing. It is also essential that the interrogatee 
know or suspect that the witness may be in possession of the incriminating information. The witness is whisked past the 
interrogatee; the two are not allowed to speak to each other. A guard and a stenographer remain in the outer office with the 
interrogatee. After about an hour the interrogator who has been questioning the interrogatee in past sessions opens the door 
and asks the stenographer to come in, with steno pad and pencils. After a time she re-emerges and types material from her pad, 
making several carbons. She pauses, points at the interrogatee, and asks the guard how his name is spelled. She may also ask 
the interrogatee directly for the proper spelling of a street, a prison, the name of a Communist intelligence officer, or any other 
factor closely linked to the activity of which he is accused. She takes her completed work into the inner office, comes back 
out, and telephones a request that someone come up to act as legal witness. Another man appears and enters the inner office. 
The person cast in the informer's role may have been let out a back door at the beginning of these proceedings; or if 
cooperative, he may continue his role. In either event, a couple of interrogators, with or without the "informer", now emerge 
from the inner office. In contrast to their earlier demeanor, they are now relaxed and smiling. The interrogator in charge says 
to the guard, "O.K., Tom, take him back. We don't need him any more." Even if the interrogatee now insists on telling his side 
of the story, he is told to relax, because the interrogator will get around to him tomorrow or the next day. 

A session with the witness may be recorded. If the witness denounces the interrogatee there is no problem. If he does not, the 
interrogator makes an effort to draw him out about a hostile agent recently convicted in court or otherwise known to the 
witness. During the next interrogation session with the source, a part of the taped denunciation can be played back to him if 
necessary. Or the witnesses' remarks about the known spy, edited as necessary, can be so played back that the interrogatee is 
persuaded that he is the subject of the remarks. 

Cooperative witnesses may be coached to exaggerate so that if a recording is played for the interrogatee or a confrontation is 
arranged, the source — for example, a suspected courier — finds the witness overstating his importance. The witness claims 
that the interrogatee is only incidentally a courier, that actually he is the head of an RIS kidnapping gang. The interrogator 
pretends amazement and says into the recorder, "I thought he was only a courier; and if he had told us the truth, I planned to 
let him go. But this is much more serious. On the basis of charges like these I'll have to hand him over to the local police for 
trial." On hearing these remarks, the interrogatee may confess the truth about the lesser guilt in order to avoid heavier 
punishment. If he continues to withhold, the interrogator may take his side by stating, "You know, I'm not at all convinced that 
so-and-so told a straight story. I feel, personally, that he was exaggerating a great deal. Wasn't he? What's the true story?" 

7. Joint Suspects 

If two or more interrogation sources are suspected of joint complicity in acts directed against U.S. security, they should be 
separated immediately. If time permits, it may be a good idea (depending upon the psychological assessment of both) to 
postpone interrogation for about a week. Any anxious inquiries from either can be met by a knowing grin and some such reply 
as, "We'll get to you in due time. There's no hurry now ." If documents, witnesses, or other sources yield information about 
interrogatee A, such remarks as "B says it was in Smolensk that you denounced so-and-so to the secret police. Is that right? 
Was it in 1937?" help to establish in A's mind the impression that B is talking. 



89 



If the interrogator is quite certain of the facts in the case but cannot secure an admission from either A or B, a written 
confession may be prepared and A's signature may be reproduced on it. (It is helpful if B can recognize A's signature, but not 
essential.) The confession contains the salient facts, but they are distorted; the confession shows that A is attempting to throw 
the entire responsibility upon B. Edited tape recordings which sound as though A had denounced B may also be used for the 
purpose, separately or in conjunction with the written "confession." If A is feeling a little ill or dispirited, he can also be led 
past a window or otherwise shown to B without creating a chance for conversation; B is likely to interpret A's hang-dog look 
as evidence of confession and denunciation. (It is important that in all such gambits, A be the weaker of the two, emotionally 
and psychologically.) B then reads (or hears) A's "confession." If B persists in withholding, the interrogator should dismiss 
him promptly, saying that A's signed confession is sufficient for the purpose and that it does not matter whether B corroborates 
it or not. At the following session with B, the interrogator selects some minor matter, not substantively damaging to B but 
nevertheless exaggerated, and says, "I'm not sure A was really fair to you here. Would you care to tell me your side of the 
story?" If B rises to this bait, the interrogator moves on to areas of greater significance. 

The outer-and-inner office routine may also be employed. A, the weaker, is brought into the inner office, and the door is left 
slightly ajar or the transom open. B is later brought into the outer office by a guard and placed where he can hear, though not 
too clearly. The interrogator begins routine questioning of A, speaking rather softly and inducing A to follow suit. Another 
person in the inner office, acting by prearrangement, then quietly leads A out through another door. Any noises of departure 
are covered by the interrogator, who rattles the ash tray or moves a table or large chair. As soon as the second door is closed 
again and A is out of earshot, the interrogator resumes his questioning. His voice grows louder and angrier. He tells A to speak 
up, that he can hardly hear him. He grows abusive, reaches a climax, and then says, "Well, that's better. Why didn't you say so 
in the first place?" The rest of the monologue is designed to give B the impression that A has now started to tell the truth. 
Suddenly the interrogator pops his head through the doorway and is angry on seeing B and the guard. "You jerk!" he says to 
the guard, "What are you doing here?" He rides down the guard's mumbled attempt to explain the mistake, shouting, "Get him 
out of here! I'll take care of you later!" 

When, in the judgment of the interrogator, B is fairly well convinced that A has broken down and told his story, the 
interrogator may elect to say to B, "Now that A has come clean with us, I'd like to let him go. But I hate to release one of you 
before the other; you ought to get out at the same time. A seems to be pretty angry with you — feels that you got him into this 
jam. He might even go back to your Soviet case officer and say that you haven't returned because you agreed to stay here and 
work for us. Wouldn't it be better for you if I set you both free together? Wouldn't it be better to tell me your side of the 
story?" 

8. Ivan Is a Dope 

It may be useful to point out to a hostile agent that the cover story was ill -contrived, that the other service botched the job, that 
it is typical of the other service to ignore the welfare of its agents. The interrogator may personalize this pitch by explaining 
that he has been impressed by the agent's courage and intelligence. He sells the agent the idea that the interrogator, not his old 
service, represents a true friend, who understands him and will look after his welfare. 

9. Joint Interrogators 

The commonest of the joint interrogator techniques is the Mutt-and-Jeff routine: the brutal, angry, domineering type contrasted 
with the friendly, quiet type. This routine works best with women, teenagers, and timid men. If the interrogator who has done 
the bulk of the questioning up to this point has established a measure of rapport, he should play the friendly role. If rapport is 
absent, and especially if antagonism has developed, the principal interrogator may take the other part. The angry interrogator 
speaks loudly from the beginning; and unless the interrogatee clearly indicates that he is now ready to tell his story, the angry 
interrogator shouts down his answers and cuts him off. He thumps the table. The quiet interrogator should not watch the show 
unmoved but give subtle indications that he too is somewhat afraid of his colleague. The angry interrogator accuses the subject 
of other offenses, any offenses, especially those that are heinous or demeaning. He makes it plain that he personally considers 
the interrogatee the vilest person on earth. During the harangue the friendly, quiet interrogator breaks in to say, "Wait a 
minute, Jim. Take it easy." The angry interrogator shouts back, "Shut up! I'm handling this. I've broken crumb-bums before, 
and I'll break this one, wide open." He expresses his disgust by spitting on the floor or holding his nose or any gross gesture. 
Finally, red-faced and furious, he says, "I'm going to take a break, have a couple of stiff drinks. But I'll be back at two — and 
you, you bum, you better be ready to talk." When the door slams behind him, the second interrogator tells the subject how 
sorry he is, how he hates to work with a man like that but has no choice, how if maybe brutes like that would keep quiet and 
give a man a fair chance to tell his side of the story, etc., etc. 

An interrogator working alone can also use the Mutt-and-Jeff technique. After a number of tense and hostile sessions the 
interrogatee is ushered into a different or refurnished room with comfortable furniture, cigarettes, etc. The interrogator invites 
him to sit down and explains his regret that the source's former stubbornness forced the interrogator to use such tactics. Now 
everything will be different. The interrogator talks man-to-man. An American POW, debriefed on his interrogation by a 
hostile service that used this approach, has described the result: "Well, I went in and there was a man, an officer he was... — he 
asked me to sit down and was very friendly.... It was very terrific. I, well, I almost felt like I had a friend sitting there. I had to 
stop every now and then and realize that this man wasn't a friend of mine.... I also felt as though I couldn't be rude to him.... It 
was much more difficult for me to — well, I almost felt I had as much responsibility to talk to him and reason and justification 
as I have to talk to you right now."(18) 



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Another joint technique casts both interrogators in friendly roles. But whereas the interrogator in charge is sincere, the second 
interrogator's manner and voice convey the impression that he is merely pretending sympathy in order to trap the interrogated. 
He slips in a few trick questions of the "When-did-you-stop-beating-your-wife?" category. The interrogator in charge warns 
his colleague to desist. When he repeats the tactics, the interrogator in charge says, with a slight show of anger, "We're not 
here to trap people but to get at the truth. I suggest that you leave now. I'll handle this." It is usually unproductive to cast both 
interrogators in hostile roles. 

Language 

If the recalcitrant subject speaks more than one language, it is better to question him in the tongue with which he is least 
familiar as long as the purpose of interrogation is to obtain a confession. After the interrogatee admits hostile intent or activity, 
a switch to the better-known language will facilitate follow-up. 

An abrupt switch of languages may trick a resistant source. If an interrogatee has withstood a barrage of questions in German 
or Korean, for example, a sudden shift to "Who is your case officer?" in Russian may trigger the answer before the source can 
stop himself. 

An interrogator quite at home in the language being used may nevertheless elect to use an interpreter if the interrogatee does 
not know the language to be used between the interrogator and interpreter and also does not know that the interrogator knows 
his own tongue. The principal advantage here is that hearing everything twice helps the interrogator to note voice, expression, 
gestures, and other indicators more attentively. This gambit is obviously unsuitable for any form of rapid-fire questioning, and 
in any case it has the disadvantage of allowing the subject to pull himself together after each query. It should be used only with 
an interpreter who has been trained in the technique. 

It is of basic importance that the interrogator not using an interpreter be adept in the language selected for use. If he is not, if 
slips of grammar or a strong accent mar his speech, the resistant source will usually feel fortified. Almost all people have been 
conditioned to relate verbal skill to intelligence, education, social status, etc. Errors or mispronunciations also permit the 
interrogatee to misunderstand or feign misunderstanding and thus gain time. He may also resort to polysyllabic obfuscations 
upon realizing the limitations of the interrogator's vocabulary. 

Spinoza and Mortimer Snerd 

If there is reason to suspect that a withholding source possesses useful counterintelligence information but has not had access 
to the upper reaches of the target organizations, the policy and command level, continued questioning about lofty topics that 
the source knows nothing about may pave the way for the extraction of information at lower levels. The interrogatee is asked 
about KGB policy, for example: the relation of the service to its government, its liaison arrangements, etc., etc. His complaints 
that he knows nothing of such matters are met by flat insistence that he does know, he would have to know, that even the most 
stupid men in his position know. Communist interrogators who used this tactic against American POW's coupled it with 
punishment for "don't know" responses — typically by forcing the prisoner to stand at attention until he gave some positive 
response. After the process had been continued long enough, the source was asked a question to which he did know the 
answer. Numbers of Americans have mentioned "...the tremendous feeling of relief you get when he finally asks you 
something you can answer." One said, "I know it seems strange now, but I was positively grateful to them when they switched 
to a topic I knew something about."(3) 

The Wolf in Sheep's Clothing 

It has been suggested that a successfully withholding source might be tricked into compliance if led to believe that he is 
dealing with the opposition. The success of the ruse depends upon a successful imitation of the opposition. A case officer 
previously unknown to the source and skilled in the appropriate language talks with the source under such circumstances that 
the latter is convinced that he is dealing with the opposition. The source is debriefed on what he has told the Americans and 
what he has not told them. The trick is likelier to succeed if the interrogatee has not been in confinement but a staged "escape," 
engineered by a stool-pigeon, might achieve the same end. Usually the trick is so complicated and risky that its employment is 
not recommended. 

Alice in Wonderland 

The aim of the Alice in Wonderland or confusion technique is to confound the expectations and conditioned reactions of the 
interrogatee. He is accustomed to a world that makes some sense, at least to him: a world of continuity and logic, a predictable 
world. He clings to this world to reinforce his identity and powers of resistance. 

The confusion technique is designed not only to obliterate the familiar but to replace it with the weird. Although this method 
can be employed by a single interrogator, it is better adapted to use by two or three. When the subject enters the room, the first 
interrogator asks a doubletalk question — one which seems straightforward but is essentially nonsensical. Whether the 
interrogatee tries to answer or not, the second interrogator follows up (interrupting any attempted response) with a wholly 
unrelated and equally illogical query. Sometimes two or more questions are asked simultaneously. Pitch, tone, and volume of 
the interrogators' voices are unrelated to the import of the questions. No pattern of questions and answers is permitted to 



91 



develop, nor do the questions themselves relate logically to each other. In this strange atmosphere the subject finds that the 
pattern of speech and thought which he has learned to consider normal have been replaced by an eerie meaninglessness. The 
interrogatee may start laughing or refuse to take the situation seriously. But as the process continues, day after day if 
necessary, the subject begins to try to make sense of the situation, which becomes mentally intolerable. Now he is likely to 
make significant admissions, or even to pour out his story, just to stop the flow of babble which assails him. This technique 
may be especially effective with the orderly, obstinate type. 

Regression 

There are a number of non-coercive techniques for inducing regression, All depend upon the interrogator's control of the 
environment and, as always, a proper matching of method to source. Some interrogatees can be repressed by persistent 
manipulation of time, by retarding and advancing clocks and serving meals at odd times — ten minutes or ten hours after the 
last food was given. Day and night are jumbled. Interrogation sessions are similarly unpatterned the subject may be brought 
back for more questioning just a few minutes after being dismissed for the night. Half-hearted efforts to cooperate can be 
ignored, and conversely he can be rewarded for non-cooperation. (For example, a successfully resisting source may become 
distraught if given some reward for the "valuable contribution" that he has made.) The Alice in Wonderland technique can 
reinforce the effect. Two or more interrogators, questioning as a team and in relays (and thoroughly jumbling the timing of 
both methods) can ask questions which make it impossible for the interrogatee to give sensible, significant answers. A subject 
who is cut off from the world he knows seeks to recreate it, in some measure, in the new and strange environment. He may try 
to keep track of time, to live in the familiar past, to cling to old concepts of loyalty, to establish — with one or more 
interrogators — interpersonal relations resembling those that he has had earlier with other people, and to build other bridges 
back to the known. Thwarting his attempts to do so is likely to drive him deeper and deeper into himself, until he is no longer 
able to control his responses in adult fashion. 

The placebo technique is also used to induce regression The interrogatee is given a placebo (a harmless sugar pill). Later he is 
told that he has imbibed a drug, a truth serum, which will make him want to talk and which will also prevent his lying. The 
subject's desire to find an excuse for the compliance that represents his sole avenue of escape from his distressing predicament 
may make him want to believe that he has been drugged and that no one could blame him for telling his story now. Gottschelk 
observes, "Individuals under increased stress are more likely to respond to placebos. "(7) 

Orne has discussed an extensions of the placebo concept in explaining what he terms the "magic room" technique. "An 
example... would be... the prisoner who is given a hypnotic suggestion that his hand is growing warm. However, in this 
instance, the prisoner's hand actually does become warm, a problem easily resolved by the use of a concealed diathermy 
machine. Or it might be suggested... that... a cigarette will taste bitter. Here again, he could be given a cigarette prepared to 
have a slight but noticeably bitter taste." In discussing states of heightened suggestibility (which are not, however, states of 
trance) Orne says, "Both hypnosis and some of the drugs inducing hypnoidal states are popularly viewed as situations where 
the individual is no longer master of his own fate and therefore not responsible for his actions. It seems possible then that the 
hypnotic situation, as distinguished from hypnosis itself, might be used to relieve the individual of a feeling of responsibility 
for his own actions and thus lead him to reveal information."(7) 

In other words, a psychologically immature source, or one who has been regressed, could adopt an implication or suggestion 
that he has been drugged, hypnotized, or otherwise rendered incapable of resistance, even if he recognizes at some level that 
the suggestion is untrue, because of his strong desire to escape the stress of the situation by capitulating. These techniques 
provide the source with the rationalization that he needs. 

Whether regression occurs spontaneously under detention or interrogation, and whether it is induced by a coercive or non- 
coercive technique, it should not be allowed to continue past the point necessary to obtain compliance. Severe techniques of 
regression are best employed in the presence of a psychiatrist, to insure full reversal later. As soon as he can, the interrogator 
presents the subject with the way out, the face-saving reason for escaping from his painful dilemma by yielding. Now the 
interrogator becomes fatherly. Whether the excuse is that others have already confessed ("all the other boys are doing it"), that 
the interrogatee had a chance to redeem himself ("you're really a good boy at heart"), or that he can't help himself ("they made 
you do it"), the effective rationalization, the one the source will jump at, is likely to be elementary. It is an adult's version of 
the excuses of childhood. 

The Polygraph 

The polygraph can be used for purposes other than the evaluation of veracity. For example, it may be used as an adjunct in 
testing the range of languages spoken by an interrogatee or his sophistication in intelligence matters, for rapid screening to 
determine broad areas of knowledgeability, and as an aid in the psychological assessment of sources. Its primary function in a 
counterintelligence interrogation, however, is to provide a further means of testing for deception or withholding. 

A resistant source suspected of association with a hostile clandestine organization should be tested polygraphically at least 
once. Several examinations may be needed. As a general rule, the polygraph should not be employed as a measure of last 
resort. More reliable readings will be obtained if the instrument is used before the subject has been placed under intense 
pressure, whether such pressure is coercive or not. Sufficient information for the purpose is normally available after screening 
and one or two interrogation sessions. 



92 



Although the polygraph has been a valuable aid, no interrogator should feel that it can carry his responsibility for him. 
[approx. 7 lines deleted] (9) 

The best results are obtained when the CI interrogator and the polygraph operator work closely together in laying the 
groundwork for technical examination. The operator needs all available information about the personality of the source, as 
well as the operational background and reasons for suspicion. The CI interrogator in turn can cooperate more effectively and 
can fit the results of technical examination more accurately into the totality of his findings if he has a basic comprehension of 
the instrument and its workings. 

The following discussion is based upon R.C. Davis' "Physiological Responses as a Means of Evaluating Information."(7) 
Although improvements appear to be in the offing, the instrument in widespread use today measures breathing, systolic blood 
pressure, and galvanic skin response (GSR). "One drawback in the use of respiration as an indicator," according to Davis, "is 
its susceptibility to voluntary control." Moreover, if the source "knows that changes in breathing will disturb all physiologic 
variables under control of the autonomic division of the nervous system, and possibly even some others, a certain amount of 
cooperation or a certain degree of ignorance is required for lie detection by physiologic methods to work." In general, "... 
breathing during deception is shallower and slower than in truth telling... the inhibition of breathing seems rather characteristic 
of anticipation of a stimulus." 

The measurement of systolic blood pressure provides a reading on a phenomenon not usually subject to voluntary control. The 
pressure "... will typically rise by a few millimeters of mercury in response to a question, whether it is answered truthfully or 
not. The evidence is that the rise will generally be greater when (the subject) is lying." However, discrimination between truth- 
telling and lying on the basis of both breathing and blood pressure "... is poor (almost nil) in the early part of the sitting and 
improves to a high point later." The galvanic skin response is one of the most easily triggered reactions, but recovery after the 
reaction is slow, and "... in a routine examination the next question is likely to be introduced before recovery is complete. 
Partly because of this fact there is an adapting trend in the GSR with stimuli repeated every few minutes the response gets 
smaller, other things being equal. " 

Davis examines three theories regarding the polygraph. The conditional response theory holds that the subject reacts to 
questions that strike sensitive areas, regardless of whether he is telling the truth or not. Experimentation has not substantiated 
this theory. The theory of conflict presumes that a large physiologic disturbance occurs when the subject is caught between his 
habitual inclination to tell the truth and his strong desire not to divulge a certain set of facts. Davis suggests that if this concept 
is valid, it holds only if the conflict is intense. The threat-of-punishment theory maintains that a large physiologic response 
accompanies lying because the subject fears the consequence of failing to deceive. "In common language it might be said that 
he fails to deceive the machine operator for the very reason that he fears he will fail. The 'fear' would be the very reaction 
detected." This third theory is more widely held than the other two. Interrogators should note the inference that a resistant 
source who does not fear that detection of lying will result in a punishment of which he is afraid would not, according to this 
theory, produce significant responses. 

Graphology 

The validity of graphological techniques for the analysis of the personalities of resistant interrogatees has not been established. 
There is some evidence that graphology is a useful aid in the early detection of cancer and of certain mental illnesses. If the 
interrogator or his unit decides to have a source's handwriting analyzed, the samples should be submitted to Headquarters as 
soon as possible, because the analysis is more useful in the preliminary assessment of the source than in the later interrogation. 
Graphology does have the advantage of being one of the very few techniques not requiring the assistance or even the 
awareness of the interrogatee. As with any other aid, the interrogator is free to determine for himself whether the analysis 
provides him with new and valid insights, confirms other observations, is not helpful, or is misleading. 



93 



CIA. - Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual - 1983 



The following excerpts have been taken from the Central Intelligence Agency manual entitled "Human Resource Exploitation Training 
Manual-1983." It's a handbook written by the CIA. It was use during the early 1980s to teach Latin American security forces to extract 
information from prisoners. Its proof that we still "Write the Book" on techniques and know how to access corners deep inside the mind. 

CHARLES SHERWOOD 

The theory of coercion 

The purpose of all coercive techniques is to induce psychological regression in the subject by bringing a superior outside force to bear on his will to resist. 
Regression is basically a loss of autonomy, a reversion to an earlier behavioral level. As the subject regresses, his learned personality traits fall away in 
reverse chronological order. He begins to lose that capacity to carry out the highest creative activities, to deal with complex situations, or to cope with 
stressful into personal relationships or repeated frustrations. Coercive techniques Arrest The manner and timing of the subject's arrest should be planned to 
achieve a surprise and the maximum amount of mental discomfort. He should therefore be arrested at a moment when the least expects it and when his 
mental and physical resistances are at their lowest - ideally, in the earliest hours of the morning. When arrested at this time, most subjects experience 
intense feelings of shock, insecurity, and psychological stress, and have great difficulty adjusting to the situation. Detention A person's sense of identity 
depends upon the continuity in his surroundings, habits, appearance, relations with others, etc. Detention permits the questioner to cut through these links 
and throw the subject back upon his own unaided internal resources. Detention should be planned to enhance that subjects feelings of being cut off from 
anything known and reassuring. Deprivation of sensory stimuli Solitary confinement acts on most persons as a powerful stressor. Those symptoms most 
commonly produced by solitary confinement are superstition, intense love of any other living been, perceiving in inanimate objects as alive, hallucinations, 
and delusions. Threats and fear The threat of coercion usually weakens or destroys resistance more effectively than coercion itself. Tor example, the threat to 
inflict pain can trigger fears more damaging than the immediate sensation of pain. The threat of death has been found to be worse than useless. The 
principal reason is that it often induces sheer hopelessness; the subject feels that he is as likely to be condemned after compliance as before. Some subjects 
recognise that the threat is a bluff and that silencing them would forever defeat though questioner's purpose. If the subject refuses to comply once a threat has 
been made, it must be carried out. Otherwise subsequent threats will also prove ineffective. 

Pain 

The torture situation is a contest between the subject and his tormentor. Tain that is being inflicted upon the subject from outside himself may 
actually intensify his will to resist. On the other hand, pain that he feels he is inflicting upon himself is more likely to stop his resistance. Tor example, if he 
is required to maintain and rigid position such a standing at attention or sitting on a stool for long periods of time, the immediate source of discomfort is 
not the questioner but the subject himself. After awhile the subject is likely to exhaust his internal motivational strength. Intense pain is quite likely to 
produce false confession, fabricated to avoid additional punishment. This results in a time-consuming delay while an investigation is conducted and the 
admissions are proven untrue. During this respite, the subject can pull himself together and may even use the time to devise a more complex confession that 
takes still longer to disprove. 

Hypnosis and heightened suggestibility 

Answers obtained from subject under the influence of hypnotism are highly suspect, as they are often based upon the suggestions of the questioner 
and are distorted or fabricated. However, the subject's strong desire to escape the stress of the situation can create a state of mind called "heightened 
suggestibility" . The questioner can take advantage of the state of mind by creating a situation in which the subject will cooperate because he believes he has 
been hypnotised. This hypnotic situation can be created using the "Magic room" technique. Tor example, the subject is given a hypnotic suggestion that his 
hand is growing warm. However, his hand actually does become warmer with the aid of a concealed diathermy machine. He may be given a suggestion that 
a cigarette will taste better and could be given a cigarette prepared to have a slight but noticeably better taste. 

Narcosis 

There is no drug that can force every subject to divulge all the information he has, but it is possible to create the mistaken belief that the subject has been 
dropped by using the placebo technique. The subject is given a placebo-a harmless sugar pill-and later told that he was given the truths are of that will 
make you want to talk and that will prevent him from lying. His desire to find an excuse for compliance, which is his only avenue of escape from his 
depressing situation, they make you want to believe that he is contrived and that no one could blame him for retailers historians now. This provides him 
with a rationalisation that he needs for cooperating. 
Regression 

As mentioned earlier, the purpose of all coercive techniques is to induce regression. A few non-coercive techniques can also be used to induce regression, but 
to a lesser degree than can be obtained with coercive techniques: 

Persistent manipulation of time 
Returning and advancing clocks 
Serving meals at odd times 
Disrupting sleep schedules 
Disorientation regarding day and night 
Odd patterns of questioning such as 
Non-sensible questioning 
Ignoring half hearted attempts to cooperate 
Rewarding non cooperation 



94 



Whether regression occur spontaneously under detention or isn't used by the questioner, they should not be allowed to continue beyond the point 
necessary to obtain compliance. A psychiatrist should be present if severe techniques are being employed, to insure full reversal later. This illness 
possible, the questioner should provide the subject with the rationalisation that he needs for giving in to and cooperating. This rationalisation is likely to be 
elementary, and adult version of a child with excuse such as: 

They make you do that 
All of the other boys are doing it 
You're really a good boy at heart. 

Defenses 



Repression/ suppression 

One way to deal with emotional pain is to not think about what has happened. We put it out of our mind. We forget it. 
With practice, this becomes an automatic process, we really don't remember what we did or what happened. This is repression. 

Displacement 

Displacement is simply taking an emotion that belongs in one situation and displaying it in another. The commonest emotions which are 
displaced are anger and I 'or hostility. Imagine, for a moment, that you have had a rough day at work. Your boss has chewed you out, and you are angry 
about it. It's not safe to take out your anger on your boss. You might be fired. So, when you get home, you yell at the kids and have a fight with your 
wife. That's displacement. 

Projection 

Projection is the process of takingfeelings we have about ourselves, usually painful feelings, and focusing them on other people. A person who 
fears he is drinking too much may point out another person who is drinking and put him down for being a drunk. A man or woman who has been 
cheating on his/her spouse may accuse the spouse of being unfaithful. Blame is a form of projection. An individual, concerned about his drinking may 
blame his parents for the way they raised him, or his wife for the way she treats him. Eventually the alcoholic comes to hate himself, but he finds this 
emotional state too much to bear so he expresses this as hatred for those closest to him, usually his wife and children. 

Denial 

Denial is the refusal to believe or accept the reality that certain events have happened, are happening or will happen. To accept the reality 
would bring emotional pain, so the events are denied. This is the single most common psychological symptom of chemical dependency. Related to denial is 
the defense called minimising. Events are accepted, but only in a watered down version. Sure I drink once in a while. Everybody does. It's no big deal. 
Once in a while I might get carried away, but it really isn't a problem. " 

Withdrawal 

Withdrawal is usually used when a person is afraid of rejection or afraid to fail. By with drawing the person is attempting to avoid 
psychological pain. The problem is it inevitably leads to strong feelings of loneliness, and it does nothing for the original fears. Withdrawal takes several 
forms. Silence and running away are the most common, but the use of drugs and excessive sleeping also occur. Closely related to withdrawal are avoidance 
and deflection. Many co-alcoholics use avoidance extensively, i.e., they won't talk about the problems at home and they stay away from others to avoid 
feelings of embarrassment, shame, etc.. Deflection is a method of changing a subject that is or might be painful. Humor and anger are the two commonest 
methods of deflecting people away from difficult subjects. Alcoholics frequently combine deflection and projection through the use of anger and hostility. 

Rationalisation 

Rationalisation is to justify your behavior or to make excuses for your behavior. The alcoholic, arrested for impaired driving may tell 
himself, and everybody else, that the RCMP are out to get him. Or a person may fail to get a job he has applied for, and then tells people it was really a 
crummy job anyway and he didn't really want it. 



95 



Fantasy 



When the world of everyday life becomes too painful or difficult too bear, some people tum to the inner world of fantasy. Day dreaming and 
wishful thinking replace action. Combined with avoidance you get retreats into fiction via books and/ or TV. Alcoholics often combine rationalising and 
fantasy. The result is the "if only... " Syndrome: 

If only I had money... 

If only I were not an Indian... 

If only I didn't have a wife and children... 

If only I could do what I want... 

If only people understood me... 

If only I were younger (older)... 

Intellectuali^ation 

In order to avoid experiencing his real feelings a person may discuss his problem(s) in an analytical, rational, intellectual way. This is 
common among college educated people and alcoholism counselors who have fallen off the wagon. This defense often frightens or repels other people leading 
to isolation and a strong sense of loneliness. 

Procrastination 

Procrastination is another way to avoid painful feelings by convincingyourself that a problem can be dealt with later. "I'll look for work 

tomorrow. " 

"I'll stop drinking tomorrow. " 

"I'll get the car fixed after I get a job. " 

Reaction-formation 

This defense is simply fakingyour feelings or expressing the opposite of what you really feel. This process can become so automatic that you 
actually do not know what your true feelings are. 

Summary 

The major function of these psychological defenses is to prevent the experiencing of painful emotions. There are several major problems with 
there use, however. First, many of these defenses create new problems that are as bad, or worse, than the emotional problems they mask. Some are just 
plain destructive, rejection, for example, literally destroys the relationships we care most about. Second, these defenses distort our ability to perceive reality as 
it is, and this prevents us from dealing with our problems in a constructive way. Third, these defenses do not rid us of the painful feelings we have. In fact, 
by masking them so that we do not feel them, we effectively store them up within ourselves. Emotions are discharged through expression, so by denying 
ourselves the chance to feel them, we also deny ourselves the ability to get rid of them. Fourth, these defenses do not just screen out painful emotions. They 
are, in fact, defenses against all emotion. So the more effective our defenses become in protecting us from our painful feelings, the less able we are to 
experience the joyful and happy feelings that make life worth living. Finally, these defenses are not perfect. As more and more hurt is stored away, a 
tension is developed. We become increasingly anxious, nervous, and irritable. We become emotionally unpredictable. And when our defenses weaken, as 
they will from time to time, we experience emotional explosions. Ultimately these defenses prevent us from knowing what is wrong but they do not prevent 
us from feeling bad. 



96 



Diary - "School of the Americas" Fort Benning, Georgia 



The School of Dictators or the Coup-Assassination School - author unknown 

The trainer of "death squads" "United States Battalion 3-16" used electroschock and rubber suffocation devices on prisoners. 
They include the various technical advisors, counter intelligence and low intensity conflict strategists, paramilitary, 
intelligence and internal security police training officers and the merchants who actually supply the equipment, as well as the 
"white collar mercenaries" who act as key technical operators in the bureaucracy of any repressive system that uses systematic 
torture as an instructional tool of the administration. This includes all the people conditioned by fear or training to put into 
practice the torture policy of the state — torture is exported to being a slave state of the united states. This technology gets 
exported around the world to any nation that can buy it and who remains an ally of the united states. 

Since 1961 a 1600 acre secret terrorist torture and cremation installation known as "Harvey Point Defense Testing Activity" 
just outside Hertford, North Carolina. The C.I.A. trains terrorist courses for thousands of its C.I.A. and military officers and 
also the secret police and military personnel from other nations as they do in Panama and Taiwan. Example: Palistinean 
security forces. This school for C.I.A. and military spies is shielded from the public eye. It has black helicopters (radar 
resistant) blacked out windows on buses. Old limousines are hauled in for assassination training and bullet riddled burnt out 
limousines are hauled out. Bomb training for assassins is carried out so buildings can be bombed in other nations. They teach 
theft from safes using explosives. This C.I.A. and military base has trained more than 18,000 foreign intelligence officers from 
50 nations to be terrorists including Russia, Isreal, Egypt, etc. all local employed service people employed as cooks and guards 
are sworn to secrecy. Source information-New York Times March 20, 1998. 

The following is a report of the torture training in this military C.I.A. facility, being one of many run by the United states that 
are even more sophisticated than this one. This course in torture took place in 1969 and the courses continue to be taught and 
prisoners continue to be tortured, assassinated and then cremated to get rid of the evidence and their ashes vacuumed out of the 
crematorium in the basement and thrown down the toilet as you read this. The Americans you will see are very thorough 
teachers. This facility alone has taught 14,500 torturers at an average of 20 military personnel per class from various states 
since 1969. 



"School of the Americas" 

The Diary of a C.I.A. Torture Student 



Dayl 

First classes in mental torture. Sleep deprivation. Control of minds through drugs. Saw 2 movies on mental torture. Ate. Had 
night lecture on day class. 

Day 2 

Saw actual drug administration on Panamanian prisoner. We saw how to mix and inject the drugs. Everyone was listening 
intently. I requested permission to inject the prisoner. I was told each of us could have a prisoner later on. We were being 
taught reactions to certain drugs. We took notes. We learned how to interrogate the prisoner while he was under drugs. At 12 
we ate. At 1 we saw another prisoner injected with sodium pentethal. He was then interrogated and answered truthfully. This 
lasted till 2. At 2 a volunteer was requested. A woman prisoner volunteered. All prisoners were naked. This is to humiliate 
them as well so they want to get the interrogation over with and will tell the truth, in some women's cases only. Some women 
were tough. One spit in our faces. We each did a woman. All 24 students. We did not finish till 3 a.m.. We all volunteered to 
stay up till all had a turn. These prisoners were kept downstaires in a cage. 



97 



Day 3 



Today electric shock. We saw various positions to put subjects in. Sitting on a bar. Lying on a table, bed, legs spread open. 
Hooked down. Over a chair. In a bathtub. Electric shock all day till 10 p.m., except for lunch and supper. Then electric shock 
treatment men only. 

Day 4 

Today the same shock treatments using women only. Everyone laughted when the women pissed during shock treatment. All 
prisoners are given enamas before sessions begin. Finished at 10. 2 breaks to eat. 

Day 5 

Today children were brought in. It finally dawned on me. we were being taught to be great torturers without conscience or 
guilt feelings. To torture anyone as a 9 to 5 job. Amazing we began on boy kids. 2 peruvians in the course objected and were 
taken out of the course. I was told they would be sent home. By 10 3 more dropped out. An Ecuadorian student and 2 
Columbian students. We were down to 19 in the course. 3 kids died. 2 girls about 14 and a 15 year old boy. I was told they 
would be cremated and ashes scattered in the toilet. 

Day 6 

Thumb screw lessons from 9 to 1 1. We all did it to some prisoners. 1 1 to 12 needles under nails. Then we ate. 1 to 3 prisoners 
were tortured by bastivia, whipps, chains, leather straps, we tortured 6 men, 6 women, we tortured 3 to 6 prisoners with fists. 
Feet. It was gory. We were watched all the time to see who was squeamish. 

Day 7 

Today we were taught execution methods. Pistol. Knife. Garrat. Injection. Axe. This course used dummies. We were told 
tomorrow real subjects would be used. I yelled "now your talking" observer smiled, made a note in his book. 

Day 8 

9 a.m. we were given pistols. 19 subjects were brought in. All men. We all shot them. By 10 we were through. At 10 the 
bodies were removed. At 10:15 19 women were brought in. We shot them all. 1 5 to 1 1 all bodies were removed. At 11, 19 
kids were brought in. The guns all held 1 bullet at a time in case of freak out only 1 instructor would be killed at a time. 
Apparently 1 student freaked out a few months back and shot all 3 instructors. Nice eh? Anyway. I got a 12 year old boy. 
Bang. One Colombian could not kill a 12 year old boy. He was sent home. 18 left. This was getting better. 12 noon we broke 
to eat. At 1 we were given a question and answer period for 3 hours till 4. How we felt. Our reactions. Feelings etc. I passed I 
was told. We then saw 4 to 6 various execution techniques on film. Every weapon known to man. They did not have enough 
prisoners for us to kill. Most amazing day of my life. 

Day 9 

Between 9 and 10 they taught us acid torture. In eyes. In ears. Down throat. Only 3 prisoners used today. Between 10 and 11. 
Needle was used on a prisoner to put him to sleep. Etc he was killed by a Bolivian accidently. A new prisoner was brought in. 
He died at 5 to 1 1 . We had a 5 minute break. Between 1 1 to 1 2 a rape movie was shown. Reactions of men and women being 
raped. 

Ate till 1. 

Movies of torture by Viet Cong on Americans. Bamboo. Water. Thumb hanging. This lasted 2 hours. 

3 an american who had been tortured by the viet cong gave a 2 hour lecture. It was fascinating. He was hung by his thumbs. 
Kicked in the balls. Pins under nails. Kept in hole with insects and snakes. Pissed on and shit on and finally an empty gun to 
the head. 

5 We broke to see another movie. The tet uprising and the execution of a viet cong leader by a police chief. 

6 Ate 

7 We learned teeth pulling till nine on three prisoners, 2 men and a woman. 

At 9 watched tv till 10 went to bed .At 1 1 :30 had three cakes. Had lost a lot of sweat 



98 



Day 10 



Today we cut off limbs, thumbs, fingers, ears, on dummies. I guess they felt live people were not needed. At 1 we saw a 3 
hour movie on Red aggression in Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia. 

At 4 p.m. we were given a new test on our views of Red aggression the tortures to date. We lost 2 more guys. A Costa Rican. 
17 of us now. Wonder what happened to them. They seemed happy in the course. We knocked off at 6 p.m.. had supper. Saw a 
bit of t.v. 

At 8 a.m. I fell asleep. 

Woke at 4 a.m. went back to sleep at 5. 

Day 11 

Today lectures all day till 6. Supper. Time off. 
Dayl2 

Today we learned stalking. We had to stalk a man through the jungle. 9 to 5 p.m. in a one square mile area. We never found 
him. He was a green beret jungle expert. 

Day 13 

Out again to stalk him. No go. 
Day 14 

Third day. This time a real prisoner was set loose. I thought they were crazy. He may escape. They had army teams paired all 
over outside the square mile. Fenced all around inside. Signs with live electricity all over the fences. We found him about 
noon. We had begun at 10. We gave him an hour to hide. He saw us and ran. We all had sniper rifles. We all took aim and 
fired at once. 17 shots in the head and back. We headed back. Ate. At 2 p.m. we saw Communist aggression films on South 
America, Brazil, Argentina, Colombia. At 6 we ate at 7 one last lecture, on how great we were etc. We were given certificates 
of graduation. I found it ironic. They were only given to army officers from Latin America. I liked mine. Put it with my others. 
Finally we could go home to Fort Bragg. Okefenokee facilities near the Florida-Georgia border off Interstate 97 



May peace and harmony attend the souls of the tortured. 
Peace 



99 




CIA Study: Hypnosis in Interrogation 

by Edward F. Deshere - 1960 

This study, written by Edward F. Deshere, appeared in the CIA journal Studies in Intelligence in 1960. This document explores some 
of the possible applications of hypnosis during interrogations. This article sheds some light on the CIA's interest in hypnosis, but 
tells only a tiny, incomplete part of the story. Given the potential power of hypnosis to unlock the secrets of the mind, Deshere 
found it "surprising that nobody... seems to have used it in this way." He searched the literature and consulted top experts, but 
found no intelligence agency that "admits to familiarity with applications of the process [of hypnosis] to interrogation." 

In fact, such applications had already been tested by the CIA and others, but it appears that Deshere — like most CIA officers at 
the time — was not privy to information about MKULTRA, the agency's super-secret program of mind and behavior control 
research. The program, launched in 1953 to expand on previous CIA investigations of related topics, would last until 1963. 

FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 

A priori considerations 
prejudicing successful interrogation 
by trance induction suggest a 
possible variant technique. 



HYPNOSIS IN INTERROGATION 



The control over a person's behavior ostensibly achieved in hypnosis obviously nominates it for use in the difficult process of 
interrogation. It is therefore surprising that nobody, as the induction of "Mesmeric trance" has moved from halls of magic into 
clinics and laboratories, seems to have used it in this way. A search of the professional literature shows at least that no one has 
chosen to discuss such a use in print, and a fairly extensive inquiry among hypnosis experts from a variety of countries has not 
turned up anyone who admits to familiarity with applications of the process to interrogation. There is therefore no experimental 
evidence that can be cited, but it should be possible to reach tentative conclusions about its effectiveness in this field on the basis 
of theoretical considerations. 



The Nature of Hypnosis 

Experimental analysis has gradually given us a better understanding of hypnosis since the days of Mesmer (6) and his followers, 
who held that it results from the flow of a force called animal magnetism from hypnotist to subject. Nevertheless, although no 
present-day investigator shares the lingering lay opinion that hypnosis is in some way an overpowering of a weak mind by a 
superior intellect, there are still many divergent theories propounded to account for the accumulating clinical observations. Some 
of these have significantly different implications with respect to the susceptibility of a hypnotized person to purposeful influence. 

The view that hypnosis is a state of artificially induced sleep has been widely held since Braid (7) invented the term in mid- 
nineteenth -century. Currently Pavlov (20) takes a similar position in maintaining that cortical inhibition, sleep, and hypnosis are 
essentially identical. This view is now held throughout those parts of the world where Pavlovian theory is accepted as creed, but to 
the American investigator the experimental evidence against it appears overwhelming. Bass, (3) for example, has shown that the 
patellar - kneecap - reflex, which disappears in sleep, is not diminished in hypnosis. Wells (27) and others have demonstrated that 
all hypnotic phenomena can be elicited in a state bearing no resemblance to sleep, a performance which suggests the hypothesis 
that sleep-like aspects of hypnosis are not intrinsic to the hypnotic state but result from the hypnotist's suggestion that his subject 
go to sleep. Barker and Burgwin (2) have shown that the electro encephalography changes characteristic of sleep do not occur in 
hypnosis except when true sleep is hypnotically induced. The findings of two Russian papers (16) which dispute this conclusion, 
affirming that the EEG rhythm characteristic of hypnosis resembles that of drowsiness and light sleep, have not been verified by 
replicating their experiments. 

The concepts of suggestion and suggestibility as applied to hypnosis, introduced about 1880 by the Nancy school of hypnosis 
investigators, have been developed and refined in modern times. In a major monograph Hull (10) concluded that hypnosis is 
primarily a state of heightened suggestibility and has the characteristics of habit in that it becomes increasingly easy for a subject to 
enter the state of hypnosis after he has once done it. Welch, (26) in an ingenious application of the conditioning theory, pointed 
out that trance induction begins with suggestions which are almost certain to take effect and proceeds to more difficult ones. W^hile 
the concept of suggestion does provide a bridge between the hypnotic and the normal waking state, it does not explain the 
peculiarity of the hypnotic process or the causes of the state of trance. 



100 



Several more recent approaches, which might be called motivational theories of hypnosis, hold that achievement of trance is 
related to the subject's desire to enter such a state. Experimentalists and clinicians who take the motivational view — including the 
present writer, whose conclusions on the subject of this paper are undoubtedly colored by it — believe that it accounts best for the 
major portion of the clinical data. Trance is commonly induced in situations where the subject is motivated a priori to cooperate 
with the hypnotist, usually to obtain relief from suffering, to contribute to a scientific study, or (as in a stage performance) to 
become a center of attraction. Almost all information currently available about hypnosis has been derived from such situations, and 
this fact must be kept in mind when one attempts to apply the data theoretically to situations different from these. 

Hypnosis of Interrogees 

The question of the utility of hypnosis in the interrogation of persons unwilling to divulge the information sought involves 
three issues: First, can hypnosis be induced under conditions of interrogation? If so, can the subject be compelled to reveal 
information? And finally, if information can be so obtained, how reliable will it be? The initial problem is then to induce trance 
either against the subject's wishes or without his being aware of it. 

The Subject Unaware. Hypnosis has reportedly been effected without the subject's awareness in three situations - in sleep, in 
patients undergoing psychiatric consultation, and spontaneously in persons observing another subject being hypnotized. 

The older literature is replete with references to somnambulistic hypnosis induced by giving suggestions to sleeping subjects in a 
low but insistent voice. No case records are cited to support these statements, however; and they appear, like many others in 
hypnosis literature, to have been carried over from one textbook to another without critical evaluation. In a recent study Theodore 
X. Barber (1) found considerable similarity between subjects' compliance with suggestions given during sleep and their reactions to 
ordinary hypnotic techniques. Since Barber had asked them for permission to enter their rooms at night and talk to them in their 
sleep, however, it is reasonable to assume that most if not all of them perceived that trance induction was his purpose. They cannot 
therefore be regarded as truly naive sleeping subjects. Casual experimentation by the present writer has failed to demonstrate the 
feasibility of hypnotizing naive sleepers. The sample consisted of only four subjects, three of whom awakened to ask belligerently 
what was going on. The fourth just continued to sleep. 

It is frequently possible for a therapist to perform hypnosis with the patient unaware. Advising the patient to relax, suggesting 
that he would be more comfortable with his eyes closed, and so on, the practitioner may induce a deep level of trance in a relatively 
brief time without ever using the term hypnosis. Even though the subject has not explicitly consented to be hypnotized, however, 
his relationship to the hypnotist, here a man of reputation and prestige, is one of trust and confidence of justifiably anticipated 
help. 

Observers of hypnotic demonstrations may spontaneously enter trance. One of my own psychotherapy patients has reported 
that she went into a trance while watching me demonstrate hypnotic phenomena on television. This spontaneous hypnosis 
occurred despite the fact that the patient was in the company of friends and it was therefore a source of embarrassment to her. But 
here again we are dealing with a subject in sympathy with the purposes of the hypnotist and one who feels himself to be in a safe 
situation. It has been noted clinically that persons with negative attitudes about hypnosis are not susceptible to spontaneous trance. 

The Subject Antagonistic. In experiments conducted by Wells, (29) Brenman, (8) and Watkins, (25) subjects making an effort to 
resist trance induction were unable to fight it off. Space does not permit a full review of these experiments here, but in all three the 
subject had had previous trance experiences with the hypnotist, which, we may assume, initiated a positive relationship between 
subject and hypnotist. The subject was instructed to resist hypnosis, but in the context of participating in an experiment to test the 
issue. It seems possible that his response was one of compliance with a supposed implicit desire on the part of the experimenter 
that he collaborate in demonstrating that trance can be induced in the face of resistance. The demand characteristics of the 
situation — those influencing the subject to partake of the experimenter's purposes - may have been such that his prescribed 
attitude of overt resistance was unable to prevail over the more fundamental attitude of cooperation in an experiment to show that 
trance can be brought on against a subject's will. Orne (18) has shown that the demand characteristics of an experimental situation 
may greatly influence a subject's hypnotic behavior. It is clear that at some level any cooperative subject wishes an experiment to 
"work out," wishes to help fulfill the experimenter's expectations. If he grasps the purpose of the experiment or the bias of the 
experimenter, he is disposed toward producing behavior which will confirm the experimenter's hypothesis. This is particularly true 
in a hypnotic relationship. 

We are led to the conclusion that the many apparent cases of hypnosis without the subject's awareness or consent all seem to 
have depended upon a positive relationship between subject and hypnotist. The most favorable situation is one in which the 
subject expects to derive benefit from his association with the hypnotist and trusts in the hypnotist and his ability? to help. This 
would not be the situation in an interrogation wherein the hypnotist is seeking to extract information which the subject wants to 
withhold. The possibility of using hypnosis would therefore seem to depend on success in the slow process of nurturing a positive 
relationship with the interrogee or in perpetrating some kind of trickery. 

Obedience in Trance 

Assuming that an interrogator has circumvented these problems and hypnotized a subject who wants to withhold information, 
to what extent might the subject retain control of his secrets even in deep trance? This is an area where wide disagreements prevail 
among authorities and where experimental evidence is highly contradictory. Young, (30) for example, reports that subjects resist 



101 



specific hypnotic suggestions if they have decided in advance to do so, while Wells (28) reports that none of his subjects were able 
to resist a prearranged unacceptable command or indeed any other. 

Most work on this problem has focused on the more specific question of whether a person can be induced under hypnosis to 
commit some antisocial or self-destructive act. Supporting this negative view is the classic experiment by Janet, (11) who asked a 
deeply hypnotized female to commit several murders before a distinguished group of judges and magistrates, stabbing some 
victims with rubber daggers and poisoning others with sugar tablets. She did all this without hesitation. As the company dispersed, 
however, she was left in the charge of some young assistants, who took a notion to end the experiments on a lighter note. When 
they told her that she was now alone and would undress she promptly awakened. The murders were play-acted, the undressing 
would have been real; and the subject had no difficulty discerning the difference. 

Wells, (29) on the other hand, caused a subject to commit the post-hypnotic theft of a dollar bill from the hypnotist's coat. The 
subject was unaware of his action and denied vehemently that he had stolen the money. Wells argues that other failures to compel 
such acts did not disprove the possibility of doing it, whereas even one success demonstrates that it can be done. Schneck and 
Watkins, also, cite evidence that behavior ordinarily constituting a crime can be produced by hypnosis. Schneck (22) inadvertently 
caused a soldier to desert his duty in order to carry out a suggestion for post-hypnotic action. Watkins (24) induced a soldier to 
strike a superior officer by suggesting that the officer was a Japanese soldier, and he obtained from a hypnotized WAC some 
information classified "secret" which she had previously told him she would not reveal. 

Although these demonstrations appear convincing, there are deficiencies in their experimental conditions. Since both Schneck 
and Watldns were Army officers, the offenses committed could not possibly result in any serious damage. At some level, the 
subjects must have been aware of this. This same reasoning applies in experiments requiring a subject to hurl acid at a research 
assistant or pick up a poisonous snake: the participants are protected by invisible glass, a harmless snake is substituted for a 
poisonous one, and so forth. The situations are clearly experimental and the hypnotist who requests the homicidal or self- 
destructive behavior is known to the subject as a reputable man. 

From real life there are a fair number of cases on record dating before 1 900, particularly among the German-spealdng peoples, 
claiming hypnotically induced criminal behavior, mostly sex offenses. It is hard to evaluate these cases scientifically at this late date; 
frequently it was relatives of the subject, rather than the offender himself, that charged hypnotic influence. Within recent years, 
however, three documented cases in which hypnosis is said to have played a role in criminal behavior have been reported — by 
Kroener, (13) Mayer, (14) and Reiter. (21) These three cases have a common element: in each a dissatisfied person found 
gratification through the individual who later became his seducing hypnotist. It will be sufficient to examine one of them. 

In the case reported by Kroener a young and sensitive unmarried male schoolteacher came under the hypnotic influence of a 
neighbor. Beginning with neighborly hospitality, the neighbor built up the relationship to the point where he was able by hypnotic 
suggestion to get the schoolteacher to give or lend him small sums of money and goods. As a test of his power he then implanted 
the post-hypnotic suggestion that the schoolteacher would shoot himself in the left hand. The schoolteacher actually did shoot 
himself in the left elbow, subjectively perceiving the event as an accident. Finally the hypnotist caused his victim to confess to 
crimes that he himself had committed. Throughout the entire affair, lasting five years, the schoolteacher had no recollection of the 
hypnotic sessions. He was convicted on the basis of his post-hypnotic confession, but through a chance remark began to suspect 
the nature of his relationship with his neighbor. After many appeals, he was recommended for examination to Kroener, who 
eventually uncovered the true course of events by re-hypnotizing him and causing him to remember the hypnotic experiences with 
his neighbor. 

It is evident that a case like this offers little encouragement to the interrogator hoping to extract secrets by hypnosis. When the 
relationship between two individuals is marked by intense feelings and a strong tendency in one to comply with whatever requests 
are made of him by the other, it is in fact hardly necessary to invoke hypnosis to explain the resultant behavior. In the interrogation 
setting this emotional relationship of subject to hypnotist is not likely to exist. 



Accuracy and Veracity 

Supposing, however, that an interrogee has been hypnotized and induced to divulge information: how correct is this 
information likely to be? 

Accuracy in Recall. A great deal has been written, especially in the press, about the perfect memory and unfailing accuracy of recall 
people display in hypnosis. Statements have frequently been made about their ability to recall anything that has happened to them 
even while infants, and according to some even prior to birth. (12) Hypnotic age-regression is a mechanism frequently used for this 
purpose. The subject is "taken back" to, say, the age of six. He begins to act, talk, and to some extent think in the manner of a six- 
year-old. He hallucinates the appropriate environment and gives details about people sitting next to him in school, his teacher's 
name, the color of the walls, and so on. His actions are exceedingly convincing, and it has frequently been assumed that an actual 
regression in many psychologic and physiologic age components to the suggested year takes place. 



102 



There is little evidence for the genuineness of hypnotic age-regression, even though there have been a number of studies mostly 
based on single cases. Young (31) demonstrated that performance on intelligence tests was not appropriate to the suggested age. 
Unhypnotized control subjects were more successful than subjects under deep hypnosis in simulating their age. Using the 
Rorschach test and drawings in a study of hypnotic age-regression in ten subjects, Orne (17) demonstrated that while some 
regressive changes appeared, non-regressive elements were also present, and changes toward regression showed no consistency 
from subject to subject. The drawings did not resemble the work of six -year-olds, being characterized by Karen Machover as 
"sophisticated oversimplification." Drawings actually done at the age of six by one subject were available for comparison, and there 
was not even a superficial resemblance. Subjects often gave with great conviction the name of the wrong teacher, one they had had 
at a later age. Studies by True and Stephenson, (23) and McCranie, Crasilneck, and Teter (15) failed to find in 
electroencephalograms taken during hypnotic age-regression any change in the direction of a childhood EEG. Similarly they report 
no increased heart rate, as characteristic of infants, or other changes in electrocardiograph tracings. 

Hypnotic Veracity. Considerably less data is available on the veracity of information furnished in trance. I have been able to find 
in the professional literature only one author — Beigel (4,5) — who deals with prevarication under hypnosis. He writes in a personal 
communication that people may lie, refuse to answer, or wake up when asked direct questions on sensitive matters. Our own 
clinical work has amply convinced us that hypnotized subjects are capable of lying when they have reason to do so. It is therefore 
possible that information obtained from an interrogee by hypnosis would be either deliberate prevarication or an unintentional 
confusion of fantasy and reality. The correctness of any information so obtained would thus have to be established by independent 
criteria. 



Hypnosis 

Three suggestions have been made by Estabrooks (9) for what might be called defensive uses of hypnosis. He proposed that it 
might be used to make personnel hypnosis-proof on capture by the enemy, to induce in them amnesia for sensitive material in the 
event of capture, or to help them resist stress, particularly pain, in captivity. 

As we have seen, there is little or no evidence that trance can be induced against a person's wishes. Proofing personnel against 
hypnosis attempts which they could successfully resist without this conditioning would seem a practice of doubtful utility. The 
hypnosis undertaken in order to suggest that they resist trance induction upon capture might in fact possibly precondition them to 
susceptibility. It might be better simply to warn them of the techniques of trance induction and inform them that they can prevent 
it. 

Providing by hypnotic suggestion for amnesia upon capture is an intriguing idea, but here again we encounter technical 
problems. It is well known that the effectiveness and permanence of hypnotic suggestion is directly related to the concrete 
definition of a specific task. General suggestions such as blanket amnesia have unpredictable effects even on very good subjects. 
Moreover, even if it would work to suggest that a soldier remember only his name, rank, and serial number, there is the serious 
question whether this might deprive him of information vital to him during captivity. It would artificially induce a state of severe 
psychopafhology, which if adaptive to his situation in some respects might be extremely disturbing in others. The impoverishment 
of his knowledge and his loss of ego-control would give his interrogator a very effective means of controlling him, possibly leading 
to a quasi-therapeutic relationship in which the captive would turn to the interrogator for "treatment" to relieve his distress. This 
method has other serious drawbacks: offensive action, such as attempts to escape or schemes for cooperation among prisoners to 
obstruct interrogation, would be severely handicapped. It could be far safer to rely on the soldier's own ego-control to decide what 
information ought not to be revealed to an enemy than to make this decision for him in advance by hypnotic means. 

Conditioning individuals not to feel stress, particularly pain, would seem to hold promise of protecting them as captives subject 
to interrogation. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that although subjects under hypnotic analgesia continue to respond 
physiologically much as they do in the waking state, they do not report experiencing pain. It appears that hypnosis works best in 
situations of high anxiety and probably has its major effect on the anxiety component of pain. 

Such a procedure might be undertaken in particular instances, but probably is not feasible as general practice. Only a relatively 
small number of individuals will enter a sufficiently deep somnambulistic state to produce profound analgesia. Furthermore, 
though major surgery has been performed under hypnosis proper, I am unaware that major surgical procedure has ever been 
undertaken during post-hypnotically induced analgesia. In some individuals, I am sure, this would be possible, but clinicians 
working with hypnosis generally believe that the hypnotic state itself is more effective than post-hypnotic inductions. 

If this should be tried, what type of suggestion should the subject be given? The post-hypnotic suppression of all pain might be 
dangerous to the individual, since pain serves as a physiological warning signal; and it is doubtful that such a blanket suggestion 
would be effective anyway. It would be better to focus the suggestion on inability to feel pain at the hands of captors. Even this 
suggestion, however, would rapidly break down if the captured subject felt any pain at all, as is likely in all but a very few instances. 
The soldier who had been taught to rely on hypnosis as an analgesic and found it ineffective in certain situations might be 
considerably worse off than if he had not trusted this device in the first place. 



103 



Pseudo-Hypnosis as Interrogation Aid 

People do undergo physical and mental suffering to withhold information from an interrogator. Without attempting to discuss 
the psychodynamics of capture and interrogation — which obviously will vary widely from captive to captive — we would hazard 
the suggestion that at the core of their resistance is the sense of extreme guilt which would be activated by collaboration with the 
enemy while still in control of one's faculties. The alleviation of this sense of guilt, therefore, might be extremely useful to the 
interrogator. Both the hypnotic and the hypnoidal states induced by certain drugs are popularly viewed as ones in which a person is 
no longer master of his fate. This fact suggests the possibility that the hypnotic situation, rather than hypnosis itself, could be used to 
relieve a person of any sense of guilt for his behavior, giving him the notion that he is helpless to prevent his manipulation by the 
interrogator. 

A captive's anxiety could be heightened, for example, by rumors that the interrogator possesses semi-magical techniques of 
extracting information. A group of collaborating captives could verify that interrogees lose all control over their actions, and so on. 
After such preliminary conditioning, a "trance" could be induced with drugs in a setting described by Orne (19) as the "magic 
room," where a number of devices would be used to convince the subject that he is responding to suggestions. For instance, a 
concealed diathermy machine could warm up his hand just as he receives the suggestion that his hand is growing warmer. Or it 
might be suggested to him that when he wakes up a cigarette will taste bitter, it having been arranged that any cigarettes available to 
him would indeed have a slight but noticeably bitter taste. With ingenuity a large variety of suggestions can be made to come true 
by means unknown to the subject. Occasionally these manipulations would probably elicit some form of trance phenomenon, but 
the crucial thing would be the situation, not the incidental hypnotic state. The individual could legitimately renounce responsibility 
for divulging information, much as if he had done it in delirium. The correctness of information so obtained, however, would be 
no surer than that of information obtained from hypnosis itself. Further, the interrogator would have to act in his relationship with 
the captive as though he were confident that it was all correct, except as he could detect falsehoods with certainty. Any doubt he 
betrayed would increase the subject's feeling of control and so decrease the effectiveness of the hypnotic situation. Cross- 
examination, upon which much of his success in deriving accurate information ordinarily depends, would be denied him. Once the 
prisoner loses his feeling of responsibility for his behavior, he also is relieved of responsibility for giving accurate and pertinent 
information. As an effective defense against this hypnotic situation, as against hypnosis, could be provided by raising the level of 
sophistication of those who might be exposed to it. Even one or two lectures warning them of possible devices to trick them into 
believing themselves hypnotized could show them that people cannot be hypnotized against their will and cannot be compelled 
even under hypnosis to tell the truth or to follow suggestions really contrary to their beliefs. 



Findings 

In summary, it appears extremely doubtful that trance can be induced in resistant subjects. It may be possible to hypnotize a 
person without his being aware of it, but this would require a positive relationship between hypnotist and subject not likely to be 
found in the interrogation setting. Disregarding these difficulties, it is doubtful that proscribed behavior can be induced against the 
subject's wishes, though we must admit that crucial experiments to resolve this question have not yet been performed. The 
evidence also indicates that information obtained during hypnosis need not be accurate and may in fact contain untruths, despite 
hypnotic suggestions to the contrary. 

Hypnosis as a prophylaxis against interrogation, whether to prevent hypnosis by captors, to condition against stress and pain, or 
to create amnesia for sensitive information, would 

function as an artificial repressive mechanism with the serious disadvantage of diminishing the captive's mastery of the situation. 
Finally, the hypnotic situation, rather than hypnosis itself, seems likely to be a more effective instrument in interrogation. 



104 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1. Barber, T.X. Hypnosis as perceptual -cognitive restructuring: III. From sonmanbulism to autohypnosis. J. 
Psychol, 1957,44,299-304. 

2. Barker. W., and Burgwin, S. Brain wave patterns accompanying changes in sleep and wakefulness 
during hypnosis. Psychosom. Med., 1948, 10, 317-326. 

3. Bass, M.J. Differentiation of hypnotic trance from normal sleep. Exper. Psychol, 1931, 14, 382-399. 

4. Beigel, H.C. Prevarication under hypnosis. J. clin. exp. Hypnosis, 1933, 1, 32-40. 

5. Beigel, H.C. The problem of prevarication in marriage counseling. Marriage and Family Living, 1953, 
75,332-337. 

6. Boring, E.G. A history of experimental psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1950. 

7. Braid, J. Neurohypnology. London: George Redway, 1899. 

8. Brenman, M. Experiments in the hypnotic production of anti -social and self-injurious behavior. 
Psychiatry, 1942, 5, 49-61. 

9. Estabrooks, GH. Hypnotism. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1943. 

10. Hull, C. Hypnosis and suggestibility. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1933. 

11. Janet, P. Psychological healing; a historical and clinical study. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1925. 

12. Kline, M. V. A scientific report on "the search for Bridey Murphy. " New York: Julian Press, 1956. 

13. Kroener, J. Hypnotism and crime. Trans. J. Cohen. Wiltshire, Hollywood, 1957. 

14. Mayer, L. Das verbrechen in hypnose. Munchen: J.F. Lehman, 1937. 

15. McCranie, E. J., Crasilneck, H.B., and Teter, H.R. The EEG in hypnotic age regression. Psychiat. 
Quart, 1955, 29, 85-88. 

16. Nevsky, M. P. Bioelectrical activity of the brain in hypnotic sleep. Neuropatologia: psikhiatriia, 1954, 
54,26-32. 

17. Orne, M. T. The mechanisms of hypnotic age regression: an experimental study. J. abnorm. soc. 
Psychol, 1951, 46,213-225. 

18. Orne, M. T. The nature of hypnosis: artifact and essence. J. abnorm. soc. Psychol., 1959, 58, 277-299. 

19. Orne, M. T. Hypnotically induced hallucinations. A.A.A.S. symposium on hallucinations, December, 
1958, in press. 

20. Pavlov, I. P. The identity of inhibition with sleep and hypnosis. Science Monthly, 1923, 17, 603-608. 

21. Reiter, P. J. Antisocial or criminal acts and hypnosis: a case study. Springfield, 111.: Charles C. Thomas, 
1958. 

22. Schneck, J. M. A military offense induced by hypnosis. J. Nerv. ment. Dis., 1947, 106, 186-189. 

23. True. R. M. and Stephenson, C. W. Controlled experiments correlating electroencephalogram, pulse, 
and plantar reflexes with hypnotic age regression and induced emotional states. Personality, 1951, 1, 252- 
263. 

24. Watkins, J. G. Antisocial compulsions induced under hypnotic trance. J. abnorm. soc. Psychol, 1947, 
42,256-259. 

25. Watkins, J. G. A case of hypnotic trance induced in a resistant subject in spite of active opposition. Brit. 
J. Med. Hypnotism, 1941, 2, 26-31. 

26. Welch, L. A behavioristic explanation of the mechanism of suggestion and hypnosis. J. abnorm. soc. 
Psychol, 1947,42,359-364. 

27. Wells, W. R. Experiments in "waking hypnosis" for instructional purposes. J. abnorm. soc. Psychol, 
1923, 18, 239-404. 

28. Wells, W. R. Ability to resist artifically induced dissociation. J. abnorm. Psychol, 1940, 35, 261-272. 

29. Wells, W. R. Experiments in the hypnotic production of crime. J. Psychol, 1941, 11, 63-102. 

30. Young, P. C. Is rapport an essential characteristic of hypnosis? J. abnorm. soc. Psychol, 1927, 22, 130- 
139. 

31. Young, P. C. Hypnotic regression — fact or artifact? J. abnorm. soc. Psychol, 1940, 35, 273-278. 



105 



Effects of GHz Radiation on the Human Nervous System: 

Recent developments in the technology of political control 



Presented by Harian E. Girard, Philadelphia 
NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Coherent and Emergent Phenomena in Bio-molecular Systems, 

The University of Arizona, January 15-1991 



Abstract: The United States has developed communications equipment which can make the blind see, the deaf hear and the lame 
walk. It can relieve the terminally ill of all pain, without the use of any drugs. A man might retain the use of all his faculties up until 
the day of his death. 

This communication equipment depends on a new way of looking at the human brain and neuromuscular system, and gigahertz 
radiation pulsed at ultra-low frequencies. Some of this equipment is now operational within the Central Intelligence Agency and the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation. It will never be used to make the blind see and the deaf hear and the lame walk because its use is 
central to the domestic political agenda and foreign policy of James A. Baker and George Herbert Walker Bush. Domestically, the 
new communications equipment is being used to torture and murder persons who match profiles imagined to be able to screen a given 
population for terrorists, to torture and murder citizens who belong to organizations which promote peace and development in Central 
America, to torture and murder citizens who belong to organizations opposed to the deployment and use of nuclear weapons, and to 
create a race of slaves called Automatons or what is popularly called the Manchurian Candidate. 

Overseas, experimentation is taking place on hostages held by the United States in Canada, Great Britain, Australia, Germany, 
Finland and France. In addition, there has been a long series of bizarre suicides among British computer scientists, all of whom had 
some connection to the United States Navy. Considering how recklessly, wantonly and indiscriminately America's new weapons have 
been used, physicians attending the dead and dying should consider the patients known political views and associations before making 
a diagnosis or conducting an autopsy. 



INTRODUCTION 

In 1988 the Office of Technology Assessment of the Congress of the United States published a special report titled. Criminal Justice: 
New Technologies and the Constitution. The report surveys the new technologies used in the investigation, apprehension, and 
confinement of criminals and addresses that delicate balance to be maintained between the national interest and individual rights. 

As welcome as this report is to those of us who are interested in a government of law rather than of men, it manages to omit any 
discussion of the use of directed energy weapons from the section on less than lethal weapons. For instance, a weapon has been 
developed to paralyze a person at a distance, through a brick wall, if necessary. This weapon was developed during 1983-4 for use in 
situations where hostages are being held. A variation of this weapon has been purchased by the Marine Corps, for confusing and 
disorienting the enemy. 

American weapons research has centered on pulsed radiation in the gigahertz frequency band for a very interesting reason. In 1972, 
the Department of the Army researched Soviet and other foreign literature sources and discovered over 500 studies devoted to the 
biological effects of SHF - super-high frequency electromagnetic oscillations. 

(1) SHF may have potential use as a technique for altering human behavior. ...Lethal and non-lethal aspects have been shown to exist. 
In certain non-lethal exposures, definite behavioral changes have occurred. There also appears to be a change in mammals, when 
exposed to SHF, in sensitivity to sound, light, and olfactory stimuli. 

The significance of this intelligence document in terms of the medical experiments commissioned by the Central Intelligence Agency 
since 1976 is that emphasis in this report is placed on influencing individuals as opposed to groups. 

Secondly, this report is a trend study and therefore contains statements predicting Soviet knowledge and capabilities for influencing 
human behavior up to fifteen years ahead, or 1987. It foreshadows the enormous effort put into behavior control experiments 
employing the use of masers and microwave beam weapons on involuntary human subjects during the Reagan-Bush regime. 

Thirdly, despite the reports title "Controlled Offensive Behavior - USSR." it opens with a chapter describing the use of torture on 
Catholic prisoners in British jails in Northern Ireland. The inclusion of this chapter at all and its position at the front of the report, 
clearly is intended to suggest that it is permissible for the United States to torture its own citizens because these methods are being 
used by our very civilized cousins in Britain, and not only barbarians in the Soviet Union. 

Fourthly, the report states that, The purpose of mind altering techniques is to create one or more of several different possible states in 
the conscious or unconscious area of the brain. The ultimate goal of controlled offensive behavior might well be the total submission 
of one's will to some outside force. 

After discussing some of the possible states short of complete submission which may be the goal of Soviet research in behavior 
control, the author states, since the desired end product of this type of research is some change in the human mind, only the non-lethal 
aspects are discussed in this report. It should be remembered, however, that some techniques have lethal thresholds. 



106 



In the current round of American behavior control experiments, no allowance is made for lethal thresholds. The use of involuntary 
human subjects provided by the Central Intelligence Agency precludes the necessity for researchers to consider lethal thresholds and 
legal consequences. 

A curious situation has emerged in which torturers and murderers attend our meetings, address us on the failings of our own research, 
and misdirect us with papers on the benign effects of incubating eggs in 60-herz magnetic fields, in order to buy time for their own 
well paid and frequently lethal experiments on involuntary human subjects. 

Another document which will be of interest to those wishing background information concerning the technology of political control is 
The Search for the Manchurian Candidate: The CIA and Mind Control by John Marks. It was published in 1977 but has recently 
1,1988) been reprinted by Dell Publishing, with an introduction by Thomas Powers. 

Of special interest are the chapters concerning experiments with electrodes in the brain, which were the true forerunner of current 
experimentation involving invading the human brain and nervous system with gigahertz frequency masers and microwave beam 
weapons. 

Of particular interest in the light of current developments are two paragraphs in the very last chapter which concern a Boston-based 
CIA front organization, the Scientific Engineering Institute, which still exists, not so incidentally. The SEI was initially established to 
do research on radar! In the 1960's the SEI added a wing devoted to life sciences, and hired a group of behavioral and medical 
scientists. 

Marks reports, One veteran recalls a colleague joking, If you could find the natural radio frequency of a person's sphincter, you could 
make him ran out of the room real fast. Turning serious, the veteran states the technique was plausible, and he notes that many of The 
crazy ideas bandied about at lunch developed into concrete projects. Just how concrete that proposal to find the natural radio 
frequency of the human anal (and penile) sphincter became, Marks had no way of knowing at the lime he wrote his book. 

Lastly, I would like to cite another Defense Intelligence Agency report also prepared by the US Army. It is titled. Biological Effects of 
Electromagnetic Radiation (Radio waves and Microwaves) Eurasian Communist Countries It was published by the Defense 
Intelligence Agency in March, 1976. 

The importance of this report rests not on its content, much of which seems to remains classified, but in its acknowledgement of a shift 
in focus, in less than four years from a wide range of behavior control interests to just one, electromagnetic radiation. 
The date of this report is also significant; it was published Just as George Herbert Walker Bush became Director of Central 
Intelligence. Experiments on involuntary human subjects were rapidly authorized by the new Director, but outside of the United States 
because of the wrath of Congress at that time. 

An experiment was begun in Edmomon. Alberta. Canada, under the aegis of an American oil company with which the DCI was on 
friendly terms. It consisted initially of blasting a man s brain with the microwave analog of sound waves for 2-3 hours a day. This has 
the effect of producing auditory hallucinations. 

For an explanation of how audible voices are broadcast directly into the brain, see _Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications^, 
James C. Lin, Ph.D., Thomas Springfield, 11, 1978. For audible voices and their uses in intelligence operations also see _The Body 
Electric; Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life_, Robert D. Becker, M.D. and Gary Selden, Morrow, N.Y., 1985, particularly 
pages 317 et seq. 



TECHNOLOGY & METHODS 

A further discussion of events leading up the present series of mind control experiments will have to await another occasion, in favor 
of a discussion of the technology of which the United States is now possessed. 

As I have already indicated, one of the principal features of the weapon system is its ability to produce auditory effects, or 
hallucinations. Using these effects to broadcast defeat into the minds of the enemy was a particular dream of Lt. Gen. Leonard 
Perroots, U.SA.F. He hired droves of consultants to tell him how to use a microwave beam to implant ideas in the mind of the enemy, 
and to be perfectly fair, to urge on his own troops to superhuman deeds of valor. 

One consultant I have spoken with advised Perroots that it is no more possible to implant ideas in the brain with microwaves than it is 
possible to implant ideas in a computer with microwaves. He pointed out the impossibility of knowing where any particular bit of 
information is stored. The effect this had on Perroots was really quite predictable, considering the hubris of the man, and his access to 
unlimited amounts of money through the bloated, American defense budget. He kept on hiring consultants until he found one who 
promised him results, knowing thai he, Perroots, would be long retired before anyone could safely say his fair- haired boy was a 
charlatan. 

The smug complacency of the former consultant I spoke with was equally predictable. When I confronted him with the fact that 
medical atrocities are being committed on innocent human beings, he refused to discuss the subject with me until I could describe the 
process to him. Subsequently, I stumbled across Lin's book on microwave auditory effects. I called the former consultant back again, 
and again implored him to step forward and be counted. This time, confronted with the process being used, he told me that I had to 
explain to him the mechanism by which microwaves produce auditory effects! Changing tack, I told him that the mechanism is 
irrelevant; the process is being used on slave labor in efforts to create the Manchurian Candidate. 



107 



His reaction was just as predictable as Perroots', given the isolation and arrogance of academia. He assured me that such experiments 
couldn't be going on because HE had Forestalled that happening. HE had told Lt. Gen. Perroois that it couldn't be done, so Perroots 
had gone out to fly a kite and forgotten about it. Actually, that is what should have happened Instead, Perroots turned to a man who 
promised him results. This man remembered the microwave analog audiograms used by Dr. Joseph Sharp to beam auditory 
hallucinations into his own head at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in 1973. He promised Perroots that he would talk a 
human being to death if he was furnished with the equipment Sharp had used at Walter Reed, a slave, and personal security. 

This was the origin of the medical atrocities which begin in Edmonton, Alberta in 1976, under the protection of the Central 
Intelligence Agency, and continue to this day. 

By the fall of 1983, experiments had produced some communications equipment which far exceeded the simple dream of broadcasting 
defeat into the minds of the enemy. It is not only capable of producing auditory hallucinations, but visual hallucinations as well. The 
visual hallucinations have been described to me by a German artist, on whom t6his equipment is being used involuntarily, as having 
the quality of 35mm color slides. 

Besides these sensory hallucinations, the same equipment can be used to block all sensation. It is being used to distort and even 
completely block all senses. With it the ultimate in sensory deprivation experiments can be performed. There's no peaking under the 
electromagnetic blindfold this equipment creates. 

I should mention in this context, that the Central Intelligence Agency now has at its disposal the most evil, the most cunning torture 
devised by any government in all of human history. It is truly satanic in its moral and ethical implications. It is a torture which is 
commensurate with the degeneracy of a nation which is prepared and well on its way to polluting all life on earth into extinction. 

The torture I am writing of I can only describe as thought deprivation. It is used in conjunction with sensory deprivation but it is in 
fact sensory deprivation times 10 A (10). 

We are all familiar with the sensation of being exposed to very loud noises. They are irritating, and we try to remove ourselves from 
them. We might say, It's so noisy in here, I can't hear myself think. 

Human beings perceive thought as audible sound. It is something which we hear. We listen to ourselves think. This quality of listening 
to ourselves think, of hearing our own thoughts, can be extinguished by this device, so that it is _not_ possible to hear oneself think. 

I have no idea how this effect is produced. It may be accomplished by playing a signal into the auditory nerve at such a high power 
that it does in fact drown out the sound of all thought, but I do not believe that is how it is being done. I do not know enough about the 
physiology of the brain to explain how it might be done, but the Central Intelligence Agency can do it with the mind control 
technology at its disposal. 

That is the bad news. The good news is that one continues to think even if one cannot hear oneself think. Do not panic. There is 
nothing to fear. On the other hand, our thought process is what distinguishes man from other forms of life. Cogito ergo sum. But 
cogito is no longer necessarily possible. Where does this leave sum? 



Furthermore, this communications equipment is able to produce pain, enormous amounts of pain. Pain is only another nerve signal, 
and pain is applied in great quantities in the torture regimen. 

Sometimes the pain is specific and describable, more often it is general and indescribable. It is very much like being immersed in 
water, only it isn't water it is pain. 

I have also described this pain as being very much like having an electric current passing through one's body. It is like having one's 
finger held in an electric socket and being unable to turn the current off. Except, this torture is used for years on end. 
A skeptic might well ask why. If the United States has such equipment, it is being used to torture innocents and not Saddam Hussein. 
The answer is the cowardice factor. 

It is quite one thing to torture innocents for a few hours a day, a few days a week, and then retire to a nearby hotel to soak your liver in 
beer served from frosty mugs. It is quite another to spend your afternoons and evenings in Baghdad, confined to a room commensurate 
with your cover story, because you don't speak Arabic, wondering how soon you will be betrayed. 

This is the cowardice factor. What good is it to earn big bucks if your life is put at risk? Patriotism? Forget about it. Torturing a man 
through a cinder block wall is the ultimate act of cowardice. The mere invention is a reflection of the complete moral and physical 
corruption of American society. 

But America is also an intellectually corrupt country. Once the Central Intelligence Agency had discovered the Fountain of Death, it 
didn't know how to use it. The best idea they could come up with was to resurrect the protocols of the infamous Dr. Ewen Cameron, 
sustaining the new technology for the low tech equipment he had employed. 

Readers who are interested in the protocols of the deranged Dr. Cameron may consult John Marks' book, cited earlier. There have 
recently been several books published on the subject of Cameron, as well. This new interest resulted from survivors of his medical 
atrocities suing the CIA for compensation. 



108 



Among the books recently published, I would recommend Journey Into Madness by Clordon Thomas. The American edition came out 
in May, 1990. 

A skeptic might also ask how it is possible to apply the Cameron brainwashing technique, called de-patterning, to an American citizen 
in the privacy of his own home. This is in fact the $64 dollar question, with no obvious answer to rational men and women. 

Firstly, every effort is made to incarcerate the victim in a friendly hospital where his or her mind can be crushed at the leisure of the 
CIA- Failing this it is usually possible to at least get a false diagnosis from a corrupt physician that the victim has a potential 
psychiatric problem which may require institutionalization at some future date. 

The effort to incarcerate the victim requires the cooperation of someone in the victim's family or work environment. The Central 
Intelligence Agency uses the term authority figure to describe this player, because he or she is an authority on the victim, and will step 
forward at the appropriate moment and demand that the victim be incarcerated or agree with the physician that the victim should be 
incarnated. Failing the presence of an authority, the victim may simply be kidnapped and placed in confinement, or the CIA may use 
unlawful restraint to hold the victim in confinement temporarily. It's not a pretty picture. If all attempts at incarceration fail, or when 
the victim must be released, then the victim is tortured m the privacy of his own home- This is possible because the effects are 
produced by electromagnetic radiation, which passes freely through seemingly solid walls 

The brainwashing begins by picking victims who are isolated in the first place, preferably living alone, by soliciting the cooperation of 
the victim's friends and acquaintances. In other societies these people wouldn't be called friends, they would be called informers. 

The Central Intelligence Agency then attempts to isolate the individual from people whom they plan to corrupt — the victim's support 
network. This is done by making the victim difficult to be with. At the same tune, every effort is made to make the victim suspicious 
of his friends and colleagues so he will avoid them of his own, free will. 

To augment this process, members of the victims support network may simply be purchased to spread rumors concerning the victim, 
with the intention of further isolating him or her. This aspect of the process may be and is, carried to the extreme of simply murdering 
members of the victims support network. The process of discrediting the victim, isolating the victim, is a continuous one, and isolating 
the victim from members of the opposite sex, particularly potential sex partners, is a central feature of this process. 

This is the background. The foreground is the adaptation of the Cameron de-patterning technique. The central feature of this is to use 
microwave auditory effects in place of the tape player and headset which Cameron used in a part of the process called psychic driving. 

The microwave auditory effects are used to humiliate and ridicule the victim, and to express the torturers contempt for the victim, 
which is also expressed through the application of copious amounts of pain. 

Contempt is also expressed by breaking and entering the victims home and burglarizing it on a daily basis. The victim is allowed no 
privacy whatsoever His every action is commented on disparagingly. This is accomplished by bugging the victim's home with an array 
of devices, including video and sound sensors. 

The quality of the bugging equipment available to the CIA today is beyond the imagination of the average man. These sensors have 
been miniaturized to the point where no visual inspection will every discover them. And they are sensitive beyond belief The bugging 
devices themselves could be the subject of a separate paper. 

CONCLUSION 

The Manchurian Candidate 1990 is quite a different fellow than his 1956 counterpart. He is no longer an hypnotically preprogrammed 
assassin; his behavior is programmed and fed into a computer, which bio-mechanically drives him to his predetermined and 
destructive destiny, just like the cruise missiles manufactured by General Electric Aerospace 

When I pick up a copy of Biomedical Engineering I am struck by the fact that all of the research in it is unnecessary, duplicates 
research accomplished five to 15 years ago by the Central Intelligence Agency. The difference between our research and theirs is that 
scientists employed by the CIA work on involuntary human subjects, slaves if you will, furnished to them by their employer. They do 
not have to be concerned with lethal thresholds. 

The process which the microwave weapon employs is described in a paper titled, The Electromagnetic Spectrum in Low -Intensity 
Conflict, by Cap. Paul E. Tyler, Medical Command, United States Navy. His paper, presented at least a year after the murder which 
leaves no traces had already been perfected, sets forth the conceptual basis from which the development of the microwave beam 
weaponry began. It is worth reading. 

Captain Tyler's paper was presented at a workshop conducted by Air University Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and 
Education in March, 1984. His paper is included in a collection titled, Low-Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology, edited by Lt. 
Col. David J. Dean, United States Air Force, and published by Air University Press, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama in June, 1986. 
The book is available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

If there are skeptics among you, and I hope that there are, the benign results of the Central Intelligence Agency's research can be seen 
on television nearly every night. Take a film clip of George Herbert Walker Bush at the end of the Malta summit with President 
Gorbachev and compare it with a film clip of George Bush campaigning for the Republican nomination in 1988. The pitch of his voice 
has been significantly lowered, he speaks in complete sentences and no longer in sentence fragments, and his gestures are appropriate 
to the oratorical point he is making rather than empty and fluttery gesticulations. 



109 



I have no problem with the CIA's enhancing George Bush's public image. After all, he is former Director of Central Intelligence, and 
authorized experiments on involuntary human subjects with maser and microwave beam weapons in February, 1976. 

I have more trouble with the use of this equipment to neutralize Michael Dukakis' campaign for President in 1988, by making his 
public image wooden and plodding. 

I have even more trouble with the use of this equipment to bring Kitty Dukakis to the brink of suicide, in order to enhance the 
prospects of George Bush's choice of political opponent in 1992 Jesse Jackson. Now that the Supreme Court has been neutralized as 
an instrument for social justice, neutralizing the Congress has become the Central Intelligence Agencies principal objective. A Jackson 
nomination is most likely to divide and crush the Democratic Party. 

Think about what I have written. Perhaps it will help to explain classified work which is going on in a laboratory near you. Perhaps it 
will even help to explain work which you have been asked to do. 

What do you know about research aimed at the computer control of human beings through masers aimed at acupuncture points, or 
muscle groups? What do you know about the torture and rape and murder of persons of both sexes using masers and microwave beam 
weapons designed to be used in combat training and simulation systems? 

What do you know about a magnetic beam weapon, meant to temporarily disable any device employing an electric motor, or 
transistors, without permanently damaging it? 

What do you know about the development of a tactile intelligence exploitation system designed to maintain control of political 
activists as they travel, anywhere in the world? 

If you have such information, have a few words with me before the end of the of Workshop, or speak out on this subject in a forum of 
your own choosing. The more who speak out, the less likely it is that any one of us will be victimized for what we say. 

In any case, only the illusion of Constitutional government remains in the United States. Do not be afraid. The worst is yet to come. 

REFERENCES 

1. This 54 page report went out of print in March, 1990. It is available at libraries which have been designated Government Document Depositories. 

2. For a discussion of a similar weapon, see An X-Band Microwave Life-Detection System in IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol 33, 
No. 7; July, 1986. 

3. This information was leaked by a British scientist to a British investigator, and appears in City limits, London, Aug 9 - Aug 16, 1990. This weapon is 
described as a microwave pulse radar, and is believed to work by rapidly heating the brain. 

4. Super-high frequency radiation is a term applied to wave lengths between a decimeter and centimeter long. It corresponds roughly with a frequency 
range of 1-100 gigahertz. 

5. Controlled Offensive Behavior - USSR, by Captain John D. LaMothe, Medical Intelligence Office. Department of the Army. This intelligence 
document was published by the Defense Intelligence Agency in July, 1972. 

Bibliography 

Harlan E. Girard was born in Cleveland, OH in 1936. He studied for the B. Chem. E. degree at Cornell University, and received the B.A. degree in 
economics from The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, from which he graduated in 1957. 

From 1957 to 1984, Mr. Girard was employed and self-employed in a number of businesses, all of them centered on real estate development. In 1984, he 
returned to school to study urban design and landscape architecture at the University of Pennsylvania, from which he received the Master of Landscape 
Architecture degree in 1988. 

Since 1988, Mr. Girard has been pursuing independent research into the harmful effects ot radiation on biological systems. He is a member of the Bio- 
electro-magnetics Society and IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. 

In 1989, the Federal Bureau of Investigation refused Mr. Girard access to his own file on the grounds that it is 93exempt from mandatory release on the 
basis of 5 U.S.C. a7522 (b) (1)94. This section of the United States Code is applicable to documents 93to be kept secret in the interest of national defense 
or foreign policy. 

Mr. Girard is flattered to have been made a peer of J. Robert Oppenheimer et al., despite the fact that he has never applied for a security clearance from 
the Department of Defense or held a job which required one. On the other hand, since 1983, he has been an involuntary human subject in medical 
experiments commissioned by the Central Intelligence Agency, which has of course made him privy to a great deal of highly classified and extremely 
sensitive information. 

Mr. Girard used to be a moderate Republican, and received an Honorable Discharge from the United States Air Force in 1963. 



110 



Psychotronic Devices 



The Science of Sub-Natural Mindcontrol Technology® includes Psychotronic devices. 
These machines were developed to better manipulate the unconscious mental and physical 
processes. Just like the science of misinformation, there's much to research and lots to know. 

<f-concom:\colonialphoenix 

RADIO-FREQUENCY BRAIN WAVE TECHNOLOGY & 

Psychological Operations Groups (PSYOP-S) 



• "Planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their 
emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, 
groups, and individuals. The purpose of psychological operations is to induce or reinforce foreign attitudes and 
behavior favorable to the originator's objectives." ( POD Dictionary of Military Terms ) 

• "Psychological operations (PSYOP) include psychological warfare and encompass those political, 
military, economic, and ideological actions planned and conducted to create in neutral, friendly, and 
nonhostile foreign groups the emotions, attitudes, or behavior to support the achievement of national 
objectives." (US Army Field Manual 33-1 'Psychological Operations') 

• (NATO- specific usage) 

"Planned psychological activities in peace and war directed to enemy, friendly, and neutral audiences in 
order to influence attitudes and behavior affecting the achievement of political and military objectives. 
They include strategic psychological activities, consolidation psychological operations and battlefield 
psychological activities." (Joint Chiefs of Staff publication JCS1, 1987) 

• (Inter-American Defense Board-specific usage) 

"These operations include psychological warfare and, in addition, encompass those political, military, 
economic, and ideological actions planned and conducted to create in neutral or friendly foreign groups 
the emotions, attitudes, or behavior to support the achievement of national objectives." (Joint Chiefs of 
Staff publication JCS1, 1987) 

Acronym = PSYOP / PSYOPS. 

American Technology Corporation. 

Research in the field of Sub-Natural Strategy abounds. Below you'll find just a few more 
threads to research. There is a lot but it all leads to the same conclusions that we all must 
have about what this power means. What happens if it's put in the wrong hands? 

Psychotronic Devices are used in everyday ways. When you go shopping, some places can 
choose to use and- shoplifting systems that include Sub-Natural Strategies. It's everywhere. 



Ill 



MORE SOURCES & THREADS: 

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112 



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117 



Subliminal Messages and Commercial Uses-Information Warfare- 



Harlan Girard is head of the International Committee on Offensive Microwave Weapons; his collection of 
documents is quite significant. The most recent is his lawsuit against the US Government to stop 
nonconsensual testing on human subjects! This reviews domestic and international laws against this. 
Related is the document by and about Harlan Girard on the Human Research Subject Protections Act of 
1997, US Senator John Glenn's bill, SI 93 . Finally, his testimony about S193 before the Human Subjects 
Subcommittee National Bioethics Advisory Commission, Washington DC, October 19, 1997. Harlan 
Girard has called a national meeting July 29-August 4, 1999, in Philadelphia, PA, USA "so that survivors 
can develop group strategies and campaigns." Years later, information warfare has permeated everything. 

CHARLES SHERWOOD 

Examples: 

US 3951134: Apparatus and method for remotely monitoring and altering brain waves 

US5644363 Apparatus for superimposing visual subliminal instructional materials on a video signal 

US6017302 Subliminal acoustic manipulation of nervous systems 

US6052336 Apparatus and method of broadcasting audible sound using ultrasonic sound as a carrier 
Bevan W (1964) Subliminal stimulation: a pervasive problem for psychology. Psychol. Bull. 61: 81-99. 

Bryce, Susan (1992) Television: Drug of the nation. Nexus 2(10): 11-14. 

Clark E (1988) The Want Makers Hodder a Stoughton. 

Dixon NF (?) Subliminal Perception. 

Eagle (1959) The effects of subliminal stimuli of aggressive content upon conscious cognition. J. Pers. 27: 578-600. 

House of Representatives, Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Transportation, Aviation and 
Materials (1984) Subliminal Communication Technology. 

Key WB (1974) Subliminal Seductions. Signet Books, NY. 

Key WB () Media Sexploitation. 

Key WB (1980) The Clam Plate Orgy. Prentice Hall, Sydney. 

Spence DP (1967) Subliminal perception and perceptual defence: two sides of a single problem. Behav. Sci. 12: 183- 
193. 

"Information warfare has tended to ignore the role of the human body as an information - or data-processor, 
in this quest for dominance except in those cases where an individual's logic or rational thought may be upset 
via disinformation or deception.. .Yet, the body is capable not only of being deceived, manipulated, or 
misinformed but also shut down or destroyed - just as any other data-processing system. The "Data" the body 
receives from external sources - such as electromagnetic, vortex, or acoustic energy waves -or creates through 
its own electrical or chemical stimuli can be manipulated or changed just as the data (information) in any 
hardware system can be altered. If the ultimate target of information warfare is the information-dependent 
process, "whether human or automated," then the definition implies that human data-processing of internal 
and external signals can clearly be considered an aspect of information warfare." 

Thomas, Timotny L. "The Mind Has No Firewall." Parameters. Vol. XXVIII, No. 1, Spring 1998 



118 



On a much grander scale, the use of mind control was contemplated as far back as 1969 by a former science 
advisor to President Johnson. "Gordon J.F. Macdonald, a geophysicist specializing in problems of warfare, has 
written that accurately timed, artificially excited strokes, 'could lead to a pattern of oscillations that produce 
relatively high power levels over certain regions of the earth.. .In this way, one could develop a system that 
would seriously impair the brain performance of very large populations Brzezinski, Zbigniew. Between Two 
Ages: America's Role in the Technetronic Era. Viking Press, New York. 1970. This capability exists 
today through the use of systems which can stimulate the ionosphere to return a pulsed (modulated) signal 
which at the right frequency can override normal brain functions. By overriding the natural pulsations of the 
brain chemical reactions are triggered which alter the emotional state of targeted populations. 

One of the areas where this new technology is being used is in systems to dissuade shoplifters using sound 
below the range of hearing. "Japanese shopkeepers are playing CDs with subliminal messages to curb the 
impulses of the growing band of shoplifters. The Mind Control CDs have sound-tracks of popular music or 
ocean waves, with encoded voices in seven languages... warning that anyone caught stealing will be reported to 
the police. McGill, Peter. '"Mind Control Music' Stops Shoplifters." The Sydney Morning Herald, Feb. 
4, 1995. A number of patents have been developed to influence behavior in this way. The following 
summations are taken from some of these patents dealing with both audio and video programming only this 
time we are the program: 

"An auditory subliminal programming system includes a subliminal message encoder that generates fixed 
frequency security tones and combines them with a subliminal message signal to produce an encoded 
subliminal message signal which is recorded on audio tape or the like. A corresponding subliminal 
decoder/ mixer is connected as part of a user's conventional stereo system and receives as inputs an audio 
program selected by the user and the encoded subliminal message." us Patent #4,777,529, Oct. 11, 1988. 
Auditory Subliminal Programming System. Inventors: Schultz et al. Assignee: Richard M. Schultz 
and Associates, Inc. 

"Ambient audio signals from the customer shopping area within a store are sensed and fed to a signal 
processing circuit that produces a control signal which varies with variations in the amplitude of the sensed 
audio signals. A control circuit adjusts the amplitude of an auditory subliminal anti-shoplifting message to 
increase with increasing amplitudes of sensed audio signals and decrease with decreasing amplitudes of sensed 
audio signals. This amplitude controlled subliminal message may be mixed with background music and 
transmitted to the shopping area. US Patent # 4,395,600, July 26, 1983. Auditory Subliminal Message 
System and Method. Inventors: Lundy et al. 

"Data to be displayed is combined with a composite video signal. The data is stored in memory in digital 
form. Each byte of data is read out in sequential fashion to determine: the recurrence display rate of the data 
according to the frame sync pulses of the video signal; the location of the data within the video image 
according to the line sync pulses of the video signal; and the location of the data display within the video image 
according to the position information. US Patent # 5,134,484, July 28, 1992. Superimposing Method and 
Apparatus Useful for Subliminal Messages. Inventor: Willson, Joseph. Assignee: MindsEye 
Educational Systems Inc. 

"This invention is a combination of a subliminal message generator that is 100% user programmable for use 
with a television receiver. The subliminal message generator periodically displays user specified messages for 
the normal television signal for specific period of time. This permits an individual to employ a combination of 
subliminal and supra-liminal therapy while watching television. US Patent #5,270,800, Dec. 14, 1993. 
Subliminal Message Generator. Inventor: Sweet, Robert L. 



119 



Carrier Waves 

author unknown 

A carrier wave is needed to transport the brainwave frequencies. Because the carrier wave is what you hear 
through the headphones directly, you do not need to buy super high-end headphones (5 Hz - 25 KHz) to 
reproduce the effects. In other words, your headphones do not need to be able to reproduce a 5Hz signal if 
you are generating a 5 Hz theta- frequency brainwave file. The brain does however respond better to the lower 
frequencies, so the better the headphones you buy, the more dramatic the results will be. The best headphones 
are the kind that covers the entire ear, so outside noise does not get in. Plus, these headphones have much 
higher response to low frequencies. 

Carrier waves must have some correlation between the left and right channels, no matter how slight. That is 
why mono (total correlation), inverse (total negative correlation), and spatial (natural recordings have some of 
the same sounds coming in both channels) will work OK. 

The best sounds to use as carriers are sounds that are spread across the entire frequency range, or at least most 
of the lower frequency range. Good examples are ocean, waterfall (most any recordings from nature), and 
noise generated by this program. Experiment with mono (both left and right channels the same), inverted (like 
mono, but the left channel is the inverse of the right, obtained by using the Channel Mixer), and spatial stereo 
(spatially encoded sounds in nature, recorded with microphones about 9 inches apart to simulate separation 
between the ears). But don't let this stop you from digitizing your favorite music, and using it as a carrier, or 
converting your favorite to a mono or inverted wave. 

To generate a carrier wave, you can do three things: 

Record a sample. Once recorded, use the channel mixer to create a mono, or inversed wave. You can also just 
leave it the way it was recorded. You may find changes in effectiveness of the brainwave files depending on 
how you use the Channel Mixer. 

Generate Tones: Use the Generate Tones function to find a pleasing, relaxing tone for the background. The 
way tones work the best is if the left channel's tone frequency is 5-6 Hz different from the right channel's tone. 
To do this, generate one tone with left volume at 40, and right volume at zero. Then generate the second tone 
with the left and right volumes reversed. Finally, paste special (with overlap) one tone on top of the other. 
Use low frequency tones, like 50Hz to 120Hz for best results. These tones, by themselves, will help coerce the 
mind into the state associated with the difference between the frequencies. For example, for a theta state of 
6Hz, use a 70Hz and a 76Hz tone. Combining this tones sample with an existing brainwave file, by overlap 
pasting at a quiet volume (20%) is even more effective. 

Generate Noise: Use the generate noise function (pink and brown work best) in any of the modes: mono, 
inverse, or spatial stereo (independent channels noise will not work as a carrier for brainwave frequencies at all, 
since there is no correlation between the left and right channels). I find that using pink noise in spatial stereo, 
and running it through the Quick Filter to get rid off some of the "edge" if any works the best. I have also 
found Inverse to work quite well too, but the brainwave "effect" is more pronounced, and can be distracting, 
and some sound boards have trouble reproducing sound that is inversed between channels. 

Once you have found a pleasing sound, about 10 seconds or so of a monotonous sound (tones, river, waterfall, 
noise...) you're ready to start. If a monotonous sound is used, more disk space can be saved because we will 
use the play list to repeat portions. If a music sample were used, it is quite noticeable that the same 10-second 
piece is being played over and over and over again. 

If you're curious you can also spatially locate a mono sound to the left or right?. Do this if you wish to have 
the illusion that a particular sound is coming from one side or the other. The function works by pasting a 
mono sound sample into a stereo waveform, and using the digital delay function. Having a quiet "ping" 
(generated by using the sine wave generator, and fading out over the wave) play spatially on the left, then on 
the right at about 5 second intervals is very relaxing 



120 



Psychotronic Weapons 

author unknown 



New energy weapons have been described as being capable of creating symptoms of sea sickness can be 
used to resonate the inner organs to cause pain and spasms, induce epileptic -like seizures or cause cardiac 
arrest. Other weapons include, according to our research, those which cause or prevent sleep, override 
voluntary muscle movements or otherwise affect the brain. For example, 100,000 units of the "Black Widow," 
which overrides muscle movement, were added to the Russian government's arsenal in recent years. 

The term 'psycho-terrorism' was created by Russian writer N. Anisimov of the Moscow Anti-Psychotronic 
Center. He indicates that Psychotronic weapons can be used to take away part of the information which is 
stored in a person's brain and send it to a computer which reworks it to the level needed to control the person. 
The modified information is then reinserted into the person's brain and thought by them to be their own 
information. These systems are then able to induce hallucinations, sickness, mutations in human cells, 
zombification or even death. These technologies include VHP generators, X-rays, ultrasound and radio waves. 
Russian army Major I. Chernishev described in the military journal Orienteer (February 1997), how "psy" 
weapons are under development all over the globe. 

Specific types of weapons he noted were: 

A Psychotronic generator produces a powerful electromagnetic emanation capable of being sent through 
telephone lines, TV, radio networks, supply pipes and incandescent lamps. This signal would manipulate 
behavior of those in contact with the signal. 

A signal generator that operates in the 10-150 Hertz band which when operating in the 10-20 Hertz range 
creates an infrasonic oscillation that is destructive to all living organisms. 

A nervous system generator is designed to paralyze the central nervous systems of insects. This same system is 
being refined to have the same effect on humans. See US Patent # US 6,506,148 Nervous System Manipulation by EM Fields from 
Monitors (TV and Computer ) (Heartbeat). 

Ultrasonic signals of very specific design have been created. These devices are supposedly capable of carrying 
out bloodless internal operations without leaving a mark on the skin. They can also be used to kill. 

Noiseless cassettes have been developed by the Japanese which has given them the ability to place infra-low 
frequency voice patterns over music, patterns that are detected by the subconscious. The Russians claim to be 
using similar "bombardments" with computer programming to treat alcoholism and smoking. 

The 25th-frame effect discussed above is a technique where every 25th frame of a movie reel or video footage 
contains a message that is picked up by the subconscious so as to alter the conscious mind. 

Psychotropics are defined as medical preparations used to induce a trance, euphoria, or depression. These are 
referred to as "slow-acting mines." Symptoms could include headaches, noises, voices or commands in the 
brain, dizziness, pain in the abdominal cavities, cardiac arrhythmia, or even the destruction of the 
cardiovascular system. 

What is written here is the tip of a very large iceberg. These bits of information are intended to draw your 
attention to the state of the technology and where its going. These conclusions are not based on 
speculation but, rather, on the facts presented by military and academic researchers from the United 
States and around the world. . 



121 



"Mystery high frequency radio impulses have been bombarding the Eugene-Springfield area for as long as 
six years and may be affecting people's health.. .The paper said the source of the signals is unknown.. .They say it 
is being broadcast at 4.75 megahertz and is pulsating about 1.100 times per second." DPI. "Mysterious 
Radio Signals May Be Harming Health." The Columbia Record (South Carolina). March 27, 1978. 
The mechanism for understanding the effects of these energies is being recorded in several diverse laboratories 
with the mounting evidence of the proofs open science requires. One of observations shows that, "At the core 
of observed sensitivities to low-level EMF fields are a series of cooperative processes. One such series involves 
calcium ion binding and release. Available evidence points to their occurrence at cell membranes and on cell 
surfaces in the essential first steps of detecting EM fields. Also, attention is now directed to newly defined roles 
for free radicals, that may also participate in highly cooperative detection of weak magnetic fields, 'even at levels 
below thermal (kT) noise.'" Adey, W. Ross. "Whispering Between Cells: Electromagnetic Fields and 
Regulatory Mechanisms in Tissue." Frontier Perspectives, Vol. 3, No. 3. Fall 1993. 

One of the other effects which has been observed shows that interaction of specific fields with chemicals 
present in the environment or body can also contribute to significant changes. "This 'increase in genomic 
instability,' they suggested, could mean that chronic exposure to very strong EMFs 'may result in an increased 
incidence of congenital malformations and cancer. We propose that [EMF] exposure can affect both DNA 
damage and repair processes. ..and that it can act in concert with chemical agents to potentiate the damaging 
effects of those agents.'" Microwave News. "Four Labs Link 50/60 Hz Fields to DNA Breaks; Two 
Reproduce Effect at Occupational Exposure Levels." November/December 1998. 

Nature's pulse can also have a significant effect if we can just clear the electromagnetic smog long enough to 
sense its reality. Certain behaviors have been associated with the polarized light of the sun as it reflects off of a 
full moon, increased sun spot activity, auroras and other natural energy sources. Increases in Very Low 
Frequencies (VLF) can have a significant impact. "More specifically, this atmospheric parameter has been 
considered a possible trigger for changes in the somatic and emotional well-being of humans, sometimes 
referred to as weather sensitivity symptoms or meteoropathy. The following review attempts to summarize 
present knowledge of biological significance of VLF- effects in humans." 168. Schienle, H. and Vaitl, D. 
"Biological effects of Very low Frequency (VLF) Atmospherics in Humans: A review." Journal of 
Scientific Exploration, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1998, pp. 455-468. 

These are frequencies utilized in various forms of communications and other military applications. Their 
potential effect either by lack of operator understanding or the intentional design of the system could have 
significant impacts on humans, plants and animals. The body is always compensating for the impacts of energy 
on the body. If a person thinks about the feel of his body during a power failure - when all of the energy fields 
of significance are switched off in an instant - it is as if a weight were being lifted from us. The first thing 
noticed is usually the silence, followed by a release of tension as the body no longer has to attempt to create 
compensating energy fields for the constant bombardment of modern life and the internal stress it generates. 

The Weapon Revolution 

A number of new weapons are being developed or are already in operation. The Russians are reported to be 
ahead in many respects but this is only because the collapse of the old regime has allowed information to flow 
out of the country from leading scientists. The idea of creating specific brain interference, nervous system 
complications or heart failure are all targets of the new science of death. "Russia's psychotronic weapons 
include a psychotronic generator, which produces electromagnetic emanations that can be sent through 
telephone lines, TV, radio, or even light bulbs; an 'infrasonic sound' generator that destroys all life forms; a 
'nervous system generator' known, so far, to paralyze insects; 'ultrasound emanations,' which kill by attacking 
internal organs without leaving a mark on the skin; and 'noiseless cassettes' featuring voices too low to be 
heard, which are nevertheless detected by the subconscious." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. "All in the 
(Russian) mind?" July/ August 1998. 



122 



Radio Frequency Weapons 

author unknown 

The United States Air Force has been interested in radio frequency (RF) weapons ever since it was first 
noticed that certain radio frequency energy could have significant effects on humans and hardware alike. 
"Public discussion of RF/MW weapons has focused on disrupting technology. But a recent article in the 
Airpower Journal revealed for the first time that the military is developing high-powered microwave weapons 
for use against human beings... RF/MW and EMF-based weapons are also being studied for civilian law 
enforcement." Microwave News. "RF Weapons: Disabling People and Electronics." January/February 1996. 
The direction of the research begins to take more open form during the 1980s. The Air Force points out 
several areas of interest in developing RF weapons as follows: 

"Radiofrequency (RFR) Radiation" 

Introduction: Biotechnology requirements in the next three decades must consider significant advances in 
electronic (electromagnetic radiation) warfare, since both offensive and defensive systems will add significant 
radiation stress to humans in a wide range of military operations. We can expect increases in available on-board 
power; development of sophisticated methodologies for detecting, tracking, identifying and attacking; and 
ultimately the development of systems to inflict intense pulses of electromagnetic energy on an adversary. 

As the technological race continues, knowledge of mechanisms of action of RFR with living systems and 
the assessment of pulse RFR effects will demonstrate the vulnerability of humans to complex pulsed 
electromagnetic radiation fields in combination with other stresses... 

Assessment and Development of Pulsed Radiofrequency Radiation Effects 

Objectives: 

(1) Develop techniques to deposit radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at selected organ sites. 

(2) Develop mathematical models and physical measurement capabilities (microdosimetry) to track the real- 
time RFR energy distribution within organ sites as a function of physiological responses such as diffusion and 
blood flow. 

(3) Establish thresholds and other response rates for selected biological effects as a function of RFR wave 
parameters (shape, width, repetition rate, resource groups and intensify. 

(4) Develop laboratory tools to simulate likely real-time RFR encounters in Air Force operations (from VLF to 
millimeter wave frequencies). 

RFR Forced Disruptive Phenomena 

a. Objectives 

(1) Define the ability of RFR to interrupt, degrade or direct human central nervous system functioning. 

(2) Define the ability of RFR to interrupt or degrade physiological functions such as cardiac output and 
respiration. 

(3) Define the ability of RFR to interact with chemical and other physical agents, and to assess their combined 
impact on humans. 

A rapidly scanning RFR system could provide an effective stun or kill capability over a large area. System 
effectiveness will be a function of waveform, field intensity, pulse widths, repetition frequency and carrier 
frequency. The system can be developed using tissue and whole animal experimental studies, coupled with 
mechanisms and waveform effects research. 

Microresonance and receptor site mechanisms research will suggest specific frequencies which may interfere 
with or enhance drug or chemical agent effects. Confirmatory experiments in animals will be necessary. Using 
relatively low level RFR, it may be possible to sensitize large military groups to extremely dispersed amounts of 
biological or chemical agents to which the un-irradiated population would be immune." Southwest Research 
Institute- Final Report On Biotechnology Research Requirements For Aeronautical Systems Through The Year 
2000. Prepared for: The Air Force Office of Scientific Research- July 30, 1982. 



123 



The use of radio frequency energy as a carrier for a silent death has reached varying degrees of completion. It 
is now possible to disrupt the entire living system with weapons growing out of this research. The heating and 
more dramatic effects were first discovered and applied to the first generation of these new instruments. "A 
thermal gun would have the effect of heating the body to 105 to 107 degrees F, thereby incapacitating any 
threat, based on the fact that even a slight fever can affect the ability of a person to perform even simple tasks. 

This approach is built on four decades of research relating radio frequency exposure to body heating. A seizure 
gun would use electromagnetic energy to induce epileptic -like seizures in persons within a range of a particular 
electromagnetic field. The magnetophosphene gun is designed around a biophysical mechanism which evokes a 
visual response and is thought to be centered in the retina, known as magnetophosphenes. This effect is 
experienced when a person receives a blow and sees 'stars.' This same effect can be produced with 
electromagnetic energy." 223. oak Ridge National Laboratory. Physiological Responses Applicable to 
development of Less-Than-lethal Weapons. As far back as the early 1990s this new tool was under 
development. "Low frequency infrasound systems were considered for use in Somalia but rejected, as were 
radio frequency systems. The latter focus a beam of radio frequency energy on the targeted individual. This 
causes a rise in body temperature to between 105 to 107 degrees Fahrenheit, producing fever-like disabling 
symptoms... Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a thermal gun of this type..." Richardson, Doug. 
"Non-lethal options." Defence & Security Review. 

"Bioeffects research now being conducted by the Radiofrequency Radiation Branch examines effects at the 
subcellular, cellular, and whole organism levels. The research is conducted through the Tri-Service 
Electromagnetic Radiation Panel, which is chartered through the Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for 
Environmental Security. In order to examine carcinogenicity potential, some studies expose small laboratory 
animals to RFR over virtually their entire life span. Other research focuses on basic mechanisms of RFR 
bioeffects. Also emphasized are studies on the effects of millimeter wave frequency and high power microwave 
radiation on ocular and nervous system function. Some new directed energy weapons systems use short, 
intense pulses of microwave energy to incapacitate opponent electronic systems. A major research effort is 
focused on determining the biological effects of these novel pulses in order to establish protection criteria 
necessary before these systems can be tested and fielded. Bioeffects issues are critical to the success of new 
non-lethal weapons. Because of our core bioeffects expertise, we have become a major test facility for the 
bioeffects of non-lethal weapons... Air Force Research Laboratory, Brooks AFB. Radio Frequency Radiation 
Bioeffects Research at the United States Air Force Research Laboratory. 

The new "Technologies could include: radio frequency and microwaves, lasers, supercaustics, polymers, 
smoke, and electromagnetic pulse generators, to name a few.. .The US Army has even looked into infrasound - 
very low frequency sound - as a riot-or crowd-control agent. Infrasound generators could be turned against 
humans, causing disorientation, nausea and vomiting." Starr, Barbara. "Non-Lethal Weapon Puzzle For US 
Army." International Defense Review, April 1993 

The new systems have already been built and are available. Even "backyard inventors" are creating these new 
systems with a handful of off-the-shelf parts and easily obtainable materials. "Fancy building your own Klingon 
disrupter? An ex-US navy engineer has done just that for the bargain basement price of $500. The gadget fiend 
has built a 'gun,' using readily available hardware, that can disable almost any piece of electronic equipment 
from 20 feet away. Sfierritt, Lucy. "Build your own Klingon disrupter." The Register, Sept. 9, 1999 This same 
system if tuned to the right frequency could also be used against a person by inducing a heart attack or creating 
other effects. "Portable microwave weapons being field-tested by the U.S. Special Forces can quietly cut enemy 
communications but also can cook internal organs. 'I don't know that nonlethality is all that humane,' 
concludes Myron L. Wolbarsht, a Duke University ophthalmologist and expert on laser weapons." Ricks, 
Thomas E. "Nonlethal Arms: New Class of Weapons Could Incapacitate Foe Yet Limit Casualties." Wall Street 
Journal, Jan 4, 1993. These advances just begin with hand held devices. "A 1996 Air Force Scientific Advisory 
Board report on future weapons, for instance, includes a classified section on a radio frequency or 'RF 
Gunship.' Other military documents confirm that radio-frequency antipersonnel weapons programs are 
underway." Pasternak, Douglas. "Wonder Weapons." U.S. News & World Report, July 7,1997. 

One of the other areas where RF is being exploited is in creating artificial electromagnetic pulses (EMPs). 
These energy surges override and cripple sophisticated and simple electronic circuits. These technologies are 
being developed under dual-use programs for both military and police use: 



124 



"Jaycor has recently extended the pulse-power testing technology developed under Department of Defense 
programs for electromagnetic pulse and high-power microwave simulation to civilian applications with 
substantive success. Jaycor has developed a technology demonstration system for law enforcement, anti- 
terrorist operations, and military operations other than war (OOTW) to safely stop fleeing vehicles. The system 
is a potential answer to the prevention of the tragic endings to numerous high-speed chases that occur every 
year. 

Jaycor has a variety of nonlethal weapons in development for both military and law enforcement applications. 
One of those devices, dubbed Sticky Shocker™ for its ability to both stick to a human target and electrically 
stun the person, is nearing completion of engineering development. This project is being sponsored by the 
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the National Institute of Justice through the Joint Program 
Steering Group. 

Jaycor is using its expertise in electromagnetics to develop innovative and cost-effective methods for 
protecting new and existing systems from hostile exposures to intense radio frequency (RF) radiation. 
Advanced computer codes and models, which are verified using Jaycor's high-power microwave laboratories, 
are used to characterize the system's response to RF radiation. These response models are integrated into 
computer programs to support design engineers. The program leads users through a step-by-step RF 
protection design process." Jaycor. Less-Than-lethal Technologies, Products 

Jaycor is one of the companies actively developing these technologies for the Justice Department. 
"The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the Department of Defense have been developing new non-lethal 
weapons, including laser flashlights, nets, and projectiles. LE Systems developed the LaserDazzler in a project 
sponsored by the NIJ and the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency. Laser flashlights like the Laser 
Dissuader and the Laser Dazzler disorient a subject without causing lasting damage to the eyes. These devices 
look just like a regular flashlight, which also offers officers the advantage of surprise. The LaserDissuader uses 
an adjustable red 650 nanometer laser diode, supported by a complex electronics package, and top-of-the-line 
optics, which can be operated in continuous or flicker mode. 

In addition, the LaserDazzler flashes a series of random green bursts of light of up to 50 meters even in 
daylight, to distract a subject. LE Systems is looking for ways to reduce the dazzler's size, weight, and cost, 
while also searching for a means to commercially market the product. Other new nonlethal weapons include 
ring airfoil and electric stun projectiles. The Sticky Shocker, for example, clings to the target and administers 
pulses near 50 kV every few microseconds at a rate of 10 to 15 pulses per second. The maker, Jaycor, has also 
created a wireless stun gun with a range of 25 feet, without resorting to cables. Finally, the NIJ has provided 
funds to Delta Defense to create a pepper spray projectile, with the intention of having a 100-foot launch range 
able to penetrate a household windowpane of glass. "-Siuru, Bill. "Developments for the Military and Taw Enforcement Now 
Apply to Corrections." Correction Technology & Management, March/ April 1999. Vol. 3, No. 2. Source: NLECTC Law Enforcement S 
Technology News Summary, May 13, 1999. 

As with all new weapons, counter-measures also need to be developed. Defensive systems are being 
created to protect the developers of this technology from the fruits of their labors when the enemy chooses to 
test their new systems on us, such as new telepathic electronic two-way communications, where ELF [Extra 
Low Frequency], VLF [Low Frequency] waves will reach the people of the Earth through the insides of their 
brain. Such rays, from satellites, are fed from the memory of computers that store much data about the human 
being and his languages. These rays will then interlace and interweave with the natural thinking processes to 
form what we call the ARTIFICIAL TALK. 

RNM requires decoding the resonance frequency of each specific brain area. That frequency is then modulated 
in order to impose information in that specific brain area. The frequency to which the various brain areas 
respond varies from 3 Hz to 50 HZ. Only NSA Signals Intelligence modulates signals in this frequency band. 
Example ofEMF Brain Stimulation Bioelectric Resonance Information induced Brain area Frequency Through Modulation 
Motor Control Cortex 10 Motor impulse coordination Auditory Cortex 15 H% Sound which bypasses the ears Visual 
Cortex 25 H% Images in the brain bypassing the eyes Somatosensory 9 H% Phantom touch sense Thought Center 20 H% 
Imposed subconscious thoughts 



125 



US 5,973,999 - Acoustic Cannon 



United States Patent 
Naff , et al. 

Acoustic cannon 
Abstract 



5,973,999 
October 26, 1999 



An acoustic cannon has a plurality of acoustic sources with output ends symmetrically arranged in a 
planar array about a central point. Pressure pulses are generated in each acoustic source at 
substantially the same time. The pressure pulses exit the output ends as sonic pulses. Interaction of the 
sonic pulses generates a Mach disk, a non-linear shock wave that travels along an axis perpendicular 
to the planar array with limited radial diffusion. The Mach disk retains the intensity of the sonic pulses 
for a time and a distance significantly longer than that achievable from a single sonic source. The 
acoustic cannon is useful as a non-lethal weapon to disperse crowds or disable a hostile target. 



Inventors: Naff; John T. (Pleasanton, CA); Shea; James H. (Castro Valley, CA) 
Assignee: Maxwell Technologies Systems Division, Inc. (San Diego, CA) 
Appl. No.: 939265 
Filed: September 29, 1997 

Current U.S. Class: 367/139; 181/142 

Intern'l Class: H04B 001/034; G08B 015/00 

Field of Search: 367/137,138,139 181/142,144,145 381/161,337,338,339 

89/1.1,1.11 116/22 A 43/124 



References Cited [Referenced By! 



U.S. Patent Documents 



2552970 


May., 1951 


Horsley et al. 


3039559 


Jun., 1962 


Ellsworth. 


3410142 


Nov., 1968 


Daiber et al. 


3557899 


Jan., 1971 


Longinette et al. 


3756344 


Sep., 1973 


Daiber et al. 


3804021 


Apr., 1974 


McGirr. 


4287768 


Sep., 1981 


Hayakawa et al. 


4349898 


Sep., 1982 


Drewes et al. 


4757227 


Jul., 1988 


Danley et al. 


4769794 


Sep., 1988 


Beuter et al. 


4882974 


Nov., 1989 


Reuter et al. 


4912869 


Apr., 1990 


Govett. 


5081900 


Jan., 1992 


Buntzen et al. 


5225638 


Jul., 1993 


Quint. 


5259289 


Nov., 1993 


Peries et al. 


5269214 


Dec., 1993 


Badura et al. 


5473836 


Dec., 1995 


Liu. 


5606297 


Feb., 1997 


Phillips 



73/626. 



381/159. 



Primary Examiner: Lobo; Ian J. 

Attorney, Agent or Firm: Rosenblatt; Gregory S. Wiggin & Dana 



126 



Claims 



We claim: 

1. An acoustic cannon, comprising: 

a plurality of acoustic sources each having an input end and an output end with an interior bore disposed there between, each said 
input end receiving a plurality of discrete sonic pulses and each said output end emitting a sonic output in the form of discrete sonic 
pulses; 

a sonic pulse generator coupled to each said input end; and 

a timing mechanism coupled to said sonic pulse generator such that each one of said discrete sonic pulses is received by each one of 
said input ends at substantially the same time and is of substantially the same frequency and duration when emitted from each one of 
said output ends whereby a plurality of said sonic outputs interact to generate a shock-driven output pulse. 

2. The acoustic cannon of claim 1 wherein said plurality of output ends form a planar array about a central point and there are a 
minimum of three said output ends. 

3. The acoustic cannon of claim 2 wherein there are from about 10 to about 40 of said output ends arrange symmetrically about said 
central point. 

4. The acoustic cannon of claim 3 wherein there are from about 20 to about 30 of said output ends arranged as an ellipse about said 
central point. 

5. The acoustic cannon of claim 3 wherein said sonic pulse generator includes a source of an explosive fluid, a spark gap disposed 
within said interior bore, a power supply coupled to said spark gap and a fluid control valve to deliver a desired amount of said 
explosive fluid to said interior bore. 

6. The acoustic cannon of claim 5 wherein said explosive fluid is a mixture selected from the group consisting of hydrogen/oxygen, 
oxygen/propane, air/propane, air/acetylene, oxygen/acetylene, oxygen/gasoline, and air/gasoline. 

7. The acoustic cannon of claim 6 wherein said explosive fluid is a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen and said power supply is capable 
of delivering a pulse of from about 30 kilovolts to about 50 kilovolts to said spark gap. 

8. The acoustic cannon of claim 3 wherein said sonic pulse generator includes a solid explosive mix, an explosive squib coupled to 
said explosive mix and a power supply coupled to said explosive squib. 

9. An acoustic cannon, comprising: 

a plurality of acoustic sources each having an input end and an output end with an interior bore disposed therebetween, each said input 
end receiving a plurality of discrete sonic pulses and each said output end emitting a sonic output in the form of discrete sonic pulses; 
and 

a sonic pulse generator coupled to each said input end, said sonic pulse generator including a shock tube having a high pressure region 
and a low pressure region whereby a differential between said high pressure region and said low pressure region is effective to 
generate a shock wave; and 

a timing mechanism coupled to said sonic pulse generator controlling interaction of said high pressure region with said low pressure 
region and the generation of said sonic pulses such that each one of said discrete sonic pulses is received by each one of said input 
ends at substantially the same time and is of substantially the same frequency and duration when emitted from each of said output ends 
whereby a plurality of said sonic outputs interact to generate a shock-driven output pulse. 

10. The acoustic cannon of claim 9 wherein a first electrode having a front end extends through said high pressure portion, a dielectric 
layer coats said first electrode except for said front end, and a second electrode extends into said high pressure portion and is spaced 
from said front end by a distance, L. 

11. The acoustic cannon of claim 10 wherein L is from about 6 inches to about 36 inches. 

12. The acoustic cannon of claim 1 1 wherein a power supply capable of generating a voltage pulse of at least 100 kilovolts between 
said first electrode and said second electrode once every 0.5 seconds to every 2 seconds is coupled to said timing mechanism. 

13. A method for incapacitating a biological target, comprising the steps of; 

generating multiple, discrete, sonic pulses in the form of a Mach disk with a dominant frequency of between about 2 kHz and about 5 
kHz and an intensity from about 150 decibels to about 200 decibels by substantially simultaneously emitting sonic pulses from a 
plurality of output sources that are arranged in a planar array, wherein said sonic pulses are generated by rapid heating of a gas 
contained within a high pressure region of a shock tube; and directing said multiple, discrete sonic pulses in the form of a Mach disk 
at said biological targets. 



127 



14. The method of claim 13 including the steps of filling said high pressure region and said low pressure region with air at ambient 
pressure and then rapidly heating the air in the high pressure region thereby expanding the air contained therein. 

15. The method of claim 14 wherein said air is rapidly heated by exposure to an electric spark for a required length of time. 



Description 



BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 

1 . Field of the Invention 

This invention relates to an acoustic device that emits repetitive sonic pulses capable of dispersing or incapacitating a biological target. 
More particularly, a planar array of multiple acoustic pulse sources cooperates to generate highly focused pulses of high intensity 
sonic energy over a small area. 

2. Description of the Related Art 

Military and law enforcement personnel have a need for non-lethal weapons. Such weapons are useful in riot control to disperse a 
hostile crowd. In sniper and hostage situation, a non-lethal weapon provides a means to neutralize a hostile target without collateral 
damage to hostages, bystanders or property. In combat, a non-lethal weapon is useful to neutralize sentries and warning devices. Since 
the weapon produces casualties, rather than fatalities, each hit removes three opponents, the injured and a two-person rescue squad, 
from the combat zone instead of the one person removed by a fatality. 

High intensity sound pulses have a debilitating effect on biological targets. Humans become disoriented by exposure to sonic pulses 
exceeding a threshold of pain of about 150 decibels (dB). Eardrum rapture occurs at about 190 dB, the threshold for pulmonary injury 
is about 200 dB and the onset of lethality is about 220 dB. 

U.S. Pat. No. 3,557,899 to Longinette et al. discloses a parabolic reflector that focuses and transmits a continuous sound at a frequency 
of between 8 kilohertz (kHz) and 1 3 kHz. Within this frequency range, sound attenuates rapidly and the disclosed device is believed 
effective only at close ranges. The U.S. Pat. No. 3,557,889 patent discloses utilizing the device in close proximity to a riot or in 
enclosed areas, such as a bank vault. 

U.S. Pat. No. 4,349,898 to Drewes et al. discloses a sonic weapon to destroy buildings and disable personnel. A plurality of tubes each 
conduct a continuous sound generated by a jet engine. Rotating fans at the ends of the tubes create pulsed sound of a desired 
frequency. The fan speeds are set such that each tube has a pulse sound frequency two times the frequency of a preceding tube leading 
to an additive effect of sound waves referred to as a parametric pump. The disclosed device appears heavy and requires careful 
alignment of a number of large apparatus for operation. 

There remains, therefore, a need for a portable acoustic weapon capable of dispersing or disabling biological targets at distances of up 
to 100 meters that does not suffer from the disadvantages of the prior art discussed above. 

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION 

Accordingly, it is an object of the invention to provide an acoustic device capable of dispersing or incapacitating a biological target. 
One feature of the invention is that the device has a planar array of simultaneously actuated acoustic pulse sources. Interaction 
between the sonic pulses forms a Mach disk. A second feature of the invention is that the device is actuated by either a shock tube or 
detonation of an explosive chemical mix. 

Among the advantages of the invention are that the Mach disk is a compact packet of sound that may be accurately fired to minimize 
harm to hostages, bystanders and property. The Mach disk effectively incapacitates or disperses a biological target with a minimal 
threat of lethality. The acoustic device is relatively lightweight and is readily transported by an infantry vehicle and operated by a 
single person. 

In accordance with the invention, there is provided an acoustic cannon that has a plurality of acoustic sources arranged in a planar 
array about a central point. Each of the plurality of acoustic sources has an input end and an output end. The input end receives a sonic 
pulse and the output end transmits a sonic output. A sonic pulse generator is coupled to each of the input ends and a timing mechanism 
is coupled to the sonic pulse generator such that the sonic pulse is received by each of the input ends at substantially the same time and 
is of substantially the same frequency and duration. The combination of the planar array and the parameters of the sonic output 
effectively generates a Mach disk. 



128 



The above stated objects, features and advantages will become more apparent from the specification and drawings that follows. 
IN THE DRAWINGS 



FIG. 1 shows in cross-sectional representation a single sonic source as known from the prior art. 
FIGS. 2A and 2B illustrate the acoustic cannon of the invention. 

FIG. 3 illustrates in cross-sectional representation an acoustic cannon in accordance with a first embodiment of the invention 

FIGS. 4A through 4E graphically illustrate the generation of a sonic pulse through the use of a shock tube. 

FIG. 5 illustrates in cross-sectional representation an acoustic cannon in accordance with a second embodiment of the invention. 

FIG. 6 graphically illustrates the relationship between frequency content of the sonic pulse and directivity. 

FIG. 7 graphically illustrates the relationship between frequency contained in the sonic pulse and attenuation. 

FIG. 8 graphically illustrates the relationship between pulse range and peak pressure measured in decibels. 



DETAILED DESCRIPTION 

FIG. 1 illustrates in cross-sectional representation a muzzle portion 12 of an acoustic device 10 as known from the prior art. A sonic 
source (not shown) generates a pressure wave 16 that is transmitted along an interior bore 14 and emitted from an output end 18 as 
spherically expanding sound waves 20. The spherically expanding sound waves 20 diffuse rapidly. The prior art acoustic device has 
limited value as a weapon. The strength of the pressure wave 16 drops to below useful values within a very short distance and time. 
Additionally, the spherically expanding sound waves 20 diffuse over a broad area rendering target selectivity difficult or impossible. 

The disadvantages of the prior art are resolved by an acoustic cannon in accordance with the present invention. FIG. 2 schematically 
illustrates a portion of the acoustic cannon of the invention in Front (FIG. 2A) and Side (FIG. 2B) Views. Acoustic sources 22 
terminate at an output end 24. Interior bores 26 extend from output ends 24 to input ends 28 that are adjacent to a sonic pulse 
generator 30. A timing mechanism 32 controls the rate and duration of generated sonic pulses. In a first embodiment of the invention, 
the sonic pulses are generated by detonation of an explosive mix and a fuel storage chamber 34 is provided to house required 
quantities of the additional explosive mix, or explosive mix precursors. 

The Front View (FIG. 2A) illustrates the output ends 24 arranged in a generally planar array having symmetry about a central point 
36. The planar array may be configured as any shape, with symmetric shapes preferred to optimize the sonic output. A most preferred 
configuration is elliptical, including circular, arrays. The number of output ends 24 in the planar array is at least two to provide 
directivity and at least three to provide a symmetric array. Preferably, there are at least four output ends 24 in the planar array. More 
preferably, there are from about 10 to about 40 output ends and most preferably, from about 20 to about 30 output ends. 

As illustrated in the Side View (FIG. 2B), when sonic pulses of substantially the same amplitude and duration are emitted from each 
of the output ends 24 at essentially the same time, the shock waves 37 interact along a longitudinal axis 38, running parallel to the 
longitudinal axis of the interior bore 26 and extending outwardly from the central point 36. Interaction of the shock waves 37 from the 
plurality of output ends 24 generates a Mach disk 39. The output has some of the characteristics of an acoustic soliton, although while 
a soliton does not change shape with propagation, the shock-driven output pulses of the invention are expected to undergo relatively 
slow and predicable changes in shape. 

The Mach disk is a non-linear shock wave that travels rapidly along the longitudinal axis 38 with limited radial diffusion over 
distances of up to 100 meters. The intensity of the shock wave 37 contained within the Mach disk 39 decreases more slowly over 
distance and time than the l/(range).sup.2 behavior of a single spherical expanding pulse. 

If the same energy is used in a multiple tube source having a planar array of outputs as in a single output source, the on-axis peak 
pressure for the multiple tube source, in the direction of maximum directivity, is n.sup.2/3 times that of the single tube. The n.sup.2/3 
factor is derived from a linear superposition of the predicted pressure pulses from individual sources, which will all be of shorter 
duration than a single pulse derived from a single source using the same total energy. With multiple sources, energy from each 
individual source is concentrated in a shorter on-axis pulse. At the same range from the array, the resulting peak pressure is greater by 
this factor compared to the peak pressure associated with a single source of equivalent total energy. The attenuation rates of the peaks 
with distance will be essentially the same for single and multiple sources. 

For a 10 tube array having the same output energy as a single tube, the sound pressure, along the longitudinal axis, is 4.6 times higher 
than for the single tube at similar times and distances. 

FIG. 3 illustrates in cross-sectional representation an acoustic source 40 for use with the acoustic cannon of the invention in 
accordance with one embodiment. The acoustic source 40 has an input end 42 and an output end 44. The input end 42 receives sonic 
pulses and the output end 44 transmits the sonic output as a portion of a planar array of outputs to generate a Mach disk. 

Coupled to the input end 42 is a sonic pulse generator 46. The sonic pulse generator 46 detonates an explosive mix of gases or 
vaporized liquids. A first fluid component, that could be a gas, a liquid, or a mixture thereof, is delivered to a mixing chamber 48 
through a first conduit 50. A second fluid component is delivered to the mixing chamber 48 through a second conduit 52. A first fluid 



129 



control valve 54 and a second fluid control 56 determine the ratio of first fluid to second fluid in the mixing chamber 48. While 
stoichiometric ratios of the fluids are preferred, a stoichiometric ratio is not required. Any fluid mix ratio that generates an explosive 
shock wave on ignition is suitable. A third fluid control valve 58 introduces a desired volume of mixed fluid into the barrel 60 of the 
acoustic source 40. The desired volume of fluid substantially fills the barrel 60. 

The fluid control valves 54,56,58 are any suitable type of fluid metering system. Since the first fluid control valve 54 and the second 
fluid control valve 56 control fluid ratios, adjustable manual valves are suitable. The third fluid control valve 58 accurately and 
repeatedly delivers the mixed fluid to barrel 60. Rapid repetition rate is frequently required and the third fluid control valve 58 is 
preferably an electrically actuated solenoid valve. 

A power supply 62 generates a voltage potential between electrodes 64 that exceeds the breakdown voltage of the mixed fluid 
contained within the barrel 60 thereby generating a spark at gap 66. An effective voltage potential is from about 10 kilovolts to about 
100 kilovolts. To optimize generation of the Mach disk, the interior bore of the barrel 60 is preferably symmetric about a longitudinal 
barrel axis 68. More preferably, the interior bore is circular in cross-section and the spark gap 66 aligned along the longitudinal axis 
68. 

A timing mechanism 70 is coupled to the sonic pulse generator and controls power source 62, third fluid control valve 58, or 
preferably, both devices. The timing mechanism 70 ensures that each of the plurality of acoustic sources is fired at substantially the 
same time for effective generation of the Mach disk. 

A number of different fluid combinations produce effective shock waves that exit the acoustic source 40 as a strong sonic pulse. 
Preferred fluids are combinations of gases and include hydrogen/oxygen, oxygen/propane, air/propane, air/acetylene, 
oxygen/acetylene and the like. A preferred explosive fluid mixture is hydrogen and oxygen in approximately stoichiometric quantities 
(atomic ratio of H:0 of 2:1). For this mixture, a voltage pulse in the range of from about 30 kilovolts to about 50 kilovolts, and 
typically about 40 kilovolts, for a duration of 1 microsecond is effective. Atomized or vaporized liquid fuels such as gasoline, can also 
be mixed with oxygen or air as an effective mixed fluid. 

Rather than mixed fluids to generate the sonic pulse on detonation, solids fuels can be used. The solid fuels would be packaged in a 
manner similar to blank shells, but would be larger and have more energy per package than the usual gun blanks. An electronic squib 
or a percussive primer is used to detonate the solid fuel. Automatic reloading of the solid fuel shells could be accomplished in a 
manner that is conventional for guns or cannons to accomplish a desired repetition rate. 

A most preferred acoustic source is an electrically triggered shock tube. Shock tubes are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,410,142 to 
Daiber et al. that is incorporated by reference in its entirety herein. With reference to FIG. 4A, the shock tube 72 is tubular with an 
interior bore centrally running therethrough. A frangible diaphragm 74 separates the shock tube 72 into a high pressure region 76 and 
a low pressure region 78. When frangible diaphragm 74 is ruptured, the pressure differential between the high pressure region 76 and 
the low pressure region 78 generates a shock wave that travels the length of the low pressure region 78 and is emitted from the shock 
tube 72 at output end 80 as a sonic pulse. 

FIGS. 4B through 4E illustrate the generation of the sonic pulse. In FIG. 4B, the initial pressure distribution of the shock tube prior to 
rupture of the frangible diaphragm 74 is illustrated showing the high pressure region 76 and low pressure region 78. Shortly after 
rupture of the frangible diaphragm 74, a shock wave 82 begins to traverse the low pressure region 78. Trailing the shock wave 82, but 
traveling at a higher velocity is a rarefaction wave 84. As indicated in FIG. 4E, adjacent to the output end 80, the rarefaction wave 84 
catches up with the shock wave 82, generating a high energy sonic pulse. 

FIG. 5 illustrates the incorporation of a shock tube 72 into the acoustic cannon of the invention. The shock tube 72 has a high pressure 
region 76 and low pressure region 78 separated by a frangible diaphragm 74. Prior to actuation, both the high pressure region 76 and 
low pressure region 78 are at substantially the same pressure. Preferably, prior to actuation, both regions are filled with air at ambient 
pressure. Frangible diaphragm 74, typically a thin sheet of plastic or other brittle material, is inserted into a notch formed through the 
housing 86 of shock tube 72 and separates the high pressure region 76 from the low pressure region 78. 

To actuate the acoustic cannon, the gas pressure in the high pressure region 76 is increased by any suitable means. A preferred means 
is electric arc heating. A first electrode 88 extends longitudinally through a portion of the high pressure region 76 centered about a 
longitudinal axis 90 of the shock tube 72. A front end 92 is proximate to the frangible diaphragm 74, but preferably the front end 92 
does not contact the frangible diaphragm 74. A rear end 94 extends through a rear wall 96 of the high pressure region 76 terminating 
in a reservoir 98 containing a high dielectric fluid 100 having a resistivity in excess of about 10. sup. 6 ohm-cm. One suitable dielectric 
is conventional transformer oils. The oil is for insulation only, other methods of high voltage insulation are equally suitable. 

Encasing a substantial portion of the first electrode 88 is a dielectric insulator 102. The dielectric insulator 102 covers an entire mid- 
portion of the first electrode 88, exposing only a desired small amount of the front end 92 and the rear end 94. Disposed about a 
portion of the dielectric insulator 102 is a second electrode 104. The second electrode 104 has a front end 106 disposed within the high 
pressure region 76 and a rear end 108 disposed within the high dielectric fluid 100 of reservoir 98. The dielectric insulator 102 defines 
a longitudinal length, L, between the second electrode 104 and the front end 92, that regulates heating of the gas contained within the 
high pressure region 76. When the shock tube 72 is actuated, an electric spark 110 is emitted and traverses along the surface of the 
dielectric insulator 102 from the second electrode 104 to the front end 92 of the first electrode 88. Increasing the length, L, increases 
the time that the gases are exposed to the electric spark increasing heating of the gases. As the gases are heated, they expand, 
generating a pressure differential between the high pressure region 76 and low pressure region 78. Increasing the length of L, increases 
the heating of the gases, increasing the expansion thereof, thereby increasing the pressure differential and intensity of the shock wave 
ultimately emitted from the shock tube. 



130 



To actuate the shock tube 72, a power supply 1 12 charges a capacitor 1 14. The voltage difference between the first electrode 88 and 
second electrode 104 must exceed the breakdown voltage of the gas contained within the high pressure region 76. For air, a voltage 
differential of in excess of 100 kilovolts, and preferably on the order of 150 kilovolts is utilized. A timing mechanism (not shown) 
actuates all shock tubes 72 of the acoustic cannon at substantially the same time by electronically closing a switch 1 16, thereby 
completing the circuit. Preferably the length L is from about 6 inches to about 36 inches. The spark will traverse a distance in excess 
of one foot in less than 2 microseconds. 

After each burst of the shock tube, the frangible diaphragm 74 must be replaced. The pulse repetition rate is from about 0.1 to about 5 
seconds and preferably from about 0.5 to about 2 seconds. 

Rapid replacement of the frangible diaphragm is achieved by mechanical means. An advantage with the electric heated shock tube of 
the invention is that the frangible diaphragm 74 may be omitted. The gas in the high pressure region 76 is heated faster than the 
pressure can be relieved. The result is a pressured region that expands as a shock wave from the end of the barrel. 

The frequency content of the sonic pulses is controlled by the barrel length. The output of the pulsed acoustic source is a single pulse 
that has Fourier components that range over a range of frequencies. The principal, or dominant, frequency will primarily be dependent 
on the duration of the high-pressure portion of the pulse, that can be controlled to a first order by the energy in the individual shock 
sources and by the barrel length. 

As illustrated in FIG. 6, to maintain high directivity, the minimum dominant frequency of the sonic pulses is in excess of about 1 kHz, 
and preferably in excess of about 2 kHz. 

As illustrated in FIG. 7, attenuation increases as the frequency increases such that the maximum dominant frequency of the sonic 
pulses is preferably less than about 7 kHz, and more preferably, less than about 5 kHz. 

The sound intensity is selected to provide a desired effect to the biological target, dependent on the application. While the effect of 
sound is subjective and dependent on an individual's physiology, the Table 1 guidelines are illustrative. 

TABLE 1 

Effect Sonic Intensity 

Shock Wave Pressure 

Threshold of Pain 

145 dB 
Eardrum Rupture 

185 dB 

5-6 psi 

Pulmonary Injury 

200 dB 

30 psi 

Lethality 100 psi 



As graphically illustrated in FIG. 8, a sonic generator having a mass equivalent to the "total charge mass" equivalency of 
trinitrotoluene (TNT) is capable of producing a shock pulse effective to cause disorientation and debilitation, without permanent 
injury, over distances of from less than 10 meters to in excess of 100 meters. The FIG. 8 distances were computed based on a single 
sonic source and do not include the n.sup.2/3 factor that is obtained using multiple sources. As such, FIG. 8 illustrates the minimum 
over-pressure values at a given range for different values of the source strength (energy). Incorporation of the n.sup.2/3 factor for 
multiple sources substantially increases the effective range for a given over-pressure level. 

It is anticipated that the acoustic cannon of the invention will weigh less than 50 kilograms and occupy a net volume of about 1 cubic 
meter, compatible with current light infantry vehicles. The discrete nature of the individual pulses comprising the acoustic radiation 
field essentially eliminates the presence of high-amplitude side lobes, but there will also be no null positions. Off-axis locations will 
experience peak pressures comparable to those characteristic of the peaks for individual sources at the same distance, but possibly for 
somewhat longer duration. Consequentially, ear protection for the operators is recommended. 

The advantage of the acoustic cannon of the invention is illustrated by the Example that follows. 
EXAMPLE 

Four acoustic tubes each having an inside diameter of 6 inches and a length of 12 inches were placed at the corners of a 36 inch 
square. Each tube was charged with a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in approximate stoichiometric ratio. The gaseous mixture of 
each tube was simultaneously ignited by an electric spark, generating four shock waves that cooperated in the formation of a Mach 
disk. The acoustic pressure at a distance of 50 feet from the output ends of the acoustic tubes, was measured to be in excess of 165 dB 
(greater than 0.7 psi over-pressure) effective to provide deterrence and debilitation. 

It is apparent that there has been provided in accordance with the present invention an acoustic cannon that fully satisfies the objects, 
means and advantages set forth hereinabove. While the invention has been described in combination with embodiments thereof, it is 
evident that many alternatives, modifications and variations will be apparent to those skilled in the art in light of the foregoing 
description. Accordingly, it is intended to embrace all such alternatives, modifications and variations as fall within the spirit and broad 
scope of the appended claims. 



131 



EMDR: What does it mean?- Go look it up! 

author unknown 

The American Journal of Hypnosis published a special issue on the use of EMDR and hypnosis. An 
introductory article by the editor and past president of the American Association of Clinical Hypnosis directly 
addressed the issue: "While it has been argued against categorizing hypnosis as a specific type of treatment 
method (e.g., Fischolz, 1995; 1997a; 1997b; 2000; Fischholz & Spiegel, 1983), this is not the case for EMDR. 
Like psychoanalysis, EMDR is both an evolving theory about how information is perceived, stored and 
retrieved in the human brain and a specific treatment method based on this theory (Shapiro, 1995, 2001). In 
fact, EMDR is a very unique treatment method, which like other types of treatment/methods/techniques (e.g. 
psychoanalytic/ psychodynamic therapy, behavior, cognitive-behavioral therapy, ego-state therapy) can also be 
incorporated with hypnosis (Hammond, 1990). 

We note there are some distinctive differences between hypnosis and EMDR, which we would like to briefly 
highlight. First, one of the major uses of hypnosis among clinical practitioners is to deliberately begin by 
inducing in the patient an altered state of mental relaxation. In contrast, when beginning EMDR mental 
relaxation is not typically attempted. In fact, deliberate attempts are often actually made to connect with an 
anxious (i.e. an emotionally disturbing as opposed to relaxed) mental state. 

Second, therapists often use hypnosis to help a patient develop a single, highly focused state of aroused 
receptivity (Spiegel & Spiegel, 1978). In contrast, with EMDR attempts are made to maintain a duality of focus 
on both positive and negative currently held self-referencing beliefs, as well as the emotional arousal brought 
about by imaging the worst part of a disturbing memory. However, in this sense, EMDR does have a similarity 
to Spiegel's (Spiegel & Spiegel, 1978) split-screen cognitive restructuring technique. 

Third, one of the proposed effects of hypnotizing a person is that they will have a decrease in their generalized 
reality orientation (GRO: Shor, 1979). This induced decrease in a person's GRO is often utilized in order to 
promote an increase in fantasy and imagination, perhaps by capitalizing on an increase in trance logic (Orne, 
1977). In contrast, in EMDR attempts are made towards repeatedly grounding the patient by referencing 
current feelings and body sensations to prevent the patient from drifting away from reality. Specific 
encouragement/inducement is made towards rejecting previously irrational/self-blaming beliefs in favor of a 
newly, reframed positive belief with an increase in subjective conviction about that belief. Shapiro and Forrest 
(1997) and Nicosia (1995) have also noted additional differences between hypnosis and EMDR. 

What is EMDR? Go look it up! 

Fine, C. G., & Berkowitz, A. S. (2001). The wreathing protocol: The imbrication of hypnosis and EMDR in the 
treatment of dissociative identity disorder and other maladaptive dissociative responses. American Journal of 
Clinical Hypnosis. 43. 275-290. 

SOURCES & THREADS: 



Bearden, T. (1978) Soviet Psychotronic Weapons: A condensed background, Specula, March-June, pp. 20, 27. 
Byrd EA (1979) Technology Tommorrow June 1979. 

de Caro, Chuck (1987) The zap gap.The Atlantic March 1987. [David fratus(1988)] 
Cooper P (1994) ARPA office takes on crime.Defense News 1994.6.27/7.3, p.16 
DOD (1988) Soviet Military Power, pp.146. 



132 



Electromagnetic-gun competition IDR 12/1982:1748 [not an EM radiation weapon] 

Giovanni de Briganti (1994) Lasers, viruses, may rule no-fly zone sky. Defense News Feb. 7-13: 1,45. 

Holzer R & Munron (1992) Microwave weapons stun Iraqis. Defense News April 13-19: 1,52. 

Holzer R (1992) US Navy to study use of laser weapons aboard combat ships. Defense News April 27-May 3 

International Herald Tribune 1993.12.23 [Zhirinovsky's secret weapon] 

Kiernan V (1993) War over weapons that can't kill. New Scientist 140(1903): 14. 

LaMothe JD (1972) Controlled Offensive Behavior - USSR (Unclassified), Defense Intelligence Agency, Washington, D.C. 

Lovece J (1994) CIA asked to review 'Buck Rogers' Weapon. Defense Week Jan. 18: 6. [sound resonance weapon] 

Maire III, L.F. & LaMothe, J.D. (1975) Soviet and Czechoslovakian Parapsycholody Research (Unclassified), Defense 
Intelligence Agency, Washington, D.C. 

Mar, R.K. (1986) Bnad-less tank killer. U.S.Naval Institute Proc. September 

Martinez, Thomas and Guinther, John (1988) The Brotherhood of Murder. NY, McGraw-Hill. [The Order -- $.1m -> 
scientists] 

Michrowski A (1980) Covert ELF Warfare, Specula , January-March, p. 27. 
Morrison, D. (1989) Tactical laser weapons, Lasers Optronics May 

Newell, C.R. Lt.Col. US Army (1989) The technological future of war, Military Rev. Oct. 22-28. 
One to One: Edward Teller (1992) Defense News May 25-31: 30. 

Opall B (1992) Pentagon forges strategy on non-lethal warfare. Defence News Feb. 17:1, 50. 
Opall B (1992) Pentagon units jostle over non-lethal initiative. Defence News March 2: 6. 

Opall, Barbara (1993) US explores Russian mind-control technology. Defense News Jan. 11-17: 4, 29. [Stonehill,1994] 
Opall B (1994) DoD to boost nonlethal options. Defense News March 28-Apr 3: 46. 
Opall B (1994) Sound waves may target N. Korean tunnels. DN June 13-19: 1,37. 
Polsky D (1992) Livermore plans tiny laser weapons Defense News June 1-7: 22-23. 

Slayton, B.F., Mj. US Army (1980) War in the Ether: Soviet radio-electronic warfare. Military Rev. Jan. 1980, 56-68. 
Starr B (1993) Non-lethal weapon puzzle for US Army, Int. Defense Rev. Apr. 319. 
Starr B (1994) Pentagon maps non-lethal options. IDR 30-39. 
Stonehill, Paul (1994) Fate Feb. 1994. 

Stonehill, Paul (1994) Russians still bent on mind control, UFO 9(3): 16-17. 

Tapscott, M. (1993) DOD, Intel agencies look at Russian mind control technology, Defense Electronics July, 17. 
Tennenbaum AN & Moore AM (1993) Non-lethal weapons. Futurist Sep/Oct: 20-23. 

Tyler PE (1986) The electromagnetic spectrum in low-intensity conflict. In Low-Intensity Conflict and Modern 
Technology, edited by Lt.Col. David J. Dean, USAF Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education, Maxwell Air 
Force Base, Ala.: Air University Press. utfWalter Reed's microwave research Department: its history and mission [Part 1 
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Weinschenk A (1993) Non-lethal weaopns group set to form in March. Defense Week Nov. 22: 1,14. 

Younger sm (1993) AG ex II, the high-energy-density regime of weapons physics. Los Alamos Science 
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133 



The Telephone "Works 

author unknown 



When a person speaks into a telephone, the sound waves created by his voice enter the 
mouthpiece. An electric current carries the sound to the telephone of the person he is talking to. A 
telephone has two main parts: (1) the transmitter and (2) the receiver. 

The Transmitter of a telephone serves as a sensitive "electric ear." It lies behind the mouthpiece of 
the phone. Like the human ear, the transmitter has an 14 eardrum." The eardrum of the telephone is 
a thin, round metal disk called a diaphragm. When a person talks into the telephone, the sound waves 
strike the diaphragm and make it vibrate. The diaphragm vibrates at various speeds, depending on 
the variations in air pressure caused by the varying tones of the speaker's voice. 

Behind the diaphragm lies a small cup filled with tiny grains of carbon. The diaphragm presses 
against these carbon grains. Low voltage electric current travels through the grains. This current 
comes from batteries at the telephone company. The pressure on the carbon grains varies as sound 
waves make the diaphragm vibrate. A loud sound causes the sound waves to push hard on the 
diaphragm. In turn, the diaphragm presses the grains tightly together. This action makes it easier for 
the electric current to travel through, and a large amount of electricity flows through the grains. 
When the sound is soft, the sound waves push lightly on the diaphragm. In turn, the diaphragm puts 
only a light pressure on the carbon grains. The grains are pressed together loosely. This makes it 
harder for the electric current to pass through them, and less current flows through the grains. 

Thus, the pattern of the sound waves determines the pressure on the diaphragm. This pressure, in 
turn, regulates the pressure on the carbon grains. The crowded or loose grains cause the electric 
current to become stronger or weaker. The current copies the pattern of the sound waves and travels 
over a telephone wire to the receiver of another telephone. 

The Receiver serves as an "electric mouth." Like a human voice, it has "vocal cords." The vocal 
cords of the receiver are a diaphragm. Two magnets located at the edge of the diaphragm cause it to 
vibrate. One of the magnets is a permanent magnet that constantly holds the diaphragm close to it. 
The other magnet is an electromagnet. It consists of a piece of iron with a coil of wire wound around 
it. When an electric current passes through the coil, the iron core becomes magnetized. The 
diaphragm is pulled toward the iron core and away from the permanent magnet. The pull of the 
electromagnet varies between strong and weak, depending on the variations in the current. Thus, the 
electromagnet controls the vibrations of the diaphragm in the receiver. 

The electric current passing through the electromagnet becomes stronger or weaker according to the 
loud or soft sounds. This action causes the diaphragm to vibrate according to the speaker's speech 
pattern. As the diaphragm moves in and out, it pulls and pushes the air in front of it. The pressure on 
the air sets up sound waves that are the same as the ones sent into the transmitter. The sound waves 
strike the ear of the listener and he hears the words of the speaker. Sound is heard, it can also be felt 
and it can affect us even when we can't hear it. Research patents from Bell Labs - very interesting. . . 



134 



United States Patent 
Childre , et al. 



6,358,201 
March 19, 2002 



Method and apparatus for facilitating physiological coherence and autonomic 
balance 



Abstract 

Method and apparatus for determining the state of entrainment between biological systems which exhibit 
oscillatory behavior such as heart rhythms, respiration, blood pressure waves and low frequency brain 
waves based on a determination of heart rate variability (HRV). Entrainment reflects a harmonious balance 
between the two branches of the autonomic nervous system within the body. This internal state of 
heightened physiological efficiency enhances health and promotes optimal performance. According to one 
embodiment a method is used to determine the entrainment level based on an entrainment parameter related 
to HRV. The method first determines the power distribution spectrum (PSD) and then calculates an 
entrainment parameter (EP), which is a measure of the power distribution in the HRV spectrum. High EP 
values occur when this power is concentrated within a relatively narrow range of frequencies, and lower 
values when the power is distributed over a broader range of frequencies. In one embodiment, an apparatus 
is provided for monitoring the heart beat and presenting this information via a personal computer, handheld 
device, or other processing means. 



Inventors: Childre; Doc L. (P.O. Box 271, Boulder Creek, CA 95006); McCraty; Rollin I (14700 W. Park Ave., Boulder 

Creek, CA 95006); Atkinson; Michael A. (P.O. Box 30, Boulder Creek, CA 95006) 
Appl.No.: 260643 
Filed: March 2, 1999 

Current U.S. Class: 600/300; 600/500; 600/547 

Intern'l Class: A6 IB 005/00 

Field of Search: 600/547,500,300 



References Cited [Referenced Byl 



4777960 
5891044 
6067468 
6091973 



U.S. Patent Documents 

Oct., 1988 Berger et al. 

Apr., 1999 Golosarsky et al. 

May., 2000 Korenman et al. 

Jul., 2000 Colla et al. 



600/474. 
600/547. 
600/547. 
600/547. 



Other References 

Rollin McCraty, et al., "The Effects of Emotions on Short-Term Power Spectrum Analysis of Heart Rate Variability," The 
American Journal of Cardiology, Vo. 76, No. 14, Nov. 15, 1995, pp. 1089-1093. 

William A. Tiller, et al., "Cardiac Coherence: A New, Noninvasive Measure of Autonomic Nervous System Order," 
Alternative Therapies, vol. 2, No. 1, Jan. 1996, pp. 52-65. 

Rollin McCraty, et al., "The Impact of New Emotional Self-Management Program on Stress, Emotions, Heart Rate 
Variability, DHEA and Cortisol," Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, vol. 33, No. 2, Apr.-Jun. 1998, pp. 
151-170. 

Rollin McCraty, et al., "New Electrophysiological Correlates With Intentional Heart Focus," Subtle Energies, vol. 4, No. 
3, pp. 251-268. 

Web page: "Breath and Relaxation Trainer," Feb. 1999, (http://futurehealth.org/hearttracker.html). 

Web page: "New Inexpensive TJeartlink" Biofeedback PC System to see HeartMusic Works!! :A love "bug"," Feb. 18, 

1 999, (http://www.danwinter.com/heartlink/index.html. 

Web page: "Biocom Heart Tracker" by Biocom Technologies, published Feb. 26, 1999. 
(HTTP://www.biocomtech.com/bht.htm. 

Primary Examiner: Nasser; Robert L. 
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Irell & Manella LLP 



135 



Claims 

What we claim is: 

1. A method, comprising: 

sampling a plurality of heart beats of a subject; 
determining a variability of the plurality of heart beats; 
expressing the variability as a function of frequency; 

determining a distribution of frequencies of the variability expressed as a function of frequency; 
selecting a peak frequency of the distribution of frequencies; 

determining a value of energy of the variability corresponding to said peak frequency (E.sub.peak); 

determining a value of energy of the variability below said peak frequency (E.sub.below) and a value of energy of the variability 
above said peak frequency (E. sub. above); 

determining a ratio of E.sub.peak to E.sub.below and E. sub. above ; and 

providing to the subject, in a first presentation format, a representation of a first parameter corresponding to said ratio. 

2. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the ratio of E.sub.peak to E.sub.below and E. sub. above comprises calculating the ratio 
as: ##EQU1## 

3. The method of claim 2, wherein selecting the peak frequency comprises: 

selecting a peak frequency of the variability expressed as a function of frequency within a predetermined range of frequencies. 

4. The method of claim 2, wherein determining the distribution of frequencies further comprises: 
determining a power spectrum distribution of frequencies in the variability expressed as a function of frequency. 

5. The method of claim 4, further comprising: normalizing the power spectrum distribution. 

6. The method of claim 4, wherein determining the value of energy in said peak frequency comprises: 
determining the value of energy in a predetermined range of frequencies around said peak frequency (E.sub.peak). 

7. The method of claim 6, wherein determining the value of energy in the predetermined range of frequencies comprises: 
selecting the predetermined range of frequencies; and 

summing the power corresponding to each of the frequencies in said predetermined range of frequencies. 

8. The method of claim 1, wherein the first parameter comprises an entrainment parameter (EP). 

9. The method claim 8, further comprising: 

demeaning and de-trending the variability of the plurality of heart beats over a time period. 

10. The method of claim 8, further comprising: 

weighting the variability of the plurality of heart beats over the time period to compensate for sampling noise. 

11. The method claim 10, wherein weighting variability of the plurality of heart beats over the time period further comprises applying 
a Hanning window. 

12. The method of claim 1, wherein the method is practiced in a digital data processing system. 

13. The method of claim 12, wherein the data processing system comprises a personal computer. 

14. The method of claim 12, wherein the data processing system comprises a handheld digital computing device. 



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15. The method of claim 12, wherein the data processing system comprises a mainframe computer. 

16. The method of claim 12, wherein the data processing system includes a digital signal processing unit. 

17. The method of claim 12: 

wherein the processing system includes a display; and 
wherein the method further comprises: 

determining an entrainment parameter corresponding to the ratio, said entrainment parameter to provide a plurality of entrainment 
parameter values; 

providing a first image on the display in response to a first entrainment parameter value; and 

altering the first image on the display in response to a second entrainment parameter value if said second entrainment parameter value 
is different from said first entrainment parameter value. 

18. The method claim 17: 

wherein the first image includes a graphic element in a first position; 

the graphic element transitions toward a goal if the second entrainment parameter value is greater than the first entrainment parameter 
value; and 

the graphic element transitions away from the goal if the second entrainment parameter value is less than the first entrainment 
parameter value. 

19. The method of claim 18, wherein the graphic element is a balloon. 

20. The method of claim 18, wherein the image includes an obstacle. 

21. The method of claim 18, wherein the graphic element is a rainbow. 

22. The method of claim 1, further comprising: 

processing the variability of the plurality of heart beats over a time period, to provide a plurality of bins corresponding to a plurality of 
frequencies; 

selecting the peak frequency within a predetermined range of the plurality of frequencies; 
calculating the power in the bins corresponding to the peak frequency; 
calculating the power in the bins below those corresponding to the peak frequency; and 
calculating the power in the bins above those corresponding to the peak frequency. 

23. The method of claim 1, wherein sampling the plurality of heart beats comprises: 
sampling the plurality of heart beats using a pressure sensitive apparatus. 

24. The method of claim 1, wherein sampling the plurality of heart beats comprises: 
sampling the plurality of heart beats using a blood pressure monitor. 

25. The method of claim 1, wherein sampling the plurality of heart beats comprises: 
sampling the plurality of heart beats using a heart rate monitor. 

26. The method of claim 1, wherein sampling the plurality of heart beats comprises: 
sampling the plurality of heart beats using an electrocardiograph. 

27. The method of claim 1, wherein the first parameter relates to an emotional state of the subject. 

28. The method of claim 1, wherein the first parameter relates to a mental state of the subject. 

29. The method of claim 1: 

wherein sampling comprises sampling the plurality of heart beats for a first and a second consecutive time periods; 



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the method further comprising: calculating a second parameter representative of a history of the parameter over the first and the 
second consecutive time periods. 

30. The method of claim 1, wherein sampling the plurality of heart beats comprises: 
sampling the plurality of heart beats using a plethysmographic sensor. 

31. The method of claim 1, further comprising: 

providing to the subject, in a second presentation format, a representation of a second parameter corresponding to said ratio. 

32. A software program performing the method of claim 1. 

33. The software program of claim 32, wherein the software program is stored in a computer readable medium. 

34. An apparatus, comprising: 

sampling circuit to sample a plurality of heart beats of a subject for a predetermined time period; 
a display unit; 

a processing unit coupled to the sampling circuit and the display unit, the processing unit to: 

determine a variability of the plurality of heart beats by measuring an interval between each beat during the predetermined time 
period; 

determine a frequency distribution of the variability, the frequency distribution having at least one peak frequency, the at least one 
peak including a range of frequencies; 

calculate a parameter of the frequency distribution of the variability, wherein the parameter is a ratio of the area under the at least one 
peak frequency to the area under the remaining portions of the frequency distribution; and 

outputting the parameter to the display unit for presentation to the subject. 

35. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the display and processing units comprise a personal digital assistant. 

36. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the display unit comprises a computer display. 

37. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein the display unit comprises a liquid crystal display and a controller. 

38. The method as in claim 34, wherein the parameter comprises an entrainment parameter. 

39. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein the presentation includes at least one graphic display of said entrainment parameter. 

40. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein the presentation includes at least one graphical element; and wherein the graphical element 
transitions toward a goal in response to an increasing entrainment parameter value, and transitions away from the goal in response to a 
decreasing entrainment parameter value. 

41. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein the sampling circuit comprises a pressure sensitive device. 

42. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein the sampling circuit comprises a receiver unit to sense the blood pressure of the subject at a 
selected pressure point. 

43. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein the sampling circuit comprises a plethysmographic sensor. 

44. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein the sampling circuit comprises a blood pressure monitor. 

45. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein the sampling circuit comprises a heart rate monitor. 

46. The apparatus of claim 38, wherein the sampling circuit comprises an electrocardiograph. 

47. A method, comprising: 

receiving heart rate variability information, the heart rate variability information comprising the time intervals between each heart beat 
of a plurality of heart beats of a subject during a predetermined time period; 

expressing the heart rate variability as a function of frequency; 

determining the power of said heart rate variability over a first range of frequencies; 



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selecting a power peak of said heart rate variability corresponding to said first range of frequencies; 

calculating a parameter relating the power in said selected power peak to the power in said heart rate variability over a second range of 
frequencies; and 

presenting the parameter to the subject. 

48. A computer program product, comprising: 

a computer usable medium having computer program code embodied therein, the computer program product having: 

computer readable program code to sample a plurality of heart beats of a subject; 

computer readable program code to obtain a heart rate variability of the plurality of heart beats; 

computer readable program code to determine a distribution of frequencies in the heart rate variability and to select a peak frequency; 

computer readable program code to determine: a value of energy of said heart rate variability corresponding to said peak frequency 
(E.sub.peak), a value of energy of said heart rate variability below said peak frequency (E.sub.below), and a value of energy of said 
heart rate variability above said peak frequency (E. sub. above); 

computer readable program code to determine a ratio of E.sub.peak to E.sub.below and E. sub. above ; and 

computer readable program code to provide to the subject, in a first presentation format, a representation of a first parameter 
corresponding to said ratio. 

49. An apparatus, comprising: 

a first circuit to sample a plurality of heart beats of a subject; 

a second circuit to determine a heart rate variability of the plurality of heart beats and to determine the time interval between each 
heart beat in the plurality of heart beats; 

a third circuit to determine a frequency distribution of the heart rate variability, the frequency distribution having at least one peak 
frequency representative of a range of frequencies; 

a fourth circuit to calculate a first parameter of the frequency distribution based on a ratio of the area under the at least one peak to the 
area under the remaining portions of the frequency distribution; and 

an output circuit to display the first parameter in a first presentation format. 

50. The apparatus of claim 49, wherein the first circuit is a pressure sensitive apparatus. 

51. The apparatus of claim 45, wherein the first circuit is a plethysmographic sensor. 

52. A method to evaluate heart rate variability, comprising: 

(a) sampling a plurality of heart rate beats of a subject; 

(b) determining a heart rate variability of said subject; 

(c) repeating (a) and (b) to provide a parameter that is based on a ratio of a variable peak of a distribution to the remaining portions of 
the distribution. 

(d) providing said parameter corresponding to said heart rate variability to said subject; 

(e) reinforcing a positive emotional state in said subject using said parameter; 

53. The method of claim 52, wherein reinforcing the positive emotional state comprises approaching the positive emotional state by 
updating said parameter, where said updating causes said parameter to approach a value associated with a positive emotional state. 

54. The method of claim 53, wherein reinforcing the positive emotional state further comprises maintaining the positive emotional 
state by maintaining the value of said parameter for a predetermined period of time. 

55. The method of claim 52, wherein determining the heart rate variability of said subject comprises: 
expressing the variability as a function of frequencies; 

determining a distribution of frequencies of the variability; 



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selecting a peak frequency of the distribution of frequencies; 

determining a value of energy of the variability corresponding to said peak frequency; 

determining a value of energy of the variability below said peak frequency and a value of energy of the variability above said peak 
frequency; 

determining a ratio of said value of energy corresponding to said peak frequency, to the product of: the value of the energy below said 
peak frequency and the value of the energy above said peak frequency. 

56. The method of claim 55, wherein the parameter corresponding to said heart rate variability is based on said ratio. 



Description 

FIELD OF THE INVENTION 

The present invention relates generally to the evaluation of heart rate variability, and specifically to the 
analysis of the power spectrum distribution thereof. 



BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 

With the growing complexity of life, the relation between physiological conditions and emotional health 
becomes of increasing interest. Many studies have shown that stress and other emotional factors increase 
the risk of disease, reduce performance and productivity and severely restrict the quality of life. To this 
end, the medical communities around the world continually seek remedies and preventive plans. Recently a 
focus on the self-regulation of systems within the body has led to research in the areas of biofeedback, etc. 

In the last 25 years, a variety of new techniques have been introduced as alternatives to more traditional 
psychotherapies or pharmaceutical interventions for improving mental and/or emotional imbalances. In 
addition to the more psychological approaches like cognitive re-structuring and neuro-linguistic 
programming, psychologists have employed several techniques from Eastern cultures to "still the mind" 
during focused meditation. In yoga, for example, one generally focuses on the breath or parts of the brain, 
whereas in qigong one focuses on the "dan tien" point (below the navel). In a Freeze Frame R.T.M. (FF) 
technique, developed by the Institute of Heart Math in Boulder Creek, Calif., one focuses attention on the 
area around the heart. All these techniques focus attention upon areas of the body which are known to 
contain separate but interacting groups of neuronal processing centers, and biological oscillators with 
which they interact. The heart, brain, and the intestines contain biological oscillators known as pacemaker 
cells. By intentionally focusing attention on any one of these oscillator systems, one can alter its rhythms. 
This is at least true for the brain (meditation), yogic breathing (respiration), the heart (FF), and most likely 
the gut (qigong), since it is also regulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The body also contains 
other oscillating systems such as the smooth muscles of the vascular system. We have previously shown 
that this system, measured by recording pulse transit time (PTT), as well as the brain, measured by an 
electroencephalograph (EEG), the heart, measured by heart rate variability (HRV), and the respiration 
system, measured by the respiration rate, can all entrain. Furthermore, they all synchronize to a frequency 
varying around 0.1 Hertz (Hz). Thus, one can intentionally bring these systems, acting as coupled 
biological oscillators, into synchronize with each other. 

The FF technique is a self-management technique by which one focuses on the heart to disengage from 
moment-to-moment mental and emotional reactions. A study utilizing the FF technique in a psychological 
intervention program with HIV-positive subjects resulted in significant reductions in life-stress, state and 
trait anxiety levels, and self-assessed physical symptoms. Two other studies with healthy individuals using 
the FF technique to enhance positive emotional states showed increased salivary IgA and increased 
sympathovagal balance. Increased sympathovagal balance is known to protect against detrimental 



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physiological effects associated with overactive sympathetic outflow from the brain. Other studies have 
shown the techniques to be effective in improving autonomic balance and decreasing the stress hormone 
Cortisol and increasing DHEA, improving glycemic regulation in diabetics, reducing blood pressure in 
hypertensive individuals and significantly reducing psychological stressors such as anxiety, depression and 
fatigue which overwhelm in many diverse populations. 

Sympathovagal balance has been measured using various techniques. For example, individuals can be 
trained to consciously control their heart rate using biofeedback techniques. However, the enhanced 
parasympathetic activity is probably mediated through control of respiration. Neutral hypnosis and operant 
conditioning of heart rate have been demonstrated to decrease in the sympathetic/parasympathetic ratio by 
increasing parasympathetic activity independent of controlled breathing techniques. The FF technique does 
not require biofeedback equipment nor does it require conscious control of respiration although a short 
breathing protocol is used this technique. Our results suggest that emotional experiences play a role in 
determining sympathovagal balance independent of heart rate and respiration. The shifts in sympathovagal 
balance toward increased low-frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) power (measures of heart rate 
variability) were physiological manifestations of experiencing the emotional state of appreciation. The FF 
technique focuses on genuinely experiencing the feelings of sincere appreciation or love, in contrast to 
visualizing or recalling a previous positive emotional experience. 

The results of our studies indicate that relatively short periods of practice of the FF technique and other 
tools developed by the Institute of Heart Math leads to either an "entrainment" or "internal coherence" 
mode of heart function (described in greater detail below). Most subjects who are able to maintain these 
states report that the intrusion of random thoughts is greatly reduced and that it is accompanied by feelings 
of deep inner peace and heightened intuitive awareness. 

We also observed that positive emotional states, which lead to the entrainment mode, generated marked 
changes in the dynamic beating patterns of the heart. A method for quantifying and analyzing and 
quantifying these heart rhythms is called analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The normal resting heart 
rate in healthy individuals varies dynamically from moment to moment. Heart rate variability, which is 
derived from the electrocardiogram (ECG) or pulse, is a measure of these naturally occurring beat-to-beat 
changes in heart rate and is an important indicator of health and fitness. HRV is influenced by a variety of 
factors, including physical movement, sleep and mental and activity, and is particularly responsive to stress 
and changes in emotional state. The analysis of HRV can provide important information relative to the 
function and balance of the autonomic nervous system, as it can distinguish sympathetic from 
parasympathetic regulation of heart rate. Decreased HRV is also a powerful predictor of future heart 
disease, increased risk of sudden death, as well as all-cause mortality. 

Frequency domain analysis decomposes the heart rate tachogram or waveform into its individual frequency 
components and quantifies them in terms of their relative intensity, in terms of power spectral density 
(PSD). By applying spectral analysis techniques to the HRV waveform, its different frequency components, 
which represent the activity of the sympathetic or parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous 
system, can be discerned. The HRV power spectrum is divided into three frequency ranges or bands: very 
low frequency (VLF), 0.033 to 0.04 Hz; low frequency (LF), 0.04 to 0.15 Hz; and high frequency (HF), 
0.15 to 0.4 Hz. The high frequency (HF) band is widely accepted as a measure of parasympathetic or vagal 
activity. The peak in this band corresponds to the heart rate variations related to the respiratory cycle, 
commonly referred to as respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Reduced parasympathetic activity has been found in 
individuals under mental or emotional stress, suffering from panic, anxiety or worry and depression. 

The low frequency (LF) region can reflect both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, especially in 
short-term recordings. Parasympathetic influences are particularly present when respiration rates are below 
7 breaths per minute or when an individual takes a deep breath. This region is also called the "baroreceptor 
range" as it also reflects baroreceptor activity and at times blood pressure wave activity and resonance. 

When an individual's HRV pattern and respiration are synchronized or entrained, as can happen 
spontaneously in states of deep relaxation, sleep or when using techniques to facilitate autonomic balance 



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such as Freeze-Frame and the Heart Lock-In, the frequency at which the entrainment occurs is often near 
0.1 Hertz. This falls in the center of the LF band and could be misinterpreted as a large increase in 
sympathetic activity, when in reality it is primarily due to an increase in parasympathetic activity and 
vascular resonance. Sophisticated modeling techniques have shown that in normal states, about 50% of the 
total power in the LF band is explained by neural signals impinging on the sinus node which are generated 
at a central level, and the majority of the remaining power is due to resonance in the arterial pressure 
regulation feedback loop. The sympathetic system does not appear to produce rhythms that appear much 
above frequencies of 0. 1 Hz, while the parasympathetic can be observed to operate down to frequencies of 
0.05 Hz. Thus, in individuals who have periods of slow respiration rate, parasympathetic activity is 
modulating the heart rhythms at a frequency that is in the LF band. Therefore, in order to discriminate 
which of the ANS branches is pumping power into the LF region, both respiration and PTT should be 
simultaneously recorded and considered. 

The increase in LF power while in the entrainment mode may represent increased baroreceptor afferent 
activity. It has been shown that the LF band reflects increased afferent activity of baroreceptors. The LF 
band has indeed been shown to reflect baroreceptor reflex sensitivity and is affected by physiological 
states. Increased baroreceptor activity is known to inhibit sympathetic outflow from the brain to peripheral 
vascular beds, whereas stress increases sympathetic outflow and inhibits baroreflex activity. The increase in 
LF power seen during the state of deep sustained appreciation may have important implications for the 
control of hypertension, since baroreflex sensitivity is reduced in these individuals. There is a noticeable 
and obvious transition after the FF intervention to the entrainment mode which can be seen in the HRV 
waveforms and PSD data. In addition, many subjects report that they are able to use the FF technique while 
they were in a "tense" conversation with someone and starting to react. Even in these conditions, the HRV 
waveforms indicate that they were able to shift to and maintain the entrainment state. 

From tachogram data, it can be seen that, as one moves from a state of frustration to one of sincere 
appreciation a transition occurs in the waveforms from a noisy wave of large amplitude to a non-harmonic 
wave form of similar amplitude (entrainment). We have also identified an additional state we call 
"amplified peace" to indicate this special emotional state of very deep peace and inner harmony. In this 
state, the HRV waveform becomes a smaller amplitude wave (internal coherence). In general, the transition 
in the frequency domain (PSD) is from a wide-band spectrum of moderate amplitude to a narrow-band 
spectrum around 0.1 Hz of very large amplitude (entrainment) and then to a wide-band spectrum of very 
small amplitude (internal coherence). In most individuals, small to near-zero HRV, as just described, is an 
indicator of a potentially pathological condition or aging because it connotes loss of flexibility of the heart 
to change in rate or a decreased flow of information in the ANS. However, in trained subjects, it is an 
indication of exceptional self-management of their emotions and autonomic nervous system because their 
HRV is normally large and the shift into the internal coherence mode is a result of intentionally entering the 
amplified peace state. This is very different from a pathological condition underlying lowered HRV (in 
such cases the HRV is always low). The connection between emotional states and HRV could possibly 
account for the occasional observation of low HRV in otherwise healthy individuals which has detracted 
from the clinical utility of HRV analysis for unequivocally predicting disease. 

During the condition of internal coherence, the electromagnetic energy field produced by the heart, as seen 
in a fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis of an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal, is a clear example of a 
coherent electromagnetic field. Recent advances in the understanding of the interaction between coherent 
signals and noise in nonlinear systems has resulted in the prediction that these nonthermal, coherent 
electromagnetic signals may be detected by cells. Further evidence suggests that coherent electromagnetic 
fields may have important implications for cellular function. For example, it has been recently 
demonstrated that nonthermal, extremely low frequency electromagnetic signals may affect intracellular 
calcium signaling. In addition, coherent electromagnetic fields have been shown to produce substantially 
greater cellular effects on enzymatic pathways, such as ornithine decarboxylase activity, than incoherent 
signals. This fact suggests that the state of internal coherence may also affect cellular function and provides 
a potential link between emotional states, autonomic function, HRV and cellular processes. 



142 



Conscious focus of attention and/or positive emotions has been shown to significantly influence HRV and 
PSD. The results of our research support previous work and suggest that psychological interventions which 
minimize negative and enhance positive emotional states may significantly impact cardiovascular function. 

The results of work in this area demonstrate that sincere feelings of appreciation produce a power spectral 
shift toward LF and HF activity and imply that 1) the major centers of the body containing biological 
oscillators can act as coupled electrical oscillators, 2) these oscillators can be brought into synchronized 
modes of operation via mental and emotional self-control, and 3) the effects on the body of such 
synchronization are correlated with significant shifts in perception and cardiovascular function. It is 
suggested that positive emotions lead to alterations in sympathovagal balance which may be beneficial in 
the treatment of hypertension and reduce the likelihood of sudden death in patients with congestive heart 
failure and coronary artery disease. There is a need to provide quantified information regarding the balance 
of the ANS which is easily used and does not require extensive biofeedback equipment. There is further a 
need for a mobile method of monitoring this balance for use in everyday life. 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS 

The file of this patent contains at least one drawing executed in color. Copies of this patent with color 
drawing(s) will be provided by the Patent & Trademark Office upon request and payment of the necessary 
fee. The present invention may be more fully understood by a description of certain preferred embodiments 
in conjunction with the attached drawings in which: 

FIG. 1 illustrates in highly diagrammatic form the way in which the sympathetic and parasympathetic 
subsystems of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) of a higher organism are believed to mutually affect 
heart rate variability (HRV); 

FIG. 2 illustrates a power spectrum distribution (PSD) of the HRV determined in accordance with one 
embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 3 illustrates, for each of four distinct ANS states, the characteristic time domain HRV and the 
corresponding PSD; 

FIGS. 4A to 4C illustrate a subject's time domain HRV, pulse transit time, and respiration rates, and the 
corresponding PSDs, before and after the subject consciously performs an emotional self-regulation 
protocol specifically designed to improve the balance of the ANS; 

FIG. 5 illustrates an apparatus for measuring HRV and calculating the degree of entrainment, which as 
previously described is also an indicator of increased autonomic balance (AB) according to one 
embodiment of the present invention; 

FIG. 6 illustrates one format for simultaneously displaying HRV, and the entrainment ratio, as determined 
in accordance with the present invention; 

FIGS. 7A-7E illustrate in flow chart form a process for calculating AB in accordance with the present 
invention; 

FIGS. 8A-8F illustrate the steps of the process of FIGS. 7A-7E; 
FIG. 9 illustrates a hand-held apparatus for calculating AB; and 

FIGS. 10-12 illustrate three different sequences of graphic displays which provide animated visual 
representations of the achieved level of entrainment, as determined according to one embodiment of the 
present invention. 



143 



DEFINITIONS AND METHODOLOGY 



In the following description of the invention and its various aspects and embodiments, we will be using 
certain terms. For convenience of reference, our preferred definitions thereof are as follows: 

As noted above, Freeze-Frame.RTM. is one of the tools used in the Heart Math system of self- 
management. It consists of consciously disengaging the mental and emotional reactions to either external or 
internal events and then shifting the center of attention from the mind and emotions to the physical area 
around the heart while focusing on a positive emotion such as love or appreciation. This tool thus allows 
the individual to shift focus of attention from the mind to the heart. Such a shift results in a wider and more 
objective perception in the moment. 



As used hereafter, the term "appreciation" shall mean the state in which the subject has clear perception or 
recognition of the feelings of sincere or active appreciation for someone or something. It is the heart-felt 
feeling of appreciation that is associated with the HRV changes, as contrasted with the mental concept of 
appreciation which does not appear to produce such HRV changes. The term "amplified peace" shall mean 
an inner state in which a much deeper state of peace and centeredness is felt than is normally experienced. 
One also has a sense of standing on the threshold of a new dimension of awareness in this state. There is a 
sense of inner equilibrium and an awareness that one has accessed a new domain of intuition. As with any 
experiential state, it is difficult to find words that adequately describe it. This is not a state that one 
normally walks around in but rather enters for relativity short time periods. However, with practice at 
staying focused in the heart, the ratios of time in this state can be increased. It can also be described as 
similar to those moments that one sometimes has when at the beach or in the forest when one feels an 
especially deep contact with nature or with oneself that is beyond one's normal experience. It is often in 
these moments that we find the answers to the deeper issues or problems that we experience. 

By the term "biological oscillators" we mean cells or groups of cells that produce rhythmic oscillation. 
When the instantaneous systemic arterial pressure is continuously recorded, fluctuations with each heart 
beat and with each breath are seen. This rhythmic activity in the autonomic nervous system appears to be 
supported by at least three biological oscillator systems: 1) centrogenic rhythms in brainstem networks with 
facultative coupling (entrainment) with the respiratory oscillator, 2) the baroreceptor feedback network, and 
3) the autorhythmicity of the vascular smooth muscle. The fact that each of the oscillators can develop 
different frequencies and that the phase-lags between the oscillations may vary easily explains the general 
experience that blood pressure waves are quite variable and unpredictable. The existence of several 
oscillators with similar basic frequencies enables synchronization and entrainment between oscillators. 
Thus, we can assume that states of regular and steady blood pressure waves are the expression of the 
entrained action of the complex multi -oscillatory system. 

Arterial pulse transit time (PTT) is a measure of the speed of travel of the arterial pulse wave from the heart 
to some peripheral recording site. It is used as a non-invasive method to monitor the elasticity of the artery 
walls and to indicate changes in blood pressure on a beat-to-beat basis. The arterial pressure pulse is a wave 
of pressure which passes rapidly along the arterial system. The pulse wave velocity (4 to 5 m/sec) is much 
faster than the velocity of blood flow (<0.5 m/sec). The pulse wave velocity varies directly with pressure- 
related changes in the elasticity of the arterial wall. The more rigid or contracted the arterial wall, the faster 
the wave velocity. From this, it follows that PTT should vary inversely with blood pressure. Common 
estimates of the magnitude of this effect indicate that PTT varies by about 1 ms per mm Hg change in 
pressure. 

We will also be describing the results of certain studies conducted in our laboratories. In order to more fully 
appreciate the nature and conditions of such studies, we wish to describe our key procedures: 

For in-the-lab studies, preselected individuals trained in the FF technique are seated in straight, high backed 
chairs to minimize postural changes, fitted with ECG electrodes, and then given a 10-minute rest period. 
ECG measurements are recorded during the rest period and the last 5 minutes are used as a baseline period. 



144 



Recordings are continued while the subjects are asked to utilize the FF technique and consciously focus on 
a loving state for the next 5 minutes. A selected number of subjects are assessed at each session. After 
informed consent is obtained, and prior to each session, subjects are asked to refrain from talking, falling 
asleep, exaggerated body movements or intentionally altering their respiration. Subjects are carefully 
monitored to ensure there are no exaggerated respiratory or postural changes during the session. 

The same subjects are asked to wear ambulatory ECG recorders for a 24-hour period which includes a 
normal business day in their work place. They are asked to use the FF technique on at least three separate 
occasions, when they are feeling stress or out of balance. They are instructed to press the recorder's marker 
button each time they use the FF technique. This portion of a study is designed to assess ANS balance in a 
real-life stressful environment and to determine the efficacy of the FF technique to consciously improve 
sympathovagal balance. In general, Ag/AgCl disposable electrodes are used for all bipolar ECG 
measurements. The positive electrode is located on the left side at the 6th rib, and the reference are placed 
in the right supraclavicular fossa. Grass model 7P4 amplifiers are used for ECG amplification. Respiration 
is monitored with a Resp-EZ piezoelectric belt around the chest. A Grass model 80 cardiac microphone is 
used when the blood pressure wave is recorded for calculation of pulse transit time (PTT). The PTT 
interval is the time between the peak of the R-wave of the ECG and the appearance of the pulse wave 
associated with that same cardiac contraction at the index finger on the left hand. In the out-of-lab studies, 
ambulatory ECG recording is accomplished with a Del Mar Holter recording system model 363. 

During the data analysis phase, the HRV waveform is in the form of an R— R interval tachogram. The 
spectral analysis of this signal is obtained from the successive discrete series of R— R duration values taken 
from the ECG signal sampled at 256 Hz and FFTed. All data from an in-the-lab study is digitized by a Bio 
Pac 16 bit digitizer and software system. All post analysis, including FFTs, PSD and time domain 
measurements are done with the DADiSP/32 digital signal processing software. All FF responses from the 
Holter tape data which are artifact -free are used for analysis. 

For an in-lab study, HRV data is analyzed for 5 minutes before and for 5 minutes during the practice of FF. 
The time domain traces are analyzed by obtaining the overall mean heart rate for both 5 -minute periods and 
calculating the standard deviation around that mean. FFTs of the time domain data are analyzed by dividing 
the power spectra into three frequency regions: VLF (0.01 to 0.05 Hz), LF (0.05 to 0.15 Hz) and HF (0.15 
to 0.5 Hz). The integral of the total power in each of these regions, the total power over all regions 
(VLF+LF+HF), the VLF/HF ratio and the LF/(VLF+HF) ratio are calculated for each individual in the 
baseline and FF periods. The following criteria are used to classify the subjects into two subgroups: 

Entrainment mode, characterized by a very narrow band high amplitude signal in the LF region of the HRV 
power spectrum, with no other significant peaks in the VLF or HF region, and a relatively harmonic signal 
(sine wave-like), in the time domain trace of the HRV data; and 

Internal coherence mode, characterized by an intentionally produced very low amplitude signal across the 
entire HRV power spectrum as compared to the baseline. The final discriminator of this mode is the ECG 
amplitude spectrum, where the first seven or so harmonics of the fundamental frequency are clearly 
displayed, with very few intermediate frequencies having a significant amplitude. 

In general, the raw data baseline values to emotional expression values are analyzed for significance by 
using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (T) utilizing the sum of the ranks for positive and negative 
differences for each group. Wilcoxon p values were taken from the table of critical values for the Wilcoxon 
Signed Rank Test (T). Typically, when a group is analyzed as a whole there will be no change in heart rate 
or heart rate standard deviation during the FF period. However, the power spectral analysis usually shows a 
significant decrease in the VLF/HF ratio and significant increases in LF power (p<0.01), HF power 
(p<0.01) and in the LF/(VLF+HF) ratio (p<0.01), where p is probability. 



145 



DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS 



The present invention provides a method of measuring certain body rhythms, and then analyzing this 
information to indirectly determine the entrainment state which is also reflective of balance between the 
sympathetic and parasympathetic portions of the autonomic nervous system. 

According to one embodiment of the present invention, a method includes the steps of sampling a heart 
beat of a subject, determining a heart rate variability (HRV) of the heart beat as a function of time 
(HRV(t)), expressing HRV(t) as a function of frequency (HRV(f)), determining a distribution of 
frequencies in HRV(f), selecting a peak frequency of HRV(f), determining the energy in said peak 
frequency (E.sub.peak), determining the energy in frequencies below said peak frequency (E.sub.below) 
and above said peak frequency (E.sub. above), determining a ratio of E.sub.peak to E.sub.below and 
E.sub. above, and providing to the subject, in a first presentation format, a representation of a first parameter 
related to said ratio. 

According to one aspect of the present invention, an apparatus includes sampling means adapted to sample 
a heart beat of a subject for a first predetermined time period, a display unit, a processing unit coupled to 
the sampling means and the display unit, wherein the processing unit is adapted to determine a heart rate 
variability (HRV) of the heart rate by measuring the interval between each beat during the first 
predetermined time period, wherein the HRV is a function of time, determine a frequency distribution of 
the HRV, the frequency distribution having at least one peak, the at least one peak including a first number 
of frequencies, calculate a first parameter of the frequency distribution of the HRV, wherein the first 
parameter is a ratio of the area under the at least one peak to the area under the rest of the frequency 
distribution, and outputting the first parameter to the display unit for presentation to the subject. 

According to one aspect of the present invention, a method includes the steps of receiving heart rate 
variability (HRV) information, the HRV information comprising the time intervals between each heart beat 
of a subject during a first predetermined time period, expressing the HRV as a function of frequency, 
determining the power in said HRV over a first range of frequencies, selecting a power peak in said first 
range of frequencies, calculating a first parameter relating the power in said selected power peak to the 
power in said HRV over a second range of frequencies, presenting the first parameter to the subject. 

A greatly simplified overview of some of the signals and functions of the human body are illustrated in 
FIG. 1. This figure is not intended to be inclusive of all of the functions of the autonomic nervous system of 
a human, but rather provides an exemplar of those signals and functions which are currently believed to be 
directly related to the operation of the heart. As illustrated in FIG. 1, the brainstem 5 receives various input 
signals, consisting of control and status information, from throughout the body. Thus, for example, the 
brainstem 5 receives information relating to respiration, blood pressure, cardiac output, thermoregulation, 
and reninangiotensin, as well as numerous other system inputs. Functioning as the control center of the 
central nervous system (CNS), the brainstem 5 continuously summarizes (.SIGMA.) all of this afferent 
information and synthesizes appropriate outputs to the heart 7 via either the sympathetic or parasympathetic 
subsystems. Research has demonstrated that the output control signals of the sympathetic system, which is 
responsible for increased heart rate and blood pressure, such as in response to perceived danger, tend to be 
relatively low frequency (LF) rhythms. In contrast, the parasympathetic system, which operates to limit or 
suppress the effects of the sympathetic system, tend to be relatively high frequency (HF) signals. In 
general, the parasympathetic system tends to produce a quite, relaxed state whereas the sympathetic a more 
active, excited state. For example, on inhalation, the parasympathetic system is inhibited and the 
sympathetic system is more active, resulting in an increase in heart rate. In contrast, on exhalation, the 
parasympathetic system is active, resulting in a stronger parasympathetic signal to the heart and heart rate is 
decreased. The brainstem 5 also receives afferent information from the baroreceptor network, and other 
receptor neurons, located throughout the heart and in the aortic arch of the heart 7, which are sensitive to 
stretch (pressure) and chemical changes within the heart 7. As the heart 7 beats, and its walls swell, various 
baroreceptors are triggered, providing signals as a function of the heart beat, where increased heart rate is 
generally reflected by increased baroreceptor signals. 



146 



In response to the parasympathetic and sympathetic control signals from the brainstem 5, the heart rate 7 
varies. The sinus node (SN) of the heart 7 is a group of cells which act as a natural pacemaker to initiate the 
onset of the heart beat at a rate which is non-linearly related to the relative strengths of these autonomic 
control signals. It has been determined that the heart beats with a certain variability, where the time 
between beats is not constant but rather varies according to the shifting relative balance between the 
parasympathetic and sympathetic signals. A typical heart rate variability (HRV) waveform, is illustrated in 
FIG. 1. Note that, as illustrated, the HRV is not constant but changes with time, while still displaying a 
generally cyclical pattern. 

FIG. 2 illustrates, by way of example, the transformation of an HRV waveform, most conveniently 
measured in the time domain, into the frequency domain. Such a transformation can be accomplished by 
standard digital signal processing (DSP) methods, such as the well-known fast Fourier transform (FFT). 
This results in a type of histogram that measures the relative amplitudes for the different frequency 
components (rhythmic patterns) in the time domain waveform. Fast real-time rhythms map into peaks in 
the high frequency portion (right side) of the spectrum, whereas slow rhythms appear on the left, low 
frequency side. Any given peak may be due to a single rhythmic process or to a mixture of rhythms with 
very similar frequencies. The latter will contribute to both the height of a peak and increase its width. In the 
case of heart rate analysis, different frequencies (peaks) present in the power spectrum are due to cyclic 
fluctuations in autonomic activity (i.e., sympathetic and parasympathetic). 

Once in the frequency domain, the power spectrum distribution (PSD) is calculated using known DSP 
techniques, and plotted on the vertical axis with frequency on the horizontal axis. In general, the power 
spectrum of a waveform is a plot of the wave amplitude for each component squared, as a function of the 
frequency of that component. Such a plot reveals the wave power, in units of energy per hertz, present in a 
small frequency range as a function of frequency, f. In the present example, the units of PSD are given as a 
power measurement, specifically squared beats -per-minute per second (BPM.sup.2 /Hz, where Hertz (Hz) 
is frequency or cycles-per-second). 

It is generally known that the mental and emotional state of a human has significant effects upon ANS 
activity, and, in particular, the balance between the parasympathetic and sympathetic subsystems. Such 
effects can be clearly seen in the HRV waveforms. We have found that, in general, agitation or fear causes 
disorder, whereas emotions such as appreciation or love results in increased order. The latter state has been 
shown to encourage coupling between respiration and the HRV as well as other oscillatory systems in the 
body. For purposes of the present description, we shall refer to the state in which the HRV waveform and 
respiratory waveform are operating at the same rate and near the 0. 1 hz frequency and appear as a sine 
wave as entrainment. As this mode of heart function has been documented to correlate with increased 
balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the nervous system it is also referred to 
as a state of "autonomic balance" (AB). The present invention is specifically intended to assist or facilitate 
a user thereof in achieving entrainment and AB at will. Once achieved, various well documented, beneficial 
physiological processes will be enhanced. Several embodiments of the present invention, discussed below, 
are specially designed to provide visual feedback to the user in a manner which tends to further strengthen 
and prolong the essential characteristic of entrainment and AB. 

Shown in FIG. 3A is the time domain HRV of a subject in various emotional states; FIG. 3B shows the 
corresponding PSDs. A Baseline condition is considered to be when the subject is in a normal, resting state. 
A Disordered state is where the subject is feeling agitated emotions such as anger or fear. Note the more 
irregular nature of this waveform, clearly showing the lower frequency components contributed by the 
sympathetic system. In contrast, in an entrainment state, the waveform is considerably more regular and 
orderly. Entrainment is a condition which we have shown can be attained by following a conscious plan or 
protocol for affecting a positive emotional state, such as appreciation or love. 

As defined herein, these terms refer to the mental and emotional state of the individual, and the graphs 
serve to illustrate the electrophysiological characteristics of two, qualitatively distinct "heart function 
modes." According to one analysis methodology, the Entrainment Mode is reached when frequency locking 
occurs between the HRV waveform and other biological oscillators such as respiration. Note that other 
correlations may be made between the HRV waveform, as well as other parameters of the heart rate and its 



147 



variability, and the general state of the subject, including other physiological systems. The correspondence 
between HRV and the emotional and mental state of the subject is provided herein as an exemplar, as there 
is a strong, documented relationship. However, alternate embodiments may correlate HRV waveforms with 
other functions and conditions, and are not limited to those described herein as exemplars, but rather the 
analysis of the HRV waveform and the correlation with such conditions is achieved with the present 
invention. Similarly, the correspondence to emotional and mental states is not limited to those illustrated in 
FIGS. 3 A and 3B. 

Shown in FIG. 4A are three simultaneously recorded body responses for an individual taken before and 
after enacting the FF technique. The first recorded body response is HRV, displayed in beats per minute 
(BPM). The second recorded body response is pulse transit time (PTT), which is measured in seconds. The 
third recorded body response is respiration, the amplitude of which is measured in millivolts (mV). As 
shown in FIG. 4A, each of the recorded body responses undergo a dramatic transformation at 
approximately 300 seconds, the point at which the individual performs the FF technique. At that time 
entrainment of the HRV, PTT and respiration waveforms is achieved. Such entrainment is characteristic of 
AB and increased physiological coherence. 

Shown in FIG. 4B are the corresponding PSD for each of the recorded body responses of FIG. 4A. Note: 
the power spectra for each of the recorded body responses has a broad frequency range before performing 
FF. After performing FF, as illustrated in FIG. 4C, however, the power spectra for each recorded body 
response has a much narrower frequency range, and in each case the maximum PSD is centered between a 
frequency of approximately 0.1 Hz and 0.15 Hz. In addition, during entrainment, the maximum PSD for 
both HRV and PTT is much larger than that recorded before FF. 

Shown in FIG. 5 is an entrainment apparatus 10 constructed in accordance with one embodiment of the 
present invention. In this particular embodiment, entrainment apparatus 10 comprises a photo 
plethysmographic finger sensor 12 and a computer system 14 having a monitor 15. Photo plethysmographic 
sensor 12 is electrically coupled to computer system 14 via coupling cable 16. 

During operation, an individual's finger 18 is placed in contact with the plethysmographic sensor 12. In this 
particular embodiment, the sensor 12 includes a strap 20 which is placed over finger 18 to ensure proper 
contact between finger 18 and sensor 12. The photo plethysmographic sensor 12 detects the pulse wave 
produced by the heart beat of the individual, by way of finger 18, and sends this information to computer 
system 14. Computer system 14 collects and analyzes this heart beat data, and determines the individual's 
level of entrainment. A representation of the attained level of entrainment is displayed on monitor 15. 

Shown in FIG. 6 is a display output 22 produced by entrainment apparatus 10 in accordance with one 
embodiment of the present invention. In this particular embodiment, the individual's heart rate, measured in 
beats per minute (BPM), is graphically displayed for a selected time period. The individual's accumulated 
entrainment score for this same time period is graphically displayed in reference to the calculated 
entrainment zone. In addition, the individual's entrainment ratio and average heart rate are also graphically 
displayed for this same time period. 

FIGS. 7A-7E illustrate a method of calculating an entrainment parameter (EP) according to the preferred 
embodiment of the present invention. In general, the method involves monitoring the beat-to-beat changes 
in heart rate, calculating the EP, and presenting a representation of the categorization of the calculated EP. 
The method begins at start block 30. The process is initialized at step 32, where HRV data is obtained and 
processed in preparation for the next step. At step 34 an entrainment parameter (EP) and score are 
calculated. The entrainment parameter is determined by the power distribution of the HRV processed data, 
and the score is a historical indication of the EP. The EP and score are then presented at step 36, which may 
involve providing this information to a display terminal. The process continues to decision diamond 38, to 
determine if the process is to terminate or end. If the process is to end, processing continues to step 40 
where the process is terminated. If the process is not to end, process flow returns to block 34. 

The process is further detailed in FIG. 7B, where the heart beat is monitored at step 42. This may involve 
using electrical sensing apparatus, such as an electrocardiograph (ECG), light sensing apparatus, such as 



148 



the photo plethysmographic sensor 12, or any other apparatus or means whereby each heart beat can be 
ascertained substantially in real time. For example, at regular time intervals, say 100 times per second, the 
output of sensor 12 is sampled and digitized using a conventional analog-to-digital (A/D) converter (not 
shown). At step 44, the raw samples are stored. This raw data is basically a record of each heart beat and 
the relative time of its occurrence. The stored raw data can be thought of as comprising inter -beat-interval 
(IB I) information, from which the time interval between beats can be determined. It is the IBI variation 
which is generally referred to as "heart rate variability" or simply HRV. 

Ravg.sub.i-1 (1-P min) 

Note that in monitoring the heart beat, artifacts, such as noise and/or misreads, may have a tendency to 
disturb the process. An optional step is provided at block 46 where the artifacts and other artificially 
introduced noise are rejected. This may be done using a conventional DSP artifact rejection technique. 
Block 46 is further detailed in FIG. 7E, starting at decision diamond 94. Here the current IBI, referred to as 
IBI.sub.i is compared to an absolute minimum interval between beats (Amin) and to an absolute maximum 
interval between beats (Amax). Amin and Amax are reflect the actual range within which the human heart 
beat falls. For example, Amax and Amin indicate that IBI is either too long and too short respectively, and 
IBI does not normally occur at that value; thus these conditions are used to detect artifacts which are not 
accurate data. If IBI.sub.i falls between these two extremes processing continues to step 96. If IBI.sub.i 
does not fall within this range, no further check is made and processing jumps to step 98 for elimination of 
bad IBI.sub.i data. Note that a running average (Ravg) is calculated for IBI values. A range of Ravg values 
is determined for each IBI.sub.i and is then used to verify then next value, IBI.sub.i+1. The range of Ravg 
values is determined as a percentage of the IBI value. For evaluation of IBI.sub.i the range of Ravg values 
for IBI.sub.i-1 is used. In one embodiment, the range is defined between Rmin.sub.i-1 and Rmax.sub.i-1, 
where Rmin.sub.i-1 is Ravg.sub.i-1 -30% and Rmax.sub.i-1 is Ravg.sub.i-1 +30%. IBI.sub.i falls within 
this range if it satisfies the following relationship: 

IBI.sub.i. epsilon. [Ravg.sub.i-1 (1-Pmin), Ravg.sub.i-1 (1+Pmax)] 

Continuing at step 96, if IBI.sub.i is within this range, processing jumps to step 100. If IBI.sub.i is not 
within this range, processing continues to step 98 where IBI.sub.i is eliminated as bad data. In a preferred 
embodiment, if too many errors are encountered, calculation is frozen until sufficient good data is received 
to warrant continuing. Sufficient good data is indicated by the following relationship: 

Amin<. A-inverted.. epsilon. [IBI. sub.j,IBI. sub. k ]<Amax 

wherein IBI includes values IBI.sub.j, . . . IBI. sub. k. At step 100 the running average of IBI.sub.i is 
calculated as Ravg.sub.i. At step 102 the minimum range of Ravg for IBI.sub.i is calculated as Rmin.sub.i. 
At step 104 the maximum range of Ravg for IBI.sub.i is calculated as Rmax.sub.i. These values will be 
used to verify the next IBI value, IBI.sub.i+1. Processing then continues to decision diamond 106 to 
determine if further IBI processing is to be done, and if so processing returns to decision diamond 94. If 
not, processing continues to step 48. 

At step 48, a conveniently sized segment of the raw data samples, say 64 seconds, is selected, and then 
linearly interpolated using standard DSP techniques, at step 50. To facilitate discrimination, the raw IBI 
data points have been scaled by 1000, i.e., converted to milliseconds. The HRV graph shown in FIG. 8A 
illustrates a representative set of scaled IBI data and the linearly interpolated data points, where the IBI data 
points are indicated by a black dot and the interpolated data points are indicated by "x." 

At step 52, the selected segment of HRV data is demeaned and detrended by subtracting a linear regression 
least squared fit line (a common DSP technique) to center the waveform with respect to the vertical axis, 
and to remove any tendency of the waveform to slowly decrease or increase. As illustrated in FIG. 8B, the 
HRV segment exhibits a decreasing trend over time, as can be seen from the superimposed linear 
regression line. 



149 



As will be clear to those skilled in this art, the segmentation process performed in step 48 has the 
undesirable side effect of convolving the HRV data with a square wave, and thus tends to introduce noise at 
the boundaries between each segment. For example, where the number of data points in each segment is 
128, there will be significant noise introduced between sample 128 and 129. A well known DSP technique, 
called Hanning windowing, effectively weights the center data points of the segment more heavily than 
those at the edges to reduce the effects of this noise. As used in the present embodiment, the Hanning 
window equation uses a cosine taper as follows: 

W(n)=0.5-0.5 cos(2.pi./N*n) 

where N is the total number of data points in the segment, and n=[l,N-l]. At step 54, such a Hanning 
window is applied to the detrended data to eliminate the segmentation noise. As illustrated in FIG. 8C, the 
resultant HRV waveform is zero-referenced and exhibits no trend. It should be recognized that various 
other alternate methods or techniques can be employed to remove such noise as may have been introduced 
as artifacts of the recording, interpolating or segmentation processes. 

At step 56, a user-established system control variable is examined to determine what type of spectrum 
analysis needs to be performed. If a magnitude spectrum is selected, an FFT is performed at step 58 to 
generate a magnitude spectrum. On the other hand, if a power spectrum is selected, the PSD of the 
detrended data is calculated, in step 60, using a standard FFT. This PSD is then normalized, at step 62, by 
dividing by the length of the segment in seconds (see, step 33). For example, if the number of data points 
was selected to be 128 points, the PSD is divided by 64, the duration of the segment, i.e., 64 seconds. This 
makes the units of power ms.sup.2 /Hz. Note that such a normalization process is not necessary if the 
magnitude spectrum is used. 

The result after step 58 or 62 is illustrated in FIG. 8D, where the horizontal axis represents frequency (Hz) 
and the vertical axis represents power (ms.sup.2 /Hz). Note that HRV is portrayed in the form of a bar 
chart, wherein each bar represents the power contained in the HRV signal within a respective, narrow band 
of frequencies comprising a "bin," as illustrated in FIG. 8D. For convenience of reference, the bins are 
logically numbered sequentially, starting with bin 1 on the far left, and continuing to bin 64 on the far right, 
where each bin corresponds to a frequency. At step 64, a pair of user-selected system control variables is 
examined to select the range of bins from which the highest local peak will be selected. As it can be 
anticipated that the desired peak will be within a certain frequency range, it is neither necessary nor 
reasonable to consider the entire PSD. According to one embodiment, the starting search bin is selected by 
a variable "search bin start" (SBS), while the ending search bin is selected by a variable "search bin end" 
(SBE). For the example illustrated in FIG. 8D, the SBS is equal to 3 and the SBE is equal to 18, comprising 
the search range of bins 3, 4, 5, ... , 18. 

At step 66 (FIG. 7C), a search is made, within the bin range selected in step 64, for all local peaks in the 
HRV spectrum, each being represented by the single bin having the highest power level, i.e., the bin 
underneath the respective peak. Next, the bin representing the highest peak within the bin range is selected. 
In the example shown in FIG. 8D, there are three peaks within the bin range of bin 3 to bin 18. The highest 
peak is located at bin 5. Note that the first, and absolute largest, peak is represented by bin 2, so bin 3 is not 
considered to represent a peak. 

Once the highest peak within the selected bin range has been determined, an entrainment parameter (EP) is 
calculated to indicate the energy of the wave in the entrainment area in relation to the total energy in the 
PSD. To calculate the EP, at step 66, the "width" of the peak is determined from a pair of user-selected 
variables: PI, which defines the number of bins to the left of the peak bin, and P2, which defines the 
number of bins to the right of the peak bin. Note that PI and P2 may be different if an asymmetric 
distribution is desired. The total energy of the peak, Psum, is then calculated as the sum of the power values 
of all bins in the range [(Peak-Pi), (Peak+P2)] at step 68. 

Next, at step 70, the total power below the peak pulse (Pbelow) is calculated. The relevant range is 
determined by a pair of user-selected variables: Bl and B2. The value of Pbelow is a summation of the 



150 



power values of all bins in the range [Bl, B2]. Similarly, at step 72, the total power above the peak 
(Pabove) is calculated, within a relevant range determined by a pair of user-selected variables: Al and A2. 
The value of Pabove is a summation of the power values of all bins in the range [Al, A2]. This is clearly 
illustrated in FIG. 8E. Finally, at step 74, EP is calculated according to the following equation: 

EP=(Psum/Pbelow)*(Psum/Pabove). 

At step 76, the EP value is then "scored" according to a plurality of user-selected entrainment level 
thresholds. For example, three stages of entrainment can be conveniently defined using only two variables, 
NLT1 and NLT2, each of which represents a respective value of EP. In such an embodiment, for EP below 
NLT1, the subject may be considered as not having achieved significant entrainment, and is given a score 
of "0". For EP above NLT1 and below NLT2, the subject is considered to have achieved mild entrainment, 
and is given a score of "1". For EP above NLT2, the subject is considered to have achieved full 
entrainment, and is given a score of "2". Of course, other criteria may be used to determine achieved 
entrainment level. 

In general, maximum entrainment is reached when the peak pulse contains a very large portion of the total 
power. A particularly high EP is illustrated in FIG. 8F, where Psum is great compared to both Pbelow and 
Pabove. This indicates that most of the power is concentrated at this small group of frequencies. Thus, EP 
tends to emphasize the condition wherein the majority of the power is concentrated within a selected, 
relatively narrow range of frequency bins. On the other hand, it is certainly possible to devise alternate 
calculations which will reflect concentration of significant levels of power distributed over a broader range 
of frequency bins. 

At step 78, the most recently calculated score is recorded and an accumulated score is calculated based on 
prior, historical scores, referred to as accumulated scores. At step 36, the actual EP result and accumulated 
scores are prepared for presentation to the user as a system output. This preparation involves steps such as 
76 and 78. 

At decision step 80, it is determined if the user desires this information to be simply output on a status 
screen of the computer, in a presentation format such as that shown by way of example in FIG. 6. In the 
preferred embodiment of the present invention, the user can elect to have this information control a game, 
such as the balloon game shown in FIG. 10. If the user so selects, at decision step 80, EP is compared to a 
various threshold levels and assigned an EP score accordingly. 

According to one embodiment, EP is assigned a score selected from the set of {0, 1, 2}. The score values 
have the following significance: 



EP Score EP value Entrainment 

0 EP < levell Low 

1 levell < EP . ltoreq. Ievel2 Medium 

2 level2 < EP High 



According to one embodiment, levell is set to 0.9, and level2 is set to 7.0, to provide a convenient 
distribution. In a computer program implementing this embodiment, these levels are provided as floating 
point values. Alternate embodiments may use additional levels, or may use two levels. 

If the user selects a nonstatic format, processing continues to step 84 of FIG. 7D, where the accumulated 
score, "Ascore," is calculated based on the historical information of the EP and EP score values. Ascore is 
then calculated based on the score value, and the previous score value (prescore). This calculation is 
performed according to the following scheme: 



EP Score EP Prescore Ascore (i) 

2 0 Ascore (i - 1) + 1 

1 0 Ascore (i - 1) + 1 
0 0 Ascore (i - 1) - 2 

2 1 Ascore (i - 1) + 1 



151 



1 

0 
2 
1 
0 



1 
1 

2 
2 
2 



Ascore ( i 
Ascore ( i 
Ascore (i 
Ascore ( i 
Ascore ( i 



1) 
1) 
1) 
1) 
1) 



+ 1 

- 1 
+ 2 
+ 1 

- 2 



According to one embodiment, Ascore has values in the range of {0, 1, 2, ... 100}, however alternate 
embodiments may use an alternate range of values. The above scheme provides scaled response to the EP, 
where Ascore slowly increases while remaining in medium entrainment, but quickly increases while 
remaining in high entrainment. Similarly, this scheme provides a quick decrease while remaining in the low 
entrainment. 

Ascore information may be then be used to provide a graphical display. One embodiment, illustrated in 
FIG. 7D begins at decision diamond 84 to determine the value of Ascore. sub. i with respect to Ascore. sub. i- 
1. Ascore. sub.i is the current calculated value of Ascore, and Ascore. sub. i-1 is the previous calculated value 
of Ascore. 

If Ascore. sub.i is equal to Ascore. sub.i-1, processing returns to step 38 without effecting any change in the 
graphical display. Note that alternate embodiments may include additional steps which provide this 
information to the display. If A score of" Sub-I" is greater than Ascore. sub. i-1, processing continues to 
decision diamond 86 to determine if Ascore. sub.i has reached an Ascore. sub. max value. According to one 
embodiment, A score of "Sub-max" is equal to 100. If Ascore. sub.i is not greater than Ascore. sub. max, 
processing continues to step 88. At step 88 a graphical element transitions toward a goal. In one 
embodiment, the graphical element is a balloon, and the transition is to rise vertically into the air. In an 
alternate embodiment, the graphical element is a rainbow, and the rainbow begins to fill in colors to reach a 
pot of gold. Once the rainbow reaches the pot of gold, the pot begins to fill with coins and may overspill. In 
still another embodiment, a peaceful scene is slowly filled in with color and detail. Alternate embodiments 
may include other scenes, icons, or images, and may include obstacles to be overcome or various stages to 
be reached. Processing then returns to step 38. 

Continuing with FIG. 7D, If Ascorei is greater than Ascore. sub. max, processing returns to step 38 without 
effecting any change in the graphical display. Note that alternate embodiments may include additional steps 
which provide this information to the display. 

Returning to step 84 of FIG. 7D, if Ascore. sub.i is less than Ascore.sub.i-1, processing continues to 
decision diamond 90 to determine if Ascorei has reached an Ascore. sub. min value. According to one 
embodiment, Ascore. sub. min is equal to 0. If Ascore. sub.i is not less than Ascore. sub. min, processing 
continues to step 92. At step 92 a graphical element transitions away from a goal. In one embodiment 
where the graphical element is a balloon, the transition is to lower vertically toward the ground. In an 
alternate embodiment where the graphical element is a rainbow, the rainbow begins to lose colors and 
separate from a pot of gold. If the pot of gold includes gold coins, these coins are removed. In still another 
embodiment where a peaceful scene is displayed, color and detail are slowly removed from the display. 
Alternate embodiments may include other scenes, icons, or images, and may include obstacles to be 
overcome or various stages to be reached. Processing then returns to step 38. 

At decision diamond 90, if Ascore, is less than Ascore. sub. min, processing continues to step 38 without 
effecting any change in the graphical display. Note that alternate embodiments may include additional steps 
which provide this information to the display. Note that in an alternate embodiment, a graphical element, 
such as a balloon figure, may be manipulated in an appropriate way, such as rising based directly on the EP 
score. As illustrated in FIG. 10, a hot air balloon is illustrated rising in the sky indicating a state of 
entrainment. As discussed hereinbelow, the background of the scene includes a grassy field with various 
obstacles positioned horizontally across the screen. The balloon must rise above various heights to avoid 
each obstacle. This display provides a visual indication of the state of entrainment and provide a visual 
reward for achieving entrainment. Control of the balloon illustrates the individual's control of the emotional 
and/or mental state. In alternate embodiment, other graphic scenarios may be used, which accomplish a 
particular goal as the EP score value reflects entrainment. 



152 



In accordance with the present invention, the method is recursive, performing the various steps described 
above periodically, say every 5 seconds or so. According to one embodiment, the method is implemented in 
the form of a software program which can be stored and distributed in a computer readable medium. The 
software is then operated on a personal computer, or a hand held computing device, or any other medium 
capable of operating a software program and providing a user information display. 

Shown in FIG. 9, is an entrainment apparatus 100 in accordance with an alternative embodiment of the 
present invention. In this particular embodiment, entrainment apparatus 100 is hand held unit which allows 
an individual to determine his or her level of entrainment. In one embodiment, entrainment apparatus 100 
comprises a photo plethysmographic sensor 102, a data processing system 104, and a display 106. 

In one embodiment, an individual places a finger within a receptacle located on the back of entrainment 
apparatus 29 which contains photo plethysmographic sensor 102. Photo plethysmographic sensor 102 
senses the heart beat of the individual, by way of the finger, and sends this heart beat information to data 
processing system 104. Data processing system 104 collects and analyzes this heart beat data, and 
determines the individuals level of entrainment. A display output containing information relating to the 
individuals entrainment level is then generated by data processing system 104 and displayed on display 
106. In one form, information relating to the individuals entrainment ratio is displayed on display 106, and 
a mode allows the users to review his or her low entrainment ratio, medium entrainment ratio or high 
entrainment ratio. 

In an alternative embodiment, the sensor 102 comprises a vest or strap containing ECG electrodes. The 
individual places the vest on and then electrically couples it to the hand held portion of entrainment 
apparatus 100. The vest or strap is then used to sense the individuals heart beat and send heart beat 
information to data processing system 104. 

Shown in FIG. 10 is a presentation format 24 produced by entrainment apparatus 10 in accordance with an 
alternative embodiment of the present invention. In this particular embodiment, a hot air balloon floats 
across a country landscape and the background scenery scrolls slowly by as the balloon floats into the sky 
based on the individual's entrainment level. If the individual does not maintain entrainment, the balloon 
sinks to the ground. Obstacles like a brick wall or a tree, as shown in FIG. 10, are presented during the 
course of the flight. If the individual's entrainment level is not high enough to clear one of these obstacles, 
the balloon's flight is impeded until an entrainment level high enough to raise the balloon above the 
obstacle is achieved. The calculated entrainment zone defines the balloon's climbing slope for high 
entrainment and for low entrainment. 

Shown in FIG. 1 1 is an alternative presentation format 26 produced by entrainment apparatus 10 in 
accordance with an alternative embodiment of the present invention. In this particular embodiment, a 
rainbow grows toward a pot when an individual is in a state of entrainment. Growth of the rainbow toward 
the pot is smooth and steady while the individual maintains entrainment, but the rainbow recedes if the 
individual does not maintain entrainment. Once the rainbow reaches the pot, gold coins accumulate and fill 
the pot if the individual continues to maintain entrainment. For example, one coin is added to the pot for 
each five second time period of medium entrainment and two coins are added to the pot for each five 
second time period of high entrainment. A total score is then presented at the end of a selected time period. 

Shown in FIG. 12 is yet another possible presentation format 28 produced by entrainment apparatus 10 in 
accordance with an alternative embodiment of the present invention. In this particular embodiment, a 
nature scene changes with time as the individual maintains entrainment. For example, the scene changes for 
every 10 seconds that entrainment is held. If entrainment is low or not maintained the scene does not 
change. 

Alternate embodiments may employ a variety of display formats including detailed information, graphical 
information, graphic images, video images, and audio images. According to one embodiment, the level of 
entrainment controls the volume on a music delivery system. This may be implemented based on the EP 
value, where the volume increases with increasing EP and decreases with decreasing EP. The system may 



153 



be optimized by using music especially designed to enhance the entrainment process. Further, in one 
embodiment, the music changes style with entrainment level. Additionally audio controllers may provide 
verbal messages. 

It is possible to combine the game functionality with a hand-held device in the form of a toy. In one 
embodiment, a crystal ball lights up and glows brighter as entrainment is maintained. The light may change 
color as entrainment levels are reached. Again, the color of the light is designed to optimize the entrainment 
method. The crystal ball may be a hand-held, or other convenient device, and may be battery-operated 
and/or portable to allow enhanced life performance. Alternate embodiments use toy designs and methods, 
such as radio-controlled toys, such as cars, trucks, and animals. The toy operation is based on the level of 
entrainment. In still other embodiments, stuffed animals or toys emit harmonizing sounds and music based 
on the level of entrainment. 

For visual display embodiments, one embodiment begins with a solid background of dots, which dissolve 
as higher levels of entrainment are reached to reveal a graphic image, such as a 3-dimensional image. As 
entrainment reduces to a lower level, the dots fill the screen again. 

Additionally, various computer games may use entrainment levels and/or the EP value and/or the 
accumulated scores as triggers to produce varied results. For example, in action games entrainment triggers 
access to new adventures as the game unfolds. The adventure plays out differently depending on the pattern 
of entrainment, i.e whether entrainment is maintained at one level, or oscillates between levels, or 
increases, or increases. It is possible to combine keyboard strokes and mouse and/or joystick movements to 
facilitate the game. In one embodiment, a locked door is only unlocked when entrainment reaches a certain 
level. It may be necessary to maintain entrainment at that level for a predetermined amount of time. The 
objects of such games may include spacecraft moving through space, animals in a jungle, race cars on a 
track, or any other imagery applicable to a game. 

Various images are more helpful in achieving entrainment for an individual than other images. Those 
images are selected based on predetermined visual and auditory rhythm, and may be specific to the 
individual and may change from day to day. In one embodiment, a screen saver provides a visual image 
having a predetermined visual and auditory rhythm, and includes options for the individual to select based 
on personal preferences. Where feedback is provided to the Screensaver program, the screen saver program 
may perform adjustments to optimize the effects for the individual. Our research suggests several criteria 
that tend to enhance entrainment. For example, circles, and shapes with rounded edges or curved lines tend 
to enhance entrainment better than squares, having angular, jagged, or sharp lines. Additionally, movement 
of the images should be slow, coherent and rhythmic, and transitions are smooth, slow and flowing. Colors 
and rhythms should oscillate, where the illusion is of inward and outward movement simultaneously. 
Movements should transition smoothly, without jarring or erratic motion. 

The present invention is also applicable to sports endeavors and athletes, particularly those performing in 
high stress situations, such as a critical hole in golf. The games, devices, and techniques allow the athlete to 
practicing attaining entrainment and thus gain familiarity with this feeling state which can then be more 
easily accessed during actual games for improved performance. Various game embodiments may be 
designed for the sports enthusiast. For example, a beautiful golf course comes into view as entrainment is 
reached. Other games could include a golfer swinging a club or hitting a ball, where the path of flight and 
distance are determined by the degree of entrainment prior to the shot. In one embodiment, the game keeps 
score, and if not entrained, the ball goes into a sandtrap or lands in the rough or water or other hazard. 
Prolonged states of entrainment produces a hole in one, or other reward. Alternate embodiments may 
employ a similar strategy for other sports, such as baseball, basketball, football, and other popular sports. 

In one embodiment, a vehicle is stuck in a traffic jam in Silicon Valley and moves proportionally to 
entrainment. As the car moves faster it heads for a scenic place. Note that these games may be operated on 
a personal computer, or other display device, or may be operated on a portable device. The portable device 
is highly desirable, as the value of entrainment on reducing stress and increasing the quality of life is most 
necessary during everyday life events. For example, a business device may combine a calculator or 
personal planner with the present invention, to allow a business person to utilize the device at a business 



154 



meeting or negotiations without the knowledge of those around. In one embodiment, a touchpad used for 
manipulating a pointer on a display screen is also used to monitor heart beat data. It is also possible to have 
a device which is accessed by multiple persons. Here prior to beginning an activity, such as a business 
meeting or a sports event, each member must reach a predetermined level of entrainment for a 
predetermined period of time. Satisfaction of which may be indicated by a particular color light or a 
specified sound. 

A hand-held device is applicable to education, where it effectively programs the neural network of the brain 
of the student allowing familiarity with the feeling of coherent and entrained states. Once developed, these 
states will carry over throughout adult life to influence attainment and maintenance of emotional balance 
and physiological coherence. By providing an easy to use format, geared to younger users, the present 
invention encourages them to learn how to create coherent and entrained heart rhythms. Cartoon characters, 
animals and popular images may be animated and provide instructions for reaching entrainment and 
rewards for success. 

The present invention is also applicable to the medical community and medical applications. As the 
entrained state provides an efficient physiological state, by puffing less wear and tear on the glands and 
organs, the present method of reaching and monitoring the entrainment state is a nonintrusive preventive 
medical technique. Our research suggests that by teaching individuals with certain pathologies to self- 
generate health, high performance heart rhythms that the bodies own regenerative systems seem to be 
activated and healing is facilitated. Applications of the present invention for such use include pain control, 
blood pressure control, arrythmia stabilization, and diabetic management. 

Research suggests that afferent input from the heart at the brain stem level modulates the ability of pain 
signals to transmit from the nervous system to the brain. The level of entrainment is proportional to afferent 
input, thereby affecting the inhibition of pain signals from the heart to the brain. A subject experiencing 
pain may use the present invention to reach a state of entrainment, where the pain is lessened. Further, an 
entrained state leads to more efficient blood flow throughout the organism and may reduce the deleterious 
effects of high blood pressure. In one embodiment, a game includes a visual image of the human body 
including arteries and major blood vessels. The level of entrainment controls the images of blood flow 
through the body. The display illustrates the functioning of the body internally, and indicates the specific 
differences in heart function during stress and high emotions, as compared to entrainment and coherence. 
As the rhythms of the heart become entrained, the blood flow images change to illustrate the efficient use 
of energy. 

Still additional benefits of reaching and maintaining a state of entrainment include the efficient functioning 
of the autonomic nervous systems. In one embodiment, a game is used which provides visual images of the 
electrical signals of the nervous systems. Pulsating signals are displayed throughout the human system and 
are transmitted according to sensor detection from the subject. The goal of this game is to change the image 
such that the systems function efficiently, and to reduce or eliminate the frayed or frazzled images. 

Our research has further shown that emotional self-management and physiological coherence are effective 
in reducing depression, anxiety, and other emotional stress, and also in improving glycemic control in 
diabetic populations. Additionally, maintaining an entrainment state is generally beneficial in treating 
anxiety, general depression, and other emotional disorders. For example, one embodiment provides a 
device for monitoring the autonomic balance according to the present invention prior to retiring for rest. 
This is particularly beneficial in the treatment of sleep disorders, and allows the subject to shift heart 
rhythms which tends to enhance sleep. Additionally, the present invention is applicable to impulse control, 
providing training to help overcome eating disorders, anger, and/or addiction. Our research suggests that 
the present invention is beneficial in learning stress management, and emotional self-management. In one 
embodiment, a visual display is provided to illustrate other systems within the body, such as neural and 
hormonal systems, where signals are displayed moving from the heart to the brain. Here the effects of these 
signals are clearly seen, and may be controlled by attaining a state of entrainment. Although various 
preferred embodiments of the present invention have been disclosed for illustrative purposes, those skilled 
in the art will appreciate that various modifications, additions and/or substitutions are possible without 
departing from the scope and spirit of the present invention as disclosed in the claims. 



155 



BRAIN-WASHING : 

A SYNTHESIS OF THE ROMANTIC DYSTOPIA ON PSYCHOPOLITICS 

by John Mark Ockerbloom - September 1996 

It is my good fortune to work in the used and rare book field in a moderately large city in the Pacific 
Northwest. Over the years I have seen many strange and wonderful titles. This is a tale of one of them, a 
book I never thought I would see once much less twice, and some suggestions as to its true origin. 

All my life I have been interested in belief and control systems: among the groups I have investigated at 
length is the Church of Scientology. 

The literature of Dianetics and Scientology, pro and con, is extensive. Add to this the tremendous debates 
occurring on the Internet and an impressive library of legal documents filed around the world and it is quite 
possible one could spend a lifetime defending, attacking or simply studying the legacy of L. Ron Hubbard. 
This brief essay concerns a specific piece of Dianetic/Scientology literature titled " Brain-Washing: A 
Synthesis of the Russian Textbook on Psychopolitics. " 

The author will assume some familiarity on the part of the reader regarding Dianetics, Scientology, 
Hubbard, etc.: the text of "Brain-Washing" has been posted in full to the newsgroup alt.religion.scientology 
and is likely archived somewhere. In brief, "Brain-Washing" presents itself as an address by Lavrenty 
Pavlovich Beria to American students at the Lenin University on the use of psychiatry as a means of social 
control. 

"L. Ron Hubbard: Messiah or Madman" by Bent Corydon and L. Ron Hubbard Jr. quotes from "Brain- 
Washing" at length and postulates on its source. According to Corydon and Hubbard, the book first 
appeared in 1955. The official line was that it had been "slipped under the door of a Scientology org" (org 
being an abbreviation for organization). Hubbard Jr., however, states: "Dad wrote every word of it. Barbara 
Bryan and my wife typed the manuscript off his dictation." John Sanborne, editor of Hubbard Sr.'s books 
since the early 1950s, confirms that Hubbard dictated the book in 1955. Corydon also writes "The manual 
was later actually being distributed by such groups as the John Birch Society." 

" Bare-Faced Messiah: The True Story of L. Ron Hubbard " by Russell Miller adds that the Federal Bureau 
of Investigations's Central Research Section, upon being presented with a copy of "Brain-Washing" by 
Hubbard, concluded its authenticity was doubtful and did not acknowledge receipt of the pamphlet. 

In November 1963 the government of Victoria, Australia appointed a Board of Inquiry into Scientology. 
The Hubbard Association of Scientologists International provided the Board with its literature, including 
"Brain- Washing". The Board attributed the pamphlet to Hubbard and quoted at length in the October 1965 
report as an example of the "evil" of Scientology. 

The testimony of Hubbard Jr. and Sandborne, combined with the well documented history of deception on 
the part of Hubbard Sr., suggests that in fact "Brain-Washing" was written by Hubbard Sr. and is not what 
it presents itself to be. This is the conclusion of Corydon, Hubbard Jr, Miller, of Jon Atack in his book "A 
Piece of Blue Sky: Scientology, Dianetics and L. Ron Hubbard Exposed" and the majority of Scientology 
critics on the Internet. 

I never imagined I would actually see a copy of "Brain-Washing." But to my great surprise I found a copy 
for sale in a drawer of paper ephemera at a former employer's book store, along with other older 
Scientology material. I photocopied it immediately, then put it on display. Not long after I bought the book: 
failing to capture such a rare bird for my ideological garden would have haunted me forever. 

The book opens with an Editorial Note by one Charles Stickley (Atack suggests this too is L. Ron 
Hubbard), wherein we are told there are two groups "entirely above suspicion" who were antipathetic to the 
Soviet programme presented in "Brain -Washing." These are "the Christian Scientists and the Dianeticists. 



156 



Christian Science is an American Religion, intensely patriotic. Dianetics is the only entirely American 
developers in the field of the human mind." It was published as a public service by the Hubbard College of 
Scientology in Sussex, England. 

The Editorial Note does little to add to our knowledge of the source of "Brain-Washing." To quote in full 
the first two paragraphs: 

This book is a synthesis of information gathered through observation, discussion, 
investigation and experience over the last ten years. 

I cannot entirely vouch for its authenticity. Disclosure of the sources form which it is 
drawn would undoubtedly lead to great difficulties for them. And in matters of this kind 
the Soviet is not accustomed to the issuance of validations. 

The city I live in is not small, and the bookstores I have worked allowed me to handle thousands of books. 
Nonetheless, I was speechless when one day two men brought in a box of books for sale on behalf of an 
older relative, and tucked among the worthless paperbacks was a second - and significantly different - 
edition of "Brain-Washing." This time I bought it immediately: working in a used book store has its 
advantages. 

The second copy of "Brain- Washing" I bought was published by Kenneth Goff of Englewood, Colorado. 
This undated edition contains much more information as to the source of "Brain-Washing" than the 
Scientology edition. 

Kenneth Goff claimed to have been a member of the Communist Party from 2 May 1936 to 10 October 
1939. He states that in 1939 he appeared before the Un-American Activities Committee in Washington D. 
C. (chaired at the time by Martin Dies), and that his testimony can be found in Volume Nine of that year's 
Congressional Report. However, if he did testify, his name is not mentioned and the themes presented in 
"Brain- Washing" do not appear. Goff wrote "Still 'tis our Ancient Foe," in which he claimed "The 
Frankenstein of Communism is the product of the Jewish Mind." Goff died of a heart attack in 1943. (Ed: 
This is incorrect. Goff wrote articles in 1955 and died only in the 1970ies.) 

During his membership in the Communist Party, Goff attended the Eugene Debs Labor School in 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin (which is also not mentioned in the House Reports of the Un-American Activities 
Committee). Speaking of "Brain-Washing" in an Editorial Note, Goff states: "This book was used in 
underground schools, and contains the address of Beria to the American students in the Lenin University 
prior to 1936. The text in the book in general is from the Communist Manual of Instructions of 
Psychological Warfare, and was used in America for the training of Communist cadre. The only revision in 
this book is the summary, which was added by the Communists after the atomic bomb came into being." 

The two editions of the book are nearly identical. The typeface, size, page count, covers and over-all look 
of the books have only minor variations. The significant differences in the two editions can be found only 
in a line-by-line, word-by-word comparison. 

Page 3 paragraph 5 of the Goff edition reads: 

To achieve these goals the psychopolitician must crush every "home-grown" variety of 
mental healing in America. Actual teachings of James, Eddy and Pentecostal Bible faith 
healers amongst your misguided people must be swept aside. 



157 



Page 3 paragraph 5 of the Scientology edition reads: 

To achieve these goals the psychopolitician must crush every "home-grown" variety of 
mental healing in America. Actual teachings of Freud, James, Eddy and others amongst 
your misguided peoples must be swept away. 

Page 49 paragraph 4 of the Goff edition reads: 

The psychopolitical operative should also spare no expense in smashing out of existence, 
by whatever means, any actual healing group, such as that of acupuncture, in China; such 
as Christian Science, Dianetics and faith healing, in the United States; such as 
Catholicism in Italy and Spain; and the practical psychological groups of England. 

Page 49 paragraph 3 of the Scientology edition reads: 

The psychopolitical operative should also spare no expense in smashing out of existence, 
by whatever means, any actual healing group, such as that of acupuncture in China; such 
as Christian Science and Dianetics, in the United States; such as Catholicism in Italy and 
Spain; and the practical psychology groups of England. 

Page 58 paragraph 5 of the Goff edition reads: 

Given any slightest encouragement, public support would swing on an instant all mental 
healing into the hands of the churches. And there are Churches waiting to receive it, 
clever churches. That terrible monster the Roman Catholic Church still dominates mental 
healing heavily throughout the Christian world and their well schooled priests are always 
at work to turn the public their way. Among Fundamentalist and Pentecostal groups 
healing campaigns are conducted, which, because of their results, win many to the cult of 
Christianity. In the field of pure healing the Church of Christ Science of Boston, 
Massachusetts excels in commanding the public favor and operates many sanitariums. All 
these must be swept aside. They must be ridiculed and defamed and every cure they 
advertise must be asserted as a hoax. [...] 

Page 58 paragraph 5 of the Scientology edition reads: 

Given any slightest encouragement, public support would swing on an instant all mental 
healing into the hands of the churches. And there are Churches waiting to receive it, 
clever churches. That terrible monster the Roman Catholic Church still dominates mental 
healing heavily throughout the Christian world and their well schooled priests are always 
at work to turn the public their way. In the field of pure mental healing the Church of 
Christ Science of Boston, Massachusetts excels in commanding the public favour and 
operates many sanitoriums. All these must be swept aside. They must be ridiculed and 
defamed and every cure they advertise must be asserted as a hoax. [...] 



In March 1996 I had the chance to examine yet another edition of this book, one transcribed and posted on 
the Internet by Martin Hunt. This edition was also published by Scientologists, but includes several 
neologism and Scientology terms not found in my copies. 

And yet another edition of the book is quoted in "Vampire Killer 2000." This time the title is "The Soviet 
Art of Brainwashing: A Synthesis of the Russian Textbook on Psycho-politics" and is attributed to Kenneth 
Goff. Here, Beria is the Head of the Lenin School of Psycho -politics and speaks to a group of 
American/Marxist Psychology students in 1933. 



158 



And yet another edition of the book is listed in the catalog of A-Albionic Research: "Brainwashing: A 
Synthesis of the Russian Textbook on Psychopolitics; Psychopolitics and the Suppression of Man and 
Civilization." This edition is attributed to Kenneth Goff, and to "Stalin's head of the KGB," and to L. Ron 
Hubbard (all in the same sentence). It was published in 1988. 

L. Ron Hubbard, like most people, on occasion told lies for personal gain. But was "Brain-Washing" one of 
his lies, an attempt to ride the demon engine of McCarthyism? By comparing the facts - and the lies - 
surrounding "Brain- Washing," an alternative origin appears in which everyone, even L. Ron Hubbard, gets 
to tell a little bit of the truth. 

"Vampire Killer 2000" places "Brain- Washing" in 1933. Goff claims to have encountered it between 1936 
and 1939, and that an appendix had been added after that time. It is attributed to Hubbard in 1955. Later on 
it is published by the John Birch Society and still later by A-Albionic Research. When was the book 
written? The time of origin of the book appears fluid, covering no less and perhaps more than fifty years. 

The Goff edition speaks favorably of Pentecostal religion and faith healing: one wonders what 
denomination Goff was. Goff also states that earlier editions did not mention atomic warfare, which was 
included in later editions. The early Scientology edition does not include references to faith healing, and 
later editions add Scientology terms. The contents of the book also appear fluid, reflecting the personal 
interests and the times of the publisher. 

The mailable origin and content of "Brain- Washing" suggest very strongly that it is a dystopian romance, a 
work of fiction that presents itself as fact to give urgency to its theme. 

Dystopian works presented as fiction, such as "Gulliver's Travels" and "1984," have a ready place in 
literature. But when a dystopia is presented as fact, and some people accept it as a fact, its place is very 
different from that of literature. Dystopian fiction is traceable to a single source and is focused in its 
subject: dystopia presented as fact is molded to fit the agenda of the place and time it appears (or re- 
appears). Dystopian fiction is recognized as legitimate literature under names including satire, humor and 
commentary: dystopia presented as fact is not generally recognized as a literary form, although like the 
folk-lore it most resembles it has a very long history. 

"Brain- Washing" is not the only dystopian romance. Generations have lived and died believing "The 
Protocol of the Elders of Zion" to be the actual meeting notes of the conspiracy that rules the world. "The 
Occult Technology of Power," "Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars," "Report from Stone Mountain" and "MJ- 
12" are more recent examples of the same literary form: social criticism presented as historic fact. 

If "Brain-Washing" is a dystopian romance, it (like folklore) will have many origins and many forms. How 
can the claims surrounding it be best assimilated? While I have found many blossoms of this book, I have 
yet to see its roots and have doubts they will ever be uncovered. My comparing the different editions of 
"Brain- Washing," a chronological series of incarnations is suggested. 

The book appears some time in the 1930s, and is used by (if not written by) Kenneth Goff to speak against 
Communism and for Pentecostal Christianity. Later he adds an afterward on atomic bombs, to update the 
red menace. When L. Ron Hubbard had need of the book in the 1950s, he reads it into a transcription 
machine as if he 'wrote' it. Initially he removes references to Pentecostal Christianity and faith healing and 
does not speak entirely unkindly of Freud; later on he demonizes psychiatry more than Communism. The 
John Birch Society uses the book for their ends, as do the Vampire Killers. Hubbard did indeed "write" 
"Brain- Washing" - but so did Kenneth Goff, the John Birch Society, the authors of Vampire Killers 2000 
and probably many others. 



159 



Were it possible to trace the branches of "Brain-Washing" to a common trunk, it would likely be planted 
in the old soil that nourished the "Protocols" and every other urban legend you've ever encountered. 
Criticisms of social control mechanisms told as fact, whatever agenda they may serve, are ancient and 
universal. Those who have need of the dystopian romance as a literary form can pull out its skeleton, dress 
it in contemporary flesh and send it on its way. "Brain- Washing" belongs to us all. 

About the author: 

The author is familiar with the fashion by which the Church of Scientology meets its critics, and wishes to 
remain anonymous. No correspondence will be answered. The author is also familiar with the process of 
writing something, distributing it and having people believe it: magically, what once was only words 
becomes reality. In that spirit, let it be known the author is an independently wealthy person living in 
excellent health and happiness in a beautiful house surrounded by wonderful people and interesting books. 

Please feel encouraged to reprint, distribute and archive this text in any form, including in print, the 
Internet, BBS, tape, CD, film, video, books, magazines, newspapers, in translation, etc, with or without 
credit given. Thank you. 

Chronological Bibliography: 

House Report No. 2: Investigation of Un-American Activities and Propaganda / Report of the Special 
Committee on Un-American Activities Pursuant to H. Res. 282 (75th Congress) January 3, 1939. 

House Report No. 8: Printing the Report on Un-American Activities, January 30, 1939. 

House Report No. 22: Continue Investigation of Un-American Activities, February 2, 1939. 

House Report No. 34: Investigation of Un-American Activities, Expenses, February 9, 1939. 

House Report No. 2233: Investigation of Un-American Activities and Propaganda / Report of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities Pursuant to H. Res. 5 (79th Congress) June 7, 1946. 

House Report No. 2742: Investigation of Un-American Activities and Propaganda / Report of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities Pursuant to H. Res. 5 (79th Congress) January 2, 1947. 

Brain- Washing: A Synthesis of the Russian Textbook on Psychopolitics by Beria. Kenneth Goff, 
Englewood (no date) 

Brain- Washing: A Synthesis of the Russian Textbook on Psychopolitics by Beria. Hubbard College of 
Scientology, Sussex 1955 

L. Ron Hubbard: Messiah or Madman? by Bent Corydon and L. Ron Hubbard, Jr. Lyle Stuart Inc. 
Secaucus NJ 1987 ISBN 0-8184-0444-2 

Bare-Faced Messiah: The True Story of L. Ron Hubbard by Russell Miller. Henry Holt and Company New 
York 1987 ISBN 0-8050-0654-0 

Brainwashing: A Synthesis of the Russian Textbook on Psychopolitics; Psychopolitics and the Suppression 
of Man and Civilization by Kenneth Goff. A-Albionic 1988 

Vampire Killer 2000, edited (written?) by Jack McLamb. Published by Police Against The New World 
Order. 



160 



A Piece of Blue Sky: Scientology, Dianetics and L. Ron Hubbard Exposed by Jon Atack, Lyle Stuart Inc. 
SecaucusNJ 1990 ISBN 0-685-45110-0 

Brain-Washing: A Synthesis of the Russian Textbook on Psychopolitics by Beria. Martin Hunt, 1996 

Various editions of "Brainwashing" are encountered: 

The book appears some time in the 1930s, and is used by (if not written by) Kenneth Goff 
to speak against Communism and for Pentecostal Christianity. Later he adds an afterward 
on atomic bombs, to update the red menace. When L. Ron Hubbard had need of the book 
in the 1950s, he reads it into a transcription machine as if he 'wrote' it. 

The poster makes some interesting points, but ultimately does not make a convincing case for a pre- 
Hubbard origin for the text. 

When researching the origins of this book for The On-Line Books Page, I did a search of WorldCat to find 
out what versions were out there. WorldCat is a subscription-based database of thousands of on-line library 
catalogs; if a book has made it into any university or major public library system in North America, 
chances are it's in WorldCat. 

WorldCat does reveal that the "brainwashing" text is indeed now being disseminated in various forms by 
different (and usually somewhat paranoid) organizations, and that there are editions that credit Goff as the 
editor. However, there is no edition listed in WorldCat that's dated earlier than 1955, the year that Hubbard 
released his version of the text. 

The editions that bear Goff s name either are undated or post-date 1943, which was the year Goff died. The 
attributions made to Goff in the editions themselves are also dubious, as can be seen by the example quotes 
that our anonymous poster supplies. 

See, for instance: 

Kenneth Goff claimed to have been a member of the Communist Party from 2 May 1 936 
to 10 October 1939. He states that in 1939 he appeared before the Un-American 
Activities Committee in Washington D. C. (chaired at the time by Martin Dies), and that 
his testimony can be found in Volume Nine of that year's Congressional Report. 
However, if he did testify, his name is not mentioned and the themes presented in "Brain- 
Washing" do not appear. 

So there is no public record that Goff ever actually testified as to the contents of the manual; and 
furthermore, the assertion the book makes that he testified at all is not borne out by the record. 

See also: 

Speaking of "Brain-Washing" in an Editorial Note, Goff states: "This book was used in 
underground schools, and contains the address of Beria to the American students in the 
Lenin University prior to 1936. The text in the book in general is from the Communist 
Manual of Instructions of Psychological Warfare, and was used in America for the 
training of Communist cadre. The only revision in this book is the summary, which was 
added by the Communists after the atomic bomb came into being." 



161 



But this can't be Goff. He died in 1943, and the atomic bomb didn't actually "come into being" until 1945, 
when the first atomic tests were held. And Dianetics didn't get published until even later, but still is 
mentioned in the "Goff edition": 

(Ed.: Since Goff lived until the 1970ies, this presumption is incorrect.) 

Page 49 paragraph 4 of the Goff edition reads: 

The psychopolitical operative should also spare no expense in smashing out of existence, 
by whatever means, any actual healing group, such as that of acupuncture, in China; such 
as Christian Science, Dianetics and faith healing, in the United States... 

This can't be explained away as a "later revision" either, since in the quote above this one the only thing 
that was claimed to have changed was the initial summary, after the atomic bomb was introduced. 

Given all this, and the apparent lack of any print edition in libraries until 12 years after Goff s death and 
after the appearance of Hubbard's edition, I'd have to conclude that the attribution to Goff is another after- 
the-fact fabrication. (It's not an uncommon phenomenon for spurious origins to be added to paranoid tracts 
as they propagate; you'll find a number of examples in the alt. folklore. urban archives.) 

So, who does that leave? 

Well, Hubbard claimed to have received this text from a Charles Stickley, who claimed to be a professor 
writing from New York in 1955. But professors leave a rather obvious paper trail, in the form of scholarly 
papers, books, society and university records, and Who's Who entries. A quick check of WorldCat and 
Who's Who of 1955 turned up no publications or biographical information for this "Charles Stickley". I 
even emailed the webmaster of the Scientologyftm] web site, asking if they had any leads as to who he was 
or where he taught or published. They couldn't come up with anything. 

That leaves Hubbard as the earliest documentable name attached to the document. The case for Hubbard as 
the author is quite good. _L. Ron Hubbard: Messiah or Madman_ contains two testimonies from people 
who said they were present when Hubbard wrote it. The subject matter fits Hubbard's own obsessions quite 
closely; both about the evils of psychiatry and about the influence of Dianetics. And the vocabulary, at least 
in the version that's posted on the Internet, also has Hubbard's marks all over it. 

You can see this for yourself. Try an Alta Vista search of the word "thinkingness". When I tried it just now, 
the only places the word appeared on its own over the entire Web was in material known to be written by 
Hubbard or Scientology [tm] — and in the "brainwashing manual". (You'll also find a couple of hits from 
other sources where it's used as part of a compound construct like "forward-thinkingness" or "right- 
thinkingness", but the use of "thinkingness" on its own seems to be unique to Hubbard.) 

Given all this, I felt confident in giving Hubbard the authorship credit for Brainwashing when I listed it on 
the On-Line Books Page. 

John Mark Ockerbloom 

Editor, The On-Line Books Page 



162 



US6506148 - Nervous System Manipulation by EM Fields 
from Monitors ( TV and Computer ) (Heartbeat) 



United States Patent 
Loos 



6,506,148 
January 14, 2003 



Nervous system manipulation by electromagnetic fields from monitors 

Abstract 

Physiological effects have been observed in a human subject in response to stimulation of 
the skin with weak electromagnetic fields that are pulsed with certain frequencies near 
1/2 Hz or 2.4 Hz, such as to excite a sensory resonance. Many computer monitors and TV 
tubes, when displaying pulsed images, emit pulsed electromagnetic fields of sufficient 
amplitudes to cause such excitation. It is therefore possible to manipulate the nervous 
system of a subject by pulsing images displayed on a nearby computer monitor or TV set. 
For the latter, the image pulsing may be imbedded in the program material, or it may be 
overlaid by modulating a video stream, either as an RF signal or as a video signal. The 
image displayed on a computer monitor may be pulsed effectively by a simple computer 
program. For certain monitors, pulsed electromagnetic fields capable of exciting sensory 
resonances in nearby subjects may be generated even as the displayed images are pulsed 
with subliminal intensity. 



Inventors: Loos; Hendricus G. (3019 Cresta Way, Laguna Beach, CA 92651) 
Appl. No.: 872528 
Filed: June 1, 2001 

Current U.S. Class: 600/27; 600/545 

Intern'l Class: A61N 002/00; A61B 005/04; A61M 021/00 

Field of Search: 600/9-27,545 313/419 324/318 378/901 434/236 



References Cited [Referenced Byl 



U.S. Patent Documents 



3592965 


Jul., 1971 


Diaz 


313/419. 


4800893 


Jan., 1989 


Ross et al. 


600/545. 


5169380 


Dec., 1992 


Brennan 


600/26. 


5304112 


Apr., 1994 


Mrklas et al. 


434/236. 


5400383 


Mar., 1995 


Yassa et al. 


378/901. 


5412419 


May., 1995 


Ziarati 


324/318. 


5450859 


Sep., 1995 


Litovitz 


600/9. 


5782874 


Jul., 1998 


Loos 


607/2. 


5800481 


Sep., 1998 


Loos 


607/100. 


5899922 


May., 1999 


Loos 


607/2. 


5935054 


Aug., 1999 


Loos 


600/9. 


6017302 


Jan., 2000 


Loos 


600/28. 



163 



6081744 


Jun., 2000 


Loos 


607/2. 


6091994 


Jul., 2000 


Loos 


607/100. 


6167304 


Dec, 2000 


Loos 


607/2. 


6238333 


May., 2001 


Loos 


600/9. 



Other References 

N.Wiener "Nonlinear problems in random theory" p. 71-72 John Wiley New York 1958. 
M.Hutchison "Megabrain" p.232-3 Ballantine Books New York 1991. 

C.A.Terzuolo and T.H.Bullock "Measurement of imposed voltage gradient adequate to modulate 
neuronal firing" Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci, Physiology 42,687-94, 1956. 
O.Kellogg"Foundations of Potential Theory"p. 191 Dover, 1953. 

P.M.Morse and H.Feshbach'Methods of Theoretical Physics"p. 1267 McGraw-Hill New York, 
1953. 

Primary Examiner: Winakur; Eric F. 
Assistant Examiner: Veniaminov; Nikita R 



Claims 



I claim: 

1. A method for manipulating the nervous system of a subject located near a monitor, the monitor emitting 
an electromagnetic field when displaying an image by virtue of the physical display process, the subject 
having a sensory resonance frequency, the method comprising: 

creating a video signal for displaying an image on the monitor, the image having an intensity; 

modulating the video signal for pulsing the image intensity with a frequency in the range 0.1 Hz to 15 Hz; 
and 

setting the pulse frequency to the resonance frequency. 

2. A computer program for manipulating the nervous system of a subject located near a monitor, the 
monitor emitting an electromagnetic field when displaying an image by virtue of the physical display 
process, the subject having cutaneous nerves that fire spontaneously and have spiking patterns, the 
computer program comprising: 

a display routine for displaying an image on the monitor, the image having an intensity; 

a pulse routine for pulsing the image intensity with a frequency in the range 0.1 Hz to 15 Hz; and 

a frequency routine that can be internally controlled by the subject, for setting the frequency; 

whereby the emitted electromagnetic field is pulsed, the cutaneous nerves are exposed to the pulsed 
electromagnetic field, and the spiking patterns of the nerves acquire a frequency modulation. 

3. The computer program of claim 2, wherein the pulsing has an amplitude and the program further 
comprises an amplitude routine for control of the amplitude by the subject. 

4. The computer program of claim 2, wherein the pulse routine comprises: 

a timing procedure for timing the pulsing; and an extrapolation procedure for improving the accuracy of the 
timing procedure. 



164 



5. The computer program of claim 2, further comprising a variability routine for introducing variability in 
the pulsing. 

6. Hardware means for manipulating the nervous system of a subject located near a monitor, the monitor 
being responsive to a video stream and emitting an electromagnetic field when displaying an image by 
virtue of the physical display process, the image having an intensity, the subject having cutaneous nerves 
that fire spontaneously and have spiking patterns, the hardware means comprising: 

pulse generator for generating voltage pulses; 

means, responsive to the voltage pulses, for modulating the video stream to pulse the image intensity; 

whereby the emitted electromagnetic field is pulsed, the cutaneous nerves are exposed to the pulsed 
electromagnetic field, and the spiking patterns of the nerves acquire a frequency modulation. 

7. The hardware means of claim 6, wherein the video stream is a composite video signal that has a pseudo- 
dc level, and the means for modulating the video stream comprise means for pulsing the pseudo-dc level. 

8. The hardware means of claim 6, wherein the video stream is a television broadcast signal, and the means 
for modulating the video stream comprise means for frequency wobbling of the television broadcast signal. 

9. The hardware means of claim 6, wherein the monitor has a brightness adjustment terminal, and the 
means for modulating the video stream comprise a connection from the pulse generator to the brightness 
adjustment terminal. 

10. A source of video stream for manipulating the nervous system of a subject located near a monitor, the 
monitor emitting an electromagnetic field when displaying an image by virtue of the physical display 
process, the subject having cutaneous nerves that fire spontaneously and have spiking patterns, the source 
of video stream comprising: 

means for defining an image on the monitor, the image having an intensity; and 

means for subliminally pulsing the image intensity with a frequency in the range 0.1 Hz to 15 Hz; 

whereby the emitted electromagnetic field is pulsed, the cutaneous nerves are exposed to the pulsed 
electromagnetic field, and the spiking patterns of the nerves acquire a frequency modulation. 

11. The source of video stream of claim 10 wherein the source is a recording medium that has recorded 
data, and the means for subliminally pulsing the image intensity comprise an attribute of the recorded data. 

12. The source of video stream of claim 10 wherein the source is a computer program, and the means for 
subliminally pulsing the image intensity comprise a pulse routine. 

13. The source of video stream of claim 10 wherein the source is a recording of a physical scene, and the 
means for subliminally pulsing the image intensity comprise: 

pulse generator for generating voltage pulses; 

light source for illuminating the scene, the light source having a power level; and 
modulation means, responsive to the voltage pulses, for pulsing the power level. 

14. The source of video stream of claim 10, wherein the source is a DVD, the video stream comprises a 
luminance signal and a chrominance signal, and the means for subliminal pulsing of the image intensity 
comprise means for pulsing the luminance signal. 



165 



Description 



BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 

The invention relates to the stimulation of the human nervous system by an electromagnetic field applied 
externally to the body. A neurological effect of external electric fields has been mentioned by Wiener 
(1958), in a discussion of the bunching of brain waves through nonlinear interactions. The electric field was 
arranged to provide "a direct electrical driving of the brain". Wiener describes the field as set up by a 10 Hz 
alternating voltage of 400 V applied in a room between ceiling and ground. Brennan (1992) describes in 
U.S. Pat. No. 5,169,380 an apparatus for alleviating disruptions in circadian rythms of a mammal, in which 
an alternating electric field is applied across the head of the subject by two electrodes placed a short 
distance from the skin. 

A device involving a field electrode as well as a contact electrode is the "Graham Potentializer" mentioned 
by Hutchison (1991). This relaxation device uses motion, light and sound as well as an alternating electric 
field applied mainly to the head. The contact electrode is a metal bar in Ohmic contact with the bare feet of 
the subject, and the field electrode is a hemispherical metal headpiece placed several inches from the 
subject's head. 

In these three electric stimulation methods the external electric field is applied predominantly to the head, 
so that electric currents are induced in the brain in the physical manner governed by electrodynamics. Such 
currents can be largely avoided by applying the field not to the head, but rather to skin areas away from the 
head. Certain cutaneous receptors may then be stimulated and they would provide a signal input into the 
brain along the natural pathways of afferent nerves. It has been found that, indeed, physiological effects can 
be induced in this manner by very weak electric fields, if they are pulsed with a frequency near 1/2 Hz. The 
observed effects include ptosis of the eyelids, relaxation, drowziness, the feeling of pressure at a centered 
spot on the lower edge of the brow, seeing moving patterns of dark purple and greenish yellow with the 
eyes closed, a tonic smile, a tense feeling in the stomach, sudden loose stool, and sexual excitement, 
depending on the precise frequency used, and the skin area to which the field is applied. The sharp 
frequency dependence suggests involvement of a resonance mechanism. 

It has been found that the resonance can be excited not only by externally applied pulsed electric fields, as 
discussed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,782,874, 5,899,922, 6,081,744, and 6,167,304, but also by pulsed magnetic 
fields, as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,935,054 and 6,238,333, by weak heat pulses applied to the skin, as 
discussed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,800,481 and 6,091,994, and by subliminal acoustic pulses, as described in 
U.S. Pat. No. 6,017,302. Since the resonance is excited through sensory pathways, it is called a sensory 
resonance. In addition to the resonance near 1/2 Hz, a sensory resonance has been found near 2.4 Hz. The 
latter is characterized by the slowing of certain cortical processes, as discussed in the 481, '922, '302, '744, 
'944, and '304 patents. 

The excitation of sensory resonances through weak heat pulses applied to the skin provides a clue about 
what is going on neurologically. Cutaneous temperature -sensing receptors are known to fire spontaneously. 
These nerves spike somewhat randomly around an average rate that depends on skin temperature. Weak 
heat pulses delivered to the skin in periodic fashion will therefore cause a slight frequency modulation (fm) 
in the spike patterns generated by the nerves. Since stimulation through other sensory modalities results in 
similar physiological effects, it is believed that frequency modulation of spontaneous afferent neural 
spiking patterns occurs there as well. 

It is instructive to apply this notion to the stimulation by weak electric field pulses administered to the skin. 
The externally generated fields induce electric current pulses in the underlying tissue, but the current 
density is much too small for firing an otherwise quiescent nerve. However, in experiments with adapting 
stretch receptors of the crayfish, Terzuolo and Bullock (1956) have observed that very small electric fields 
can suffice for modulating the firing of already active nerves. Such a modulation may occur in the electric 
field stimulation under discussion. 



166 



Further understanding may be gained by considering the electric charges that accumulate on the skin as a 
result of the induced tissue currents. Ignoring thermodynamics, one would expect the accumulated 
polarization charges to be confined strictly to the outer surface of the skin. But charge density is caused by 
a slight excess in positive or negative ions, and thermal motion distributes the ions through a thin layer. 
This implies that the externally applied electric field actually penetrates a short distance into the tissue, 
instead of stopping abruptly at the outer skin surface. In this manner a considerable fraction of the applied 
field may be brought to bear on some cutaneous nerve endings, so that a slight modulation of the type noted 
by Terzuolo and Bullock may indeed occur. 

The mentioned physiological effects are observed only when the strength of the electric field on the skin 
lies in a certain range, called the effective intensity window. There also is a bulk effect, in that weaker 
fields suffice when the field is applied to a larger skin area. These effects are discussed in detail in the '922 
patent. 

Since the spontaneous spiking of the nerves is rather random and the frequency modulation induced by the 
pulsed field is very shallow, the signal to noise ratio (S/N) for the fm signal contained in the spike trains 
along the afferent nerves is so small as to make recovery of the fm signal from a single nerve fiber 
impossible. But application of the field over a large skin area causes simultaneous stimulation of many 
cutaneous nerves, and the fm modulation is then coherent from nerve to nerve. Therefore, if the afferent 
signals are somehow summed in the brain, the fm modulations add while the spikes from different nerves 
mix and interlace. In this manner the S/N can be increased by appropriate neural processing. The matter is 
discussed in detail in the '874 patent. Another increase in sensitivity is due to involving a resonance 
mechanism, wherein considerable neural circuit oscillations can result from weak excitations. 

An easily detectable physiological effect of an excited 1/2 Hz sensory resonance is ptosis of the eyelids. As 
discussed in the '922 patent, the ptosis test involves first closing the eyes about half way. Holding this 
eyelid position, the eyes are rolled upward, while giving up voluntary control of the eyelids. The eyelid 
position is then determined by the state of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, the pressure exerted 
on the eyeballs by the partially closed eyelids increases parasympathetic activity. The eyelid position 
thereby becomes somewhat labile, as manifested by a slight flutter. The labile state is sensitive to very 
small shifts in autonomic state. The ptosis influences the extent to which the pupil is hooded by the eyelid, 
and thus how much light is admitted to the eye. Hence, the depth of the ptosis is seen by the subject, and 
can be graded on a scale from 0 to 10. 

In the initial stages of the excitation of the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance, a downward drift is detected in the 
ptosis frequency, defined as the stimulation frequency for which maximum ptosis is obtained. This drift is 
believed to be caused by changes in the chemical milieu of the resonating neural circuits. It is thought that 
the resonance causes perturbations of chemical concentrations somewhere in the brain, and that these 
perturbations spread by diffusion to nearby resonating circuits. This effect, called "chemical detuning", can 
be so strong that ptosis is lost altogether when the stimulation frequency is kept constant in the initial stages 
of the excitation. Since the stimulation then falls somewhat out of tune, the resonance decreases in 
amplitude and chemical detuning eventually diminishes. This causes the ptosis frequency to shift back up, 
so that the stimulation is more in tune and the ptosis can develop again. As a result, for fixed stimulation 
frequencies in a certain range, the ptosis slowly cycles with a frequency of several minutes. The matter is 
discussed in the '302 patent. 

The stimulation frequencies at which specific physiological effects occur depend somewhat on the 
autonomic nervous system state, and probably on the endocrine state as well. 

Weak magnetic fields that are pulsed with a sensory resonance frequency can induce the same 
physiological effects as pulsed electric fields. Unlike the latter however, the magnetic fields penetrate 
biological tissue with nearly undiminished strength. Eddy currents in the tissue drive electric charges to the 
skin, where the charge distributions are subject to thermal smearing in much the same way as in electric 
field stimulation, so that the same physiological effects develop. Details are discussed in the '054 patent. 



167 



SUMMARY 



Computer monitors and TV monitors can be made to emit weak low-frequency electromagnetic fields 
merely by pulsing the intensity of displayed images. Experiments have shown that the 1/2 Hz sensory 
resonance can be excited in this manner in a subject near the monitor. The 2.4 Hz sensory resonance can 
also be excited in this fashion. Hence, a TV monitor or computer monitor can be used to manipulate the 
nervous system of nearby people. 

The implementations of the invention are adapted to the source of video stream that drives the monitor, be 
it a computer program, a TV broadcast, a video tape or a digital video disc (DVD). 

For a computer monitor, the image pulses can be produced by a suitable computer program. The pulse 
frequency may be controlled through keyboard input, so that the subject can tune to an individual sensory 
resonance frequency. The pulse amplitude can be controlled as well in this manner. A program written in 
Visual Basic(R) is particularly suitable for use on computers that run the Windows 95(R) or Windows 
98(R) operating system. The structure of such a program is described. Production of periodic pulses 
requires an accurate timing procedure. Such a procedure is constructed from the GetTimeCount function 
available in the Application Program Interface (API) of the Windows operating system, together with an 
extrapolation procedure that improves the timing accuracy. 

Pulse variability can be introduced through software, for the purpose of thwarting habituation of the 
nervous system to the field stimulation, or when the precise resonance frequency is not known. The 
variability may be a pseudo-random variation within a narrow interval, or it can take the form of a 
frequency or amplitude sweep in time. The pulse variability may be under control of the subject. 

The program that causes a monitor to display a pulsing image may be run on a remote computer that is 
connected to the user computer by a link; the latter may partly belong to a network, which may be the 
Internet. 

For a TV monitor, the image pulsing may be inherent in the video stream as it flows from the video source, 
or else the stream may be modulated such as to overlay the pulsing. In the first case, a live TV broadcast 
can be arranged to have the feature imbedded simply by slightly pulsing the illumination of the scene that is 
being broadcast. This method can of course also be used in making movies and recording video tapes and 
DVDs. 

Video tapes can be edited such as to overlay the pulsing by means of modulating hardware. A simple 
modulator is discussed wherein the luminance signal of composite video is pulsed without affecting the 
chroma signal. The same effect may be introduced at the consumer end, by modulating the video stream 
that is produced by the video source. A DVD can be edited through software, by introducing pulse -like 
variations in the digital RGB signals. Image intensity pulses can be overlaid onto the analog component 
video output of a DVD player by modulating the luminance signal component. Before entering the TV set, 
a television signal can be modulated such as to cause pulsing of the image intensity by means of a variable 
delay line that is connected to a pulse generator. 

Certain monitors can emit electromagnetic field pulses that excite a sensory resonance in a nearby subject, 
through image pulses that are so weak as to be subliminal. This is unfortunate since it opens a way for 
mischievous application of the invention, whereby people are exposed unknowingly to manipulation of 
their nervous systems for someone else's purposes. Such application would be unethical and is of course not 
advocated. It is mentioned here in order to alert the public to the possibility of covert abuse that may occur 
while being online, or while watching TV, a video, or a DVD. 



168 



DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS 



FIG. 1 illustrates the electromagnetic field that emanates from a monitor when the video signal is 
modulated such as to cause pulses in image intensity, and a nearby subject who is exposed to the field. 

FIG. 2 shows a circuit for modulation of a composite video signal for the purpose of pulsing the image 
intensity. 

FIG. 3 shows the circuit for a simple pulse generator. 

FIG. 4 illustrates how a pulsed electromagnetic field can be generated with a computer monitor. 

FIG. 5 shows a pulsed electromagnetic field that is generated by a television set through modulation of the 
RF signal input to the TV. 

FIG. 6 outlines the structure of a computer program for producing a pulsed image. 

FIG. 7 shows an extrapolation procedure introduced for improving timing accuracy of the program of FIG. 
6. 

FIG. 8 illustrates the action of the extrapolation procedure of FIG. 7. 

FIG. 9 shows a subject exposed to a pulsed electromagnetic field emanating from a monitor which is 
responsive to a program running on a remote computer via a link that involves the Internet. 

FIG. 10 shows the block diagram of a circuit for frequency wobbling of a TV signal for the purpose of 
pulsing the intensity of the image displayed on a TV monitor. 

FIG. 1 1 depicts schematically a recording medium in the form of a video tape with recorded data, and the 
attribute of the signal that causes the intensity of the displayed image to be pulsed. 

FIG. 12 illustrates how image pulsing can be embedded in a video signal by pulsing the illumination of the 
scene that is being recorded. 

FIG. 13 shows a routine that introduces pulse variability into the computer program of FIG. 6. 

FIG. 14 shows schematically how a CRT emits an electromagnetic field when the displayed image is 
pulsed. 

FIG. 15 shows how the intensity of the image displayed on a monitor can be pulsed through the brightness 
control terminal of the monitor. 

FIG. 16 illustrates the action of the polarization disc that serves as a model for grounded conductors in the 
back of a CRT screen. 

FIG. 17 shows the circuit for overlaying image intensity pulses on a DVD output. 

FIG. 18 shows measured data for pulsed electric fields emitted by two different CRT type monitors, and a 
comparison with theory. 



169 



DETAILED DESCRIPTION 



Computer monitors and TV monitors emit electromagnetic fields. Part of the emission occurs at the low 
frequencies at which displayed images are changing. For instance, a rythmic pulsing of the intensity of an 
image causes electromagnetic field emission at the pulse frequency, with a strength proportional to the 
pulse amplitude. The field is briefly referred to as "screen emission". In discussing this effect, any part or 
all what is displayed on the monitor screen is called an image. A monitor of the cathode ray tube (CRT) 
type has three electron beams, one for each of the basic colors red, green, and blue. The intensity of an 
image is here defined as 

I=.intg.j dA, (1) 

where the integral extends over the image, and 
j=jr+jg+jb, (2) 

jr, jg, and jb being the electric current densities in the red, green, and blue electron beams at the surface 
area dA of the image on the screen. The current densities are to be taken in the distributed electron beam 
model, where the discreteness of pixels and the raster motion of the beams are ignored, and the back of the 
monitor screen is thought to be irradiated by diffuse electron beams. The beam current densities are then 
functions of the coordinates x and y over the screen. The model is appropriate since we are interested in the 
electromagnetic field emision caused by image pulsing with the very low frequencies of sensory 
resonances, whereas the emissions with the much higher horizontal and vertical sweep frequencies are of 
no concern. For a CRT the intensity of an image is expressed in millamperes. 

For a liquid crystal display (LCD), the current densities in the definition of image intensity are to be 
replaced by driving voltages, multiplied by the aperture ratio of the device. For an LCD, image intensities 
are thus expressed in volts. 

It will be shown that for a CRT or LCD screen emissions are caused by fluctuations in image intensity. In 
composite video however, intensity as defined above is not a primary signal feature, but luminance Y is. 
For any pixel one has 

Y=0.299R+0.587G+0.114B, (3) 

where R, G, and B are the intensities of the pixel respectively in red, green and blue, normalized such as to 
range from 0 to 1 . The definition (3) was provided by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE), 
in order to account for brightness differences at different colors, as perceived by the human visual system. 
In composite video the hue of the pixel is determined by the chroma signal or chrominance, which has the 
components R-Y and B-Y It follows that pulsing pixel luminance while keeping the hue fixed is equivalent 
to pulsing the pixel intensity, up to an amplitude factor. This fact will be relied upon when modulating a 
video stream such as to overlay image intensity pulses. 

It turns out that the screen emission has a multipole expansion wherein both monopole and dipole 
contributions are proportional to the rate of change of the intensity I of (1). The higher order multipole 
contributions are proportional to the rate of change of moments of the current density j over the image, but 
since these contributions fall off rapidly with distance, they are not of practical importance in the present 
context. Pulsing the intensity of an image may involve different pulse amplitudes, frequencies, or phases 
for different parts of the image. Any or all of these features may be under subject control. 

The question arises whether the screen emission can be strong enough to excite sensory resonances in 
people located at normal viewing distances from the monitor. This turns out to be the case, as shown by 
sensory resonance experiments and independently by measuring the strength of the emitted electric field 
pulses and comparing the results with the effective intensity window as explored in earlier work. 



170 



One-half Hertz sensory resonance experiments have been conducted with the subject positioned at least at 
normal viewing distance from a 15" computer monitor that was driven by a computer program written in 
Visual Basic(R), version 6.0 (VB6). The program produces a pulsed image with uniform luminance and 
hue over the full screen, except for a few small control buttons and text boxes. In VB6, screen pixel colors 
are determined by integers R, G, and B, that range from 0 to 255, and set the contributions to the pixel color 
made by the basic colors red, green, and blue. For a CRT-type monitor, the pixel intensities for the primary 
colors may depend on the RGB values in a nonlinear manner that will be discussed. In the VB6 program 
the RGB values are modulated by small pulses .DELTA.R, .DELTA.G, .DELTA.B, with a frequency that 
can be chosen by the subject or is swept in a predetermined manner. In the sensory resonance experiments 
mentioned above, the ratios .DELTA.R/R, .DELTA.G/G, and .DELTA.B/B were always smaller than 0.02, 
so that the image pulses are quite weak. For certain frequencies near 1/2 Hz, the subject experienced 
physiological effects that are known to accompany the excitation of the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance as 
mentioned in the Background Section. Moreover, the measured field pulse amplitudes fall within the 
effective intensity window for the 1/2 Hz resonance, as explored in earlier experiments and discussed in the 
'874, '744, '922, and '304 patents. Other experiments have shown that the 2.4 Hz sensory resonance can be 
exited as well by screen emissions from monitors that display pulsed images. 

These results confirm that, indeed, the nervous system of a subject can be manipulated through 
electromagnetic field pulses emitted by a nearby CRT or LCD monitor which displays images with pulsed 
intensity. 

The various implementations of the invention are adapted to the different sources of video stream, such as 
video tape, DVD, a computer program, or a TV broadcast through free space or cable. In all of these 
implementations, the subject is exposed to the pulsed electromagnetic field that is generated by the monitor 
as the result of image intensity pulsing. Certain cutaneous nerves of the subject exhibit spontaneous spiking 
in patterns which, although rather random, contain sensory information at least in the form of average 
frequency. Some of these nerves have receptors that respond to the field stimulation by changing their 
average spiking frequency, so that the spiking patterns of these nerves acquire a frequency modulation, 
which is conveyed to the brain. The modulation can be particularly effective if it has a frequency at or near 
a sensory resonance frequency. Such frequencies are expected to lie in the range from 0.1 to 15 Hz. 

An embodiment of the invention adapted to a VCR is shown in FIG. 1, where a subject 4 is exposed to a 
pulsed electric field 3 and a pulsed magnetic field 39 that are emitted by a monitor 2, labeled "MON", as 
the result of pulsing the intensity of the displayed image. The image is here generated by a video casette 
recorder 1, labeled "VCR", and the pulsing of the image intensity is obtained by modulating the composite 
video signal from the VCR output. This is done by a video modulator 5, labeled "VM", which responds to 
the signal from the pulse generator 6, labeled "GEN". The frequency and amplitude of the image pulses can 
be adjusted with the frequency control 7 and amplitude control 8. Frequency and amplitude adjustments 
can be made by the subject. 

The circuit of the video modulator 5 of FIG. 1 is shown in FIG. 2, where the video amplifiers 1 1 and 12 
process the composite video signal that enters at the input terminal 13. The level of the video signal is 
modulated slowly by injecting a small bias current at the inverting input 17 of the first amplifier 11. This 
current is caused by voltage pulses supplied at the modulation input 16, and can be adjusted through the 
potentiometer 15. Since the noninverting input of the amplifier is grounded, the inverting input 17 is kept 
essentially at ground potential, so that the bias current is is not influenced by the video signal. The 
inversion of the signal by the first amplifier 1 1 is undone by the second amplifier 12. The gains of the 
amplifiers are chosen such as to give a unity overall gain. A slowly varying current injected at the inverting 
input 17 causes a slow shift in the "pseudo-dc" level of the composite video signal, here defined as the 
short-term average of the signal. Since the pseudo-dc level of the chroma signal section determines the 
luminance, the latter is modulated by the injected current pulses. The chroma signal is not affected by the 
slow modulation of the pseudodc level, since that signal is determined by the amplitude and phase with 
respect to the color carrier which is locked to the color burst. The effect on the sync pulses and color bursts 
is of no consequence either if the injected current pulses are very small, as they are in practice. The 
modulated composite video signal, available at the output 14 in FIG. 2, will thus exhibit a modulated 
luminance, whereas the chroma signal is unchanged. In the light of the foregoing discussion about 



171 



luminance and intensity, it follows that the modulator of FIG. 2 causes a pulsing of the image intensity I. It 
remains to give an example how the pulse signal at the modulation input 16 may be obtained. FIG. 3 shows 
a pulse generator that is suitable for this purpose, wherein the RC timer 21 (Intersil ICM7555) is hooked up 
for astable operation and produces a square wave voltage with a frequency that is determined by capacitor 
22 and potentiometer 23. The timer 21 is powered by a battery 26, controlled by the switch 27. The square 
wave voltage at output 25 drives the LED 24, which may be used for monitoring of the pulse frequency, 
and also serves as power indicator. The pulse output may be rounded in ways that are well known in the art. 
In the setup of FIG. 1, the output of VCR 1 is connected to the video input 13 of FIG. 2, and the video 
output 14 is connected to the monitor 2 of FIG. 1. 

In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the image intensity pulsing is caused by a computer program. 
As shown in FIG. 4, monitor 2, labeled "MON", is connected to computer 31 labeled "COMPUTER", 
which runs a program that produces an image on the monitor and causes the image intensity to be pulsed. 
The subject 4 can provide input to the computer through the keyboard 32 that is connected to the computer 
by the connection 33. This input may involve adjustments of the frequency or the amplitude or the 
variability of the image intensity pulses. In particular, the pulse frequency can be set to a sensory resonance 
frequency of the subject for the purpose of exciting the resonance. 

The structure of a computer program for pulsing image intensity is shown in FIG. 6. The program may be 
written in Visual Basic(R) version 6.0 (VB6), which involves the graphics interface familiar from the 
Windows(R) operating system. The images appear as forms equipped with user controls such as command 
buttons and scroll bars, together with data displays such as text boxes. A compiled VB6 program is an 
executable file. When activated, the program declares variables and functions to be called from a dynamic 
link library (DLL) that is attached to the operating system; an initial form load is performed as well. The 
latter comprises setting the screen color as specified by integers R, G, and B in the range 0 to 255, as 
mentioned above. In FIG. 6, the initial setting of the screen color is labeled as 50. Another action of the 
form load routine is the computation 5 1 of the sine function at eight equally spaced points, 1=0 to 7, around 
the unit circle. These values are needed when modulating the RGB numbers. Unfortunately, the sine 
function is distorted by the rounding to integer RGB values that occurs in the VB6 program. The image is 
chosen to fill as much of the screen area as possible, and it has spatially uniform luminance and hue. 

The form appearing on the monitor displays a command button for starting and stopping the image pulsing, 
together with scroll bars 52 and 53 respectively for adjustment of the pulse frequency F and the pulse 
amplitude A. These pulses could be initiated by a system timer which is activated upon the elapse of a 
preset time interval. However, timers in VB6 are too inaccurate for the purpose of providing the eight RGB 
adjustment points in each pulse cycle. An improvement can be obtained by using the GetTickCount 
function that is available in the Application Program Interface (API) of Windows 95(R) and Windows 
98(R). The GetTickCount function returns the system time that has elapsed since starting Windows, 
expressed in milliseconds. User activation of the start button 54 provides a tick count TN through request 
55 and sets the timer interval to TT miliseconds, in step 56. TT was previously calculated in the frequency 
routine that is activated by changing the frequency, denoted as step 52. 

Since VB6 is an event-driven program, the flow chart for the program falls into disjoint pieces. Upon 
setting the timer interval to TT in step 56, the timer runs in the background while the program may execute 
subroutines such as adjustment of pulse frequency or amplitude. Upon elapse of the timer interval TT, the 
timer subroutine 57 starts execution with request 58 for a tick count, and in 59 an upgrade is computed of 
the time TN for the next point at which the RGB values are to be adjusted. In step 59 the timer is turned off, 
to be reactivated later in step 67. Step 59 also resets the parameter CR which plays a role in the 
extrapolation procedure 61 and the condition 60. For ease of understanding at this point, it is best to pretend 
that the action of 61 is simply to get a tick count, and to consider the loop controled by condition 60 while 
keeping CR equal to zero. The loop would terminate when the tick count M reaches or exceeds the time TN 
for the next phase point, at which time the program should adjust the image intensity through steps 63-65. 
For now step 62 is to be ignored also, since it has to do with the actual extrapolation procedure 61. The 
increments to the screen colors Rl, Gl, and Bl at the new phase point are computed according to the sine 
function, applied with the amplitude A that was set by the user in step 53. The number I that labels the 
phase point is incremented by unity in step 65, but if this results in 1=8 the value is reset to zero in 66. 



172 



Finally, the timer is reactivated in step 67, initiating a new 1/8-cycle step in the periodic progression of 
RGB adjustments. 

A program written in this way would exhibit a large jitter in the times at which the RGB values are 
changed. This is due to the lumpiness in the tick counts returned by the GetTickCount function. The 
lumpiness may be studied separately by running a simple loop with C=GetTickCount, followed by writing 
the result C to a file. Inspection shows that C has jumped every 14 or 15 milliseconds, between long 
stretches of constant values. Since for a 1/2 Hz image intensity modulation the 1/8-cycle phase points are 
250 ms apart, the lumpiness of 14 or 15 ms in the tick count would cause considerable inaccuracy. The full 
extrapolation procedure 61 is introduced in order to diminish the jitter to acceptable levels. The procedure 
works by refining the heavy-line staircase function shown in FIG. 8, using the slope RR of a recent 
staircase step to accurately determine the loop count 89 at which the loop controled by 60 needs to be 
exited. Details of the extrapolation procedure are shown in FIG. 7 and illustrated in FIG. 8. The procedure 
starts at 70 with both flags off, and CR=0, because of the assignment in 59 or 62 in FIG. 6. A tick count M 
is obtained at 71, and the remaining time MR to the next phase point is computed in 72. Conditions 77 and 
73 are not satisfied and therefore passed vertically in the flow chart, so that only the delay block 74 and the 
assignments 75 are executed. Condition 60 of FIG. 6 is checked and found to be satisfied, so that the 
extrapolation procedure is reentered. The process is repeated until the condition 73 is met when the 
remaining time MR jumps down through the 15 ms level, shown in FIG. 8 as the transition 83. The 
condition 73 then directs the logic flow to the assignments 76, in which the number DM labeled by 83 is 
computed, and FLG1 is set. The computation of DM is required for finding the slope RR of the straight -line 
element 85. One also needs the "Final LM" 86, which is the number of loops traversed from step 83 to the 
next downward step 84, here shown to cross the MR=0 axis. The final LM is determined after repeatedly 
incrementing LM through the side loop entered from the FLG1=1 condition 77, which is now satisfied 
since FLG1 was set in step 76. At the transition 84 the condition 78 is met, so that the assignments 79 are 
executed. This includes computation of the slope RR of the line element 85, setting FLG2, and resetting 
FLG1. From here on, the extrapolation procedure increments CR in steps of RR while skipping tick counts 
until condition 60 of FIG. 6 is violated, the loop is exited, and the RGB values are adjusted. 

A delay block 74 is used in order to stretch the time required for traversing the extrapolation procedure. 
The block can be any computation intensive subroutine such as repeated calculations of tangent and arc 
tangent functions. 

As shown in step 56 of FIG. 6, the timer interval TT is set to 4/10 of the time TA from one RGB 
adjustment point to the next. Since the timer runs in the background, this arrangement provides an 
opportunity for execution of other processes such as user adjustment of frequency or amplitude of the 
pulses. 

The adjustment of the frequency and other pulse parameters of the image intensity modulation can be made 
internally, i.e., within the running program. Such internal control is to be distinguished from the external 
control provided, for instance, in screen savers. In the latter, the frequency of animation can be modified by 
the user, but only after having exited the screen saver program. Specifically, in Windows 95(R) or 
Windows 98(R), to change the animation frequency requires stopping the screen saver execution by 
moving the mouse, whereafter the frequency may be adjusted through the control panel. The requirement 
that the control be internal sets the present program apart from so-called banners as well. 

The program may be run on a remote computer that is linked to the user computer, as illustrated in FIG. 9. 
Although the monitor 2, labeled "MON", is connected to the computer 31', labeled "COMPUTER", the 
program that pulses the images on the monitor 2 runs on the remoter computer 90, labeled "REMOTE 
COMPUTER", which is connected to computer 31' through a link 91 which may in part belong to a 
network. The network may comprise the Internet 92. 



173 



The monitor of a television set emits an electromagnetic field in much the same way as a computer 
monitor. Hence, a TV may be used to produce screen emissions for the purpose of nervous system 
manipulation. FIG. 5 shows such an arrangement, where the pulsing of the image intensity is achieved by 
inducing a small slowly pulsing shift in the frequency of the RF signal that enters from the antenna. This 
process is here called "frequency wobbling" of the RF signal. In FM TV, a slight slow frequency wobble of 
the RF signal produces a pseudo-dc signal level fluctuation in the composite video signal, which in turn 
causes a slight intensity fluctuation of the image displayed on the monitor in the same manner as discussed 
above for the modulator of FIG. 2. The frequency wobbling is induced by the wobbler 44 of FIG. 5 labeled 
"RFM", which is placed in the antenna line 43. The wobbler is driven by the pulse generator 6, labeled 
"GEN". The subject can adjust the frequency and the amplitude of the wobble through the tuning control 7 
and the amplitude control 41. FIG. 10 shows a block diagram of the frequency wobbler circuit that employs 
a variable delay line 94, labelled "VDL". The delay is determined by the signal from pulse generator 6, 
labelled "GEN". The frequency of the pulses can be adjusted with the tuning control 7. The amplitude of 
the pulses is determined by the unit 98, labelled "MD", and can be adjusted with the amplitude control 41. 
Optionally, the input to the delay line may be routed through a preprocessor 93, labelled "PRP", which may 
comprise a selective RF amplifier and down converter; a complimentary up conversion should then be 
performed on the delay line output by a postprocessor 95, labelled "POP". The output 97 is to be connected 
to the antenna terminal of the TV set. 

The action of the variable delay line 94 may be understood as follows. Let periodic pulses with period L be 
presented at the input. For a fixed delay the pulses would emerge at the output with the same period L. 
Actually, the time delay T is varied slowly, so that it increases approximately by LdT/dt between the 
emergence of consecutive pulses at the device output. The pulse period is thus increased approximately by 

.DELTA.L=LdT/dt. (4) 

In terms of the frequency .intg., Eq. (4) implies approximately 
.DELTA.. intg./.intg.=-dT/dt. (5) 

For sinusoidal delay T(t) with amplitude b and frequency g, one has 
.DELTA..intg./.intg.=-2.pi.gb cos (2.pi.gt), (6) 

which shows the frequency wobbling. The approximation is good for gb«l, which is satisfied in practice. 
The relative frequency shift amplitude 2.pi.gb that is required for effective image intensity pulses is very 
small compared to unity. For a pulse frequency g of the order of 1 Hz, the delay may have to be of the order 
of a millisecond. To accomodate such long delay values, the delay line may have to be implemented as a 
digital device. To do so is well within the present art. In that case it is natural to also choose digital 
implementations for the pulse generator 6 and the pulse amplitude controller 98, either as hardware or as 
software. 

Pulse variability may be introduced for alleviating the need for precise tuning to a resonance frequency. 
This may be important when sensory resonance frequencies are not precisely known, because of the 
variation among individuals, or in order to cope with the frequency drift that results from chemical 
detuning that is discussed in the '874 patent. A field with suitably chosen pulse variability can then be more 
effective than a fixed frequency field that is out of tune. One may also control tremors and seizures, by 
interfering with the pathological oscillatory activity of neural circuits that occurs in these disorders. 
Electromagnetic fields with a pulse variability that results in a narrow spectrum of frequencies around the 
frequency of the pathological oscillatory activity may then evoke nerve signals that cause phase shifts 
which diminish or quench the oscillatory activity. 



174 



Pulse variability can be introduced as hardware in the manner described in the '304 patent. The variability 
may also be introduced in the computer program of FIG. 6, by setting FLG3 in step 68, and choosing the 
amplitude B of the frequency fluctuation. In the variability routine 46, shown in some detail in FIG. 13, 
FLG3 is detected in step 47, whereupon in steps 48 and 49 the pulse frequency F is modified pseudo 
randomly by a term proportional to B, every 4th cycle. Optionally, the amplitude of the image intensity 
pulsing may be modified as well, in similar fashion. Alternatively, the frequency and amplitude may be 
swept through an adjustable ramp, or according to any suitable schedule, in a manner known to those 
skilled in the art. The pulse variability may be applied to subliminal image intensity pulses. 

When an image is displayed by a TV monitor in response to a TV broadcast, intensity pulses of the image 
may simply be imbedded in the program material. If the source of video signal is a recording medium, the 
means for pulsing the image intensity may comprise an attribute of recorded data. The pulsing may be 
subliminal. For the case of a video signal from a VCR, the pertinent data attribute is illustrated in FIG. 11, 
which shows a video signal record on part of a video tape 28. Depicted schematically are segments of the 
video signal in intervals belonging to lines in three image frames at different places along the tape. In each 
segment, the chroma signal 9 is shown, with its short-term average level 29 represented as a dashed line. 
The short-term average signal level, also called the pseudo-dc level, represents the luminance of the image 
pixels. Over each segment, the level is here constant because the image is for simplicity chosen as having a 
uniform luminance over the screen. However, the level is seen to vary from frame to frame, illustrating a 
luminance that pulses slowly over time. This is shown in the lower portion of the drawing, wherein the IRE 
level of the short-term chroma signal average is plotted versus time. The graph further shows a gradual 
decrease of pulse amplitude in time, illustrating that luminance pulse amplitude variations may also be an 
attribute of the recorded data on the video tape. As discussed, pulsing the luminance for fixed chrominance 
results in pulsing of the image intensity. 

Data stream attributes that represent image intensity pulses on video tape or in TV signals may be created 
when producing a video rendition or making a moving picture of a scene, simply by pulsing the 
illumination of the scene. This is illustrated in FIG. 12, which shows a scene 19 that is recorded with a 
video camera 18, labelled "VR". The scene is illuminated with a lamp 20, labelled "LAMP", energized by 
an electric current through a cable 36. The current is modulated in pulsing fashion by a modulator 30, 
labeled "MOD", which is driven by a pulse generator 6, labelled "GENERATOR", that produces voltage 
pulses 35. Again, pulsing the luminance but not the chrominance amounts to pulsing the image intensity. 

The brightness of monitors can usually be adjusted by a control, which may be addressable through a 
brightness adjustment terminal. If the control is of the analog type, the displayed image intensity may be 
pulsed as shown in FIG. 15, simply by a pulse generator 6, labeled "GEN", that is connected to the 
brigthness adjustment terminal 88 of the monitor 2, labeled "MON". Equivalent action can be provided for 
digital brightness controls, in ways that are well known in the art. 

The analog component video signal from a DVD player may be modulated such as to overlay image 
intensity pulses in the manner illustrated in FIG. 17. Shown are a DVD player 102, labeled "DVD", with 
analog component video output comprised of the luminance Y and chrominance C. The overlay is 
accomplished simply by shifting the luminance with a voltage pulse from generator 6, labeled 
"GENERATOR". The generator output is applied to modulator 106, labeled "SHIFTER". Since the 
luminance Y is pulsed without changing the chrominance C, the image intensity is pulsed. The frequency 
and amplitude of the image intensity pulses can be adjusted respectively with the tuner 7 and amplitude 
control 107. The modulator 105 has the same structure as the modulator of FIG. 2, and the pulse amplitude 
control 107 operates the potentiometer 15 of FIG. 2. The same procedure can be followed for editing a 
DVD such as to overlay image intensity pulses, by processing the modulated luminance signal through an 
analog-to-digital converter, and recording the resulting digital stream onto a DVD, after appropriate 
compression. Alternatively, the digital luminance data can be edited by electronic reading of the signal, 
decompression, altering the digital data by software, and recording the resulting digital signal after proper 
compression, all in a manner that is well known in the art. 



175 



The mechanism whereby a CRT-type monitor emits a pulsed electromagnetic field when pulsing the 
intensity of an image is illustrated in FIG. 14. The image is produced by an electron beam 10 which 
impinges upon the backside 88 of the screen, where the collisions excite phosphors that subsequently emit 
light. In the process, the electron beam deposits electrons 18 on the screen, and these electrons contribute to 
an electric field 3 labelled "E". The electrons flow along the conductive backside 88 of the screen to the 
terminal 99 which is hooked up to the high-voltage supply 40, labelled "HV". The circuit is completed by 
the ground connection of the supply, the video amplifier 87, labeled "VA", and its connection to the 
cathodes of the CRT. The electron beams of the three electron guns are collectively shown as 10, and 
together the beams carry a current J. The electric current J flowing through the described circuit induces a 
magnetic field 39, labeled "B". Actually, there are a multitude of circuits along which the electron beam 
current is returned to the CRT cathodes, since on a macroscopic scale the conductive back surface 88 of the 
screen provides a continuum of paths from the beam impact point to the high-voltage terminal 99. The 
magnetic fields induced by the currents along these paths partially cancel each other, and the resulting field 
depends on the location of the pixel that is addressed. Since the beams sweep over the screen through a 
raster of horizontal lines, the spectrum of the induced magnetic field contains strong peaks at the horizontal 
and vertical frequencies. However, the interest here is not in fields at those frequencies, but rather in 
emissions that result from an image pulsing with the very low frequencies appropriate to sensory 
resonances. For this purpose a diffuse electron current model suffices, in which the pixel discreteness and 
the raster motion of the electron beams are ignored, so that the beam current becomes diffuse and fills the 
cone subtended by the displayed image. The resulting low-frequency magnetic field depends on the 
temporal changes in the intensity distribution over the displayed image. Order -of-magnitude estimates 
show that the low-frequency magnetic field, although quite small, may be sufficient for the excitation of 
sensory resonances in subjects located at a normal viewing distance from the monitor. 

The monitor also emits a low-frequency electric field at the image pulsing frequency. This field is due in 
part to the electrons 18 that are deposited on the screen by the electron beams 10. In the diffuse electron 
beam model, screen conditions are considered functions of the time t and of the Cartesian coordinates x and 
y over a flat CRT screen. 

The screen electrons 18 that are dumped onto the back of the screen by the sum j(x,y,t) of the diffuse 
current distributions in the red, green, and blue electron beams cause a potential distribution V(x,y,t) which 
is influenced by the surface conductivity .sigma. on the back of the screen and by capacitances. In the 
simple model where the screen has a capacitance distribution c(x,y) to ground and mutual capacitances 
between parts of the screen at different potentials are neglected, a potential distribution V(x,y,t) over the 
screen implies a surface charge density distribution 

q=Vc(x,y), (7) 

and gives rise to a current density vector along the screen, 
j.sub.s =-.sigma.grad.sub.s V, (8) 

where grad.sub.s is the gradient along the screen surface. Conservation of electric charge implies 
j=cV-div.sub.s (.sigma.grad.sub.s V), (9) 

where the dot over the voltage denotes the time derivative, and div.sub.s is the divergence in the screen 
surface. The partial differential equation (9) requires a boundary condition for the solution V(x,y,t) to be 
unique. Such a condition is provided by setting the potential at the rim of the screen equal to the fixed 
anode voltage. This is a good approximation, since the resistance R.sub.r between the screen rim and the 
anode terminal is chosen small in CRT design, in order to keep the voltage loss JR. sub. r to a minimum, and 
also to limit low-frequency emissions. 



176 



Something useful can be learned from special cases with simple solutions. As such, consider a circular 
CRT screen of radius R with uniform conductivity, showered in the back by a diffuse electron beam with a 
spatially uniform beam current density that is a constant plus a sinusoidal part with frequency intg.. Since 
the problem is linear, the voltage V due to the sinusoidal part of the beam current can be considered 
separately, with the boundary condition that V vanish at the rim of the circular screen. Eq. (9) then 
simplifies to 

V"+V"/r-i2.pi..intg.cn V=-J.eta./A, r.ltoreq.R, (10) 

where r is a radial coordinate along the screen with its derivative denoted by a prime, .eta.=l/.sigma. is the 
screen resistivity, A the screen area, J the sinusoidal part of the total beam current, and i=(-l), the 
imaginary unit. Our interest is in very low pulse frequencies .intg. that are suitable for excitation of sensory 
resonances. For those frequencies and for practical ranges for c and .eta., the dimensionless number 
2.pi..intg.cA.eta. is very much smaller than unity, so that it can be neglected in Eq. (10). The boundary 
value problem then has the simple solution ##EQU1## 

In deriving (1 1) we neglected the mutual capacitance between parts of the screen that are at different 
potentials. The resulting error in (10) is negligible for the same reason that the i2.pi..intg.cA.eta. term in 

(10) can be neglected. 

The potential distribution V(r) of (1 1) along the screen is of course accompanied by electric charges. The 
field lines emanating from these charges run mainly to conductors behind the screen that belong to the CRT 
structure and that are either grounded or connected to circuitry with a low impedance path to ground. In 
either case the mentioned conductors must be considered grounded in the analysis of charges and fields that 
result from the pulsed component J of the total electron beam current. The described electric field lines end 
up in electric charges that may be called polarization charges since they are the result of the polarization of 
the conductors and circuitry by the screen emission. To estimate the pulsed electric field, a model is chosen 
where the mentioned conductors are represented together as a grounded perfectly conductive disc of radius 
R, positioned a short distance .delta, behind the screen, as depicted in FIG. 16. Since the grounded 
conductive disc carries polarization charges, it is called the polarization disc. FIG. 16 shows the circular 
CRT screen 88 and the polarization disc 101, briefly called "plates". For small distances .delta., the 
capacitance density between the plates of opposite polarity is nearly equal to .epsilon./.delta., where 
.epsilon. is the permittivity of free space. The charge distributions on the screen and polarization disc are 
respectively . epsilon. V(r)/.delta.+q. sub. 0 and -. epsilon. V(r)/.delta.+q.sub.0, where the . epsilon. V(r)/.delta. 
terms denote opposing charge densities at the end of the dense field lines that run between the two plates. 
That the part q.sub.O is needed as well will become clear in the sequel. 

The charge distributions .epsilon. V(r)/.delta.+q. sub. 0 and -. epsilon. V(r)/.delta.+q. sub. 0 on the two plates 
have a dipole moment with the density ##EQU2## 

directed perpendicular to the screen. Note that the plate separation .delta, has dropped out. This means that 
the precise location of the polarization charges is not critical in the present model, and further that .delta, 
may be taken as small as desired. Taking .delta, to zero, one thus arrives at the mathematical model of 
pulsed dipoles distributed over the circular CRT screen. The field due to the charge distribution q.sub.O will 
be calculated later. 

The electric field induced by the distributed dipoles (12) can be calculated easily for points on the 
centerline of the screen, with the result ##EQU3## 

where V(0) is the pulse voltage (1 1) at the screen center, .rho. the distance to the rim of the screen, and z 
the distance to the center of the screen. Note that V(0) pulses harmonically with frequency intg., because in 

(1 1) the sinusoidal part J of the beam current varies in this manner. 



177 



The electric field (13) due to the dipole distribution causes a potential distribution V(r)/2 over the screen 
and a potential distribution of -V(r)/2 over the polarization disc, where V(r) is nonuniform as given by (1 1). 
But since the polarization disc is a perfect conductor it cannot support voltage gradients, and therefore 
cannot have the potential distribution -V(r)/2. Instead, the polarization disc is at ground potential. This is 
where the charge distribution q.sub.O (r) comes in; it must be such as to induce a potential distribution 
V(r)/2 over the polarization disc. Since the distance between polarization disc and screen vanishes in the 
mathematical model, the potential distribution V(r)/2 is induced over the screen as well. The total potential 
over the monitor screen thus becomes V(r) of (11), while the total potential distribution over the 
polarization disc becomes uniformly zero. Both these potential distributions are as physically required. The 
electric charges q.sub.O are moved into position by polarization and are partly drawn from the earth through 
the ground connection of the CRT. 

In our model the charge distribution q.sub.O is located at the same place as the dipole distribution, viz., on 
the plane z=0 within the circle with radius R. At points on the center line of the screen, the electric field due 
to the monopole distribution q.sub.O is calculated in the following manner. As discussed, the monopoles 
must be such that they cause a potential .phi.. sub. 0 that is equal to V(r)/2 over the disc with radius R 
centered in the plane z=0. Although the charge distribution q.sub.O (r) is uniquely defined by this condition, 
it cannot be calculated easily in a straightforward manner. The difficulty is circumvented by using an 
intermediate result derived from Exercise 2 on page 191 of Kellogg (1953), where the charge distribution 
over a thin disc with uniform potential is given. By using this result one readily finds the potential .phi.*(z) 
on the axis of this disc as ##EQU4## 

where .beta.(R.sub.l) is the angle subtended by the disc radius R.sub.l, as viewed from the point z on the 
disc axis, and V* is the disc potential. The result is used here in an attempt to construct the potential 
.phi.. sub. 0 (z) for a disc with the nonuniform potential V(r)/2, by the ansatz of writing the field as due to a 
linear combination of abstract discs with various radii R.sub.l and potentials, all centered in the plane z=0. 
In the ansatz the potential on the symmetry axis is written ##EQU5## 

where W is chosen as the function 1 -R.sub.l. sup. 2 /R.sup.2, and the constants a and b are to be determined 
such that the potential over the plane z=0 is V(r)/2 for radii r ranging from 0 to R, with V(r) given by (1 1). 
Carrying out the integration in (15) gives 

.pbi.sub.O (z)=.alpha..beta.(R)-b{(l+z.sup.2/R.sup.2).beta.(R)-.vertline.z.vertline./R}. (16) 

In order to find the potential over the disc r<R in the plane z=0, the function . phi.. sub. 0 (z) is expanded in 
powers of z/R for 0<z<R, whereafter the powers z.sup.n are replaced by r.sup.n P.sub.n (cos.theta.), where 
the P.sub.n are Legendre polynomials, and (r,.theta.) are symmetric spherical coordinates centered at the 
screen center. This procedure amounts to a continuation of the potential from the z-axis into the half ball 
r<R, z>0, in such a manner that the Laplace equation is satisfied. The method is discussed by Morse and 
Feshbach (1953). The "Laplace continuation" allows calculation of the potential .phi.. sub. 0 along the 
surface of the disc r<R centered in the plane z=0. The requirement that this potential be V(r)/2 with the 
function V(r) given by (1 1) allows solving for the constants a and b, with the result 

a=-V(0)/.pi., b=-2V(0)/.pi.. (17) 

Using (17) in (16) gives ##EQU6## 

and by differentiation with respect to z one finally finds ##EQU7## 

for the electric field on the center line of the screen brought about by the charge distribution q.sub.O (z). 

The center-line electric field is the sum of the part (13) due to distributed pulsed dipoles and part (19) due 
to distributed pulsed monopoles. Although derived for circular screens, the results may serve as an 
approximation for other shapes, such as the familiar rounded rectangle, by taking R as the radius of a circle 
that has the same area as the screen. 



178 



For two CRT-type monitors the pulsed electric field due to image intensity pulsing has been measured at 
several points on the screen center line for pulse frequencies of 1/2 Hz. The monitors were the 15" 
computer monitor used in the sensory resonance experiments mentioned above, and a 30" TV tube. The 
experimental results need to be compared with the theory derived above. Since R is determined by the 
screen area, the electric fields given by (13) and (19) have as only free parameter the pulse voltage V(0) at 
the screen center. The amplitude of this voltage can therefore be determined for the tested monitors by 
fitting the experimental data to the theoretical results. Prior to fitting, the data were normalized to an image 
that occupies the entire screen and is pulsed uniformly with a 100% intensity amplitude. The results of the 
one-parameter fit are displayed in FIG. 18, which shows the theoretical graph 100, together with the 
normalized experimental data points 103 for the 15- computer monitor and for the 30" TV tube. FIG. 18 
shows that the developed theory agrees fairly well with the experimental results. From the best fit one can 
find the center-screen voltage pulse amplitudes. The results, normalized as discussed above, are 
.vertline.V(0).vertline.=266.2 volt for the 15" computer monitor and .vertline.V(0).vertline.=310.1 volt for 
the 30" TV tube. With these amplitudes in hand, the emitted pulsed electric field along the center line of the 
monitors can be calculated from the sum of the fields (13) and (19). For instance, for the 15" computer 
monitor with 1.8% RGB pulse modulation used in the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance experiments mentioned 
above, the pulsed electric field at the center of the subject, located at z=70 cm on the screen center line, is 
calculated as having an amplitude of 0.21 V/m. That such a pulsed electric field, applied to a large portion 
of the skin, is sufficient for exciting the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance is consistent with experimental results 
discussed in the '874 patent. 

In deriving (11), the dimensionless number 2.pi..intg.cA.eta. was said to be much smaller than unity. Now 
that the values for .vertline.V(0).vertline. are known, the validity of this statement can be checked. Eq. (11) 
implies that .vertline.V(0).vertline. is equal to .eta..vertline.J.vertline./4.pi.. The sum of the beam currents 
in the red, green, and blue electron guns for 100% intensity modulation is estimated to have pulse 
amplitudes .vertline J.vertline. of 0.5 mA and 2.0 mA respectively for the 15" computer monitor and the 
30" TV tube. Using the derived values for .vertline. V(0).vertline., one arrives at estimates for the screen 
resistivity .eta. as 6.7 M.OMEGA./square and 1.9 M.OMEGA./square respectively for the 15" computer 
monitor and the 30" TV tube. Estimating the screen capacity cA as 7 pf and 13 pf, 2.pi..intg.cA.eta. is 
found to be 148. times. 10. sup. -6 and 78. times. 10. sup. -6, respectively for the 15" computer monitor and the 
30" TV tube. These numbers are very small compared to unity, so that the step from (10) to (1 1) is valid. 

The following procedures were followed in preparing pulsed images for the field measurements. For the 
15" computer monitor the images were produced by running the VB6 program discussed above. The pulsed 
image comprised the full screen with basic RGB values chosen uniformly as R=G=B=127, with the 
exception of an on/off button and a few data boxes which together take up 17% of the screen area. The 
image intensity was pulsed by modifying the R, G, and B values by integer -rounded sine functions 
.DELTA. R(t), .DELTA.G(t), and .DELTA.B(t), uniformly over the image, except at the button and the data 
boxes. The measured electric field pulse amplitudes were normalized to a pulsed image that occupies all of 
the screen area and has 100% intensity modulation for which the image pulses between black and the 
maximum intensity, for the fixed RGB ratios used. The image intensity depends on the RGB values in a 
nonlinear manner that will be be discussed. For the measurements of the pulsed electric field emitted by 
30" TV tube, a similar image was used as for the 15" computer monitor. This was done by playing back a 
camcorder recording of the computer monitor display when running the VB6 program, with 40% pulse 
modulation of R, G, and B. 

In front of the monitor, i.e., for z>0, the parts (13) and (19) contribute about equally to the electric field 
over a practical range of distances z. When going behind the monitor where z is negative the monopole 
field flips sign so that the two parts nearly cancel each other, and the resulting field is very small. 
Therefore, in the back of the CRT, errors due to imperfections in the theory are relatively large. Moreover 
our model, which pretends that the polarization charges are all located on the polarization disc, fails to 
account for the electric field flux that escapes from the outer regions of the back of the screen to the earth 
or whatever conductors happen to be present in the vicinity of the CRT. This flaw has relatively more 
serious consequences in the back than in front of the monitor. 



179 



Screen emissions in front of a CRT can be cut dramatically by using a grounded conductive transparent 
shield that is placed over the screen or applied as a coating. Along the lines of our model, the shield 
amounts to a polarization disc in front of the screen, so that the latter is now sandwiched between to 
grounded discs. The screen has the pulsed potential distribution V(r) of (11), but no electric flux can 
escape. The model may be modified by choosing the polarization disc in the back somewhat smaller than 
the screen disc, by a fraction that serves as a free parameter. The fraction may then be determined from a fit 
to measured fields, by minimizing the relative standard deviation between experiment and theory. 

In each of the electron beams of a CRT, the beam current is a nonlinear function of the driving voltage, i.e., 
the voltage between cathode and control grid. Since this function is needed in the normalization procedure, 
it was measured for the 15" computer monitor that has been used in the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance 
experiments and the electric field measurements. Although the beam current density j can be determined, it 
is easier to measure the luminance, by reading a light meter that is brought right up to the monitor screen. 
With the RGB values in the VB6 program taken as the same integer K, the luminance of a uniform image is 
proportional to the image intensity I. The luminance of a uniform image was measured for various values 
of K. The results were fitted with 

I=c.sub.l K.sup. .gamma., (20) 

where c.sub.l is a constant. The best fit, with 6.18% relative standard deviation, was obtained for 
.gamma.=2.32. 

Screen emissions also occur for liquid crystal displays (LCD). The pulsed electric fields may have 
considerable amplitude for LCDs that have their driving electrodes on opposite sides of the liquid crystal 
cell, for passive matrix as well as for active matrix design, such as thin film technology (TFT). For 
arrangements with in-plane switching (IPS) however, the driving electrodes are positioned in a single 
plane, so that the screen emission is very small. For arrangements other than IPS, the electric field is 
closely approximated by the fringe field of a two-plate condenser, for the simple case that the image is 
uniform and extends over the full screen. For a circular LCD screen with radius R, the field on the center 
line can be readily calculated as due to pulsed dipoles that are uniformly distributed over the screen, with 
the result 

E.sub.d (z)=(l/2)VR.sup.2/(z.sup.2 +R.sup.2).sup.3/2, (21) 

where E.sub.d (z) is the amplitude of the pulsed electric field at a distance z from the screen and V is a 
voltage pulse amplitude, in which the aperture ratio of the LCD has been taken into account. Eq. (21) can 
be used as an approximation for screens of any shape, by taking R as the radius of a circle with the same 
area as the screen. The result applies to the case that the LCD does not have a ground connection, so that 
the top and bottom electrodes are at opposite potential, i.e., V/2 and -V/2. 

If one set of LCD electrodes is grounded, monopoles are needed to keep these electrodes at zero potential, 
much as in the case of a CRT discussed above. The LCD situation is simpler however, as there is no charge 
injection by electron beams, so that the potentials on the top and bottom plates of the condenser in the 
model are spatially uniform. From (14) it is seen that monopoles, distributed over the disc of radius R in the 
plane z=0 such as to provide on the disc a potential V/2, induce on the symmetry axis a potential 
##EQU8## 

Differentiating with respect to z gives the electric field on the symmetry axis ##EQU9## 

induced by the pulsed monopoles. For an LCD with one set of electrodes grounded, the pulsed electric field 
for screen voltage pulse amplitude V at a distance z from the screen on the center line has an amplitude that 
is the sum of the parts (21) and (23). The resultant electric field in the back is relatively small, due to the 
change in sign in the monopole field that is caused by the factor z/.vertline.z.vertline.. Therefore, screen 
emissions in front of an LCD can be kept small simply by having the grounded electrodes in front. 



180 



As a check on the theory, the pulsed electric field emitted by the 3" LCD -TFT color screen of the 
camcorder mentioned above has been measured at eleven points on the center line of the screen, ranging 
from 4.0 cm to 7.5 cm. The pulsed image was produced by playing back the video recording of the 15" 
computer monitor that was made while running the VB6 program discussed above, for a image intensity 
pulse frequency of 1/2 Hz, R=G=B=K, modulated around K=127 with an amplitude .DELTA.K=51. After 
normalization to a uniform full screen image with 100% intensity modulation by using the nonlinear 
relation (20), the experimental data were fitted to the theoretical curve that expresses the sum of the fields 
(21) and (23). The effective screen pulse voltage amplitude V was found to be 2.1 volt. The relative 
standard deviation in V for the fit is 5.1%, which shows that theory and experiment are in fairly good 
agreement. 

Certain monitors can cause excitation of sensory resonances even when the pulsing of displayed images is 
subliminal, i.e., unnoticed by the average person. When checking this condition on a computer monitor, a 
problem arises because of the rounding of RGB values to integers, as occurs in the VB6 program. For small 
pulse amplitude the sine wave is thereby distorted into a square wave, which is easier to spot. This problem 
is alleviated somewhat by choosing . DELTA. R=0, .DELTA.G=0, and .DELTA.B=2, since then the 8 
rounded sine functions around the unit circle, multiplied with the pulse amplitude . DELTA. B=2 become the 
sequence 1, 2 1 1 2, 1, -1 -2, -2, -1, etc, which is smoother to the eye than a square wave. Using the VB6 
program and the 15" computer monitor mentioned above with R=71, G=71, and B=233, a 1/2 Hz pulse 
modulation with amplitudes . DELTA. R=. DELTA. G=0 and .DELTA.B=2 could not be noticed by the 
subject, and is therefore considered subliminal. It is of interest to calculate the screen emission for this case, 
and conduct a sensory resonance experiment as well. A distance z=60 cm was chosen for the calculation 
and the experiment. Using Eq. (20), the image intensity pulse modulation for the case is found to be 1.0% 
of the maximum intensity modulation. Using R=13.83 cm together with .vertline.V(0).vertline.=266.2 V 
for the 15" computer monitor, and the theoretical graph 100 of FIG. 18, the pulsed electric field at z=60 cm 
was found to have an amplitude of 138 mV/m. In view of the experimental results discussed in the '874 and 
'922 patents, such a field, used at a pulse frequency chosen appropriately for the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance 
and applied predominantly to the face, is expected to be sufficient for exciting the 1/2 Hz sensory 
resonance. A confirmation experiment was done by running the VB6 program with the discussed settings 
and the 15" monitor. The center of the subject's face was positioned on the screen center line, at a distance 
of 60 cm from the screen. A frequency sweep of -0. 1 % per ten cycles was chosen, with an initial pulse 
frequency of 34 ppm. Full ptosis was experienced by the subject at 20 minutes into the run, when the pulse 
frequency was f=3 1 .76 ppm. At 27 minutes into the run, the frequency sweep was reversed to +0. 1 % per 
ten cycles. Full ptosis was experienced at f=31.66 ppm. At 40 minutes into the run, the frequency sweep 
was set to -0.1% per ten cycles. Full ptosis occurred at f=31.44 ppm. The small differences in ptosis 
frequency are attributed to chemical detuning, discussed in the Background Section. It is concluded that the 
1/2 Hz sensory resonance was excited in this experiment by screen emissions from subliminal image 
pulsing on the 15" computer monitor at a distance of 60 cm. For each implementation and embodiment 
discussed, the image pulsing may be subliminal. 

The human eye is less sensitive to changes in hue than to changes in brightness. In composite video this 
fact allows using a chrominance bandwidth that is smaller than the luminance bandwidth. But it also has 
the consequence that pulsing of the chrominance for fixed luminance allows larger pulse amplitudes while 
staying within the subliminal pulse regime. Eq. (3) shows how to pulse the chrominance components R-Y 
and B-Y while keeping Y fixed; for the change in pixel intensity one then has 

.DELTA.I.sub.h =0.491.DELTA.(R-Y)+0.806.DELTA.(B-Y). (24) 

Luminance pulses with fixed chrominance give a change in pixel intensity 

.DELTA.I.sub.l =3. DELTA. Y. (25) 



181 



Of course, pure chrominance pulses may be combined with pure luminance pulses; an instance of such 
combination has been mentioned above. 

The subliminal region in color space needs to be explored to determine how marginally subliminal pulses 
. DELTA. R, . DELTA. G, and .DELTA.B depend on RGB values. Prior to this, the condition for image 
pulses to be subliminal should not be phrased solely in terms of the percentage of intensity pulse amplitude. 
The subliminal image pulsing case considered above, where the monitor is driven by a VB6 computer 
program with R=G=71, B=233, and .DELTA.R=.DELTA.G=0, .DELTA.B=2 for full-screen images will 
be referred to as "the standard subliminal image pulsing". 

In the interest of the public we need to know the viewing distances at which a TV with subliminally pulsed 
images can cause excitation of sensory resonances. A rough exploration is reported here which may serve 
as starting point for further work. The exploration is limited to estimating the largest distance z=z.sub.max 
along the center line of the 30" TV at which screen emissions can excite the 1/2 Hz resonance, as 
determined by the ptosis test. The TV is to display an image which undergoes the standard subliminal 
pulsing as defined above. It would be best to perform this test with the 30" TV on which the subliminally 
pulsed images are produced by means of a video. Since such a video was not available, the ptosis test was 
conducted instead with a pulsed electric field source consisting of a small grounded doublet electrode of the 
type discussed in the '874 patent. The doublet was driven with a sinusoidal voltage of 10 V amplitude, and 
the center of mass of the subject was located on the center line of the doublet at a distance z=z.sub.d =323 
cm. The doublet electrodes are rectangles of 4.4 cm by 4.7 cm. At the large distance z.sub.d there is whole- 
body exposure to the field, so that the bulk effect discussed in the '874 patent comes into play, as is 
expected to happen also at the distance z. sub. max from the 30" TV monitor. The subject was facing the 
"hot" electrode of the doublet, so that at the subject center the electric field was the sum of the parts (21) 
and (23), for positive values of z. It was thought important to use a sine wave, since that would be the 
"commercially" preferred pulse shape which allows larger pulse amplitudes without being noticed. The 
only readily available sine wave generator with the required voltage was an oscillator with a rather coarse 
frequency control that cannot be set accurately, although the frequency is quite stable and can be measured 
accurately. For the experiment a pulse frequency of 0.506 Hz was accepted, although it differs considerably 
from the steady ptosis frequency for this case. The subject experienced several ptosis cycles of moderate 
intensity, starting 8 minutes into the experiment run. It is concluded that the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance was 
excited, and that the stimulating field was close to the weakest field capable of excitation. From Eqs. (21) 
and (23), the electric field pulse amplitude at the center of mass of the subject was found to be 7.9 mV/m. 
That an electric field with such a small pulse amplitude, applied to the whole body, is capable of exciting 
the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance is consistent with experimental results reported in the '874 patent, although 
these were obtained for the 2.4 Hz resonance. Next, the distance z. sub. max was determined at which the 
30" TV tube with 1 % image intensity pulse amplitude produces an electric field with a pulse amplitude of 
7.9 mV/m, along the center line of the screen. From Eqs. (13) and (19) one finds z. sub. max =362.9 cm. At 
more than 1 1 feet, this is a rather large distance for viewing a 30" TV. Yet, the experiment and theory 
discussed show that the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance can be excited at this large distance, by pulsing the image 
intensity subliminally. Of course, the excitation occurs as well for a range of smaller viewing distances. It 
is thus apparent that the human nervous system can be manipulated by screen emissions from subliminal 
TV image pulses. 

Windows 95, Windows 98, and Visual Basic are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. 

The invention is not limited by the embodiments shown in the drawings and described in the specification, 
which are given by way of example and not of limitation, but only in accordance with the scope of the 
appended claims. 



182 



This next section is the actual application. You '11 notice upon critical inspection that it 's different in some 
areas and parts are missing in others altogether. It 's these small little differences that make truth finding 
an almost impossible mission. Still, if you look closely they aren 't exact duplicates. Also, if you research 
Hendricus G. Loos, you '11 find out he had three papers published as early as 1963. They were papers on 
nuclear physics at first. My point is that it 's too late to change the world now, those were the old days. 



United States Patent Application 20020188164 
K Code Al 
Loos, Hendricus G. December 12, 2002 



NERVOUS SYSTEM MANIPULATION BY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS FROM MONITORS 



Abstract 

Physiological effects have been observed in a human subject in response to stimulation of the skin with 
weak electromagnetic fields that are pulsed with certain frequencies near 1/2 Hz or 2.4 Hz, such as to excite 
a sensory resonance. Many computer monitors and TV tubes, when displaying pulsed images, emit pulsed 
electromagnetic fields of sufficient amplitudes to cause such excitation. It is therefore possible to 
manipulate the nervous system of a subject by pulsing images displayed on a nearby computer monitor or 
TV set. For the latter, the image pulsing may be imbedded in the program material, or it may be overlaid by 
modulating a video stream, either as an RF signal or as a video signal. The image displayed on a computer 
monitor may be pulsed effectively by a simple computer program. For certain monitors, pulsed 
electromagnetic fields capable of exciting sensory resonances in nearby subjects may be generated even as 
the displayed images are pulsed with subliminal intensity. 



Inventors: Loos, Hendricus G.; (Laguna Beach, CA) 

Correspondence Hendricus G. Loos 
Name and 3019 Cresta Way 

Address: Laguna Beach 

CA 

92651 
US 

Serial No.: 872528 

Series Code: 09 

Filed: June 1, 2001 

U.S. Current Class: 

U.S. Class at Publication: 

Intern'l Class: 



600/9 
600/9 

A61N 002/00 



Claims 



I claim: 

1. A method for manipulating the nervous system of a subject located near a monitor, the monitor emitting 
an electromagnetic field when displaying an image by virtue of the physical display process, the subject 
having a sensory resonance frequency, the method comprising: creating a video signal for displaying an 
image on the monitor, the image having an intensity; modulating the video signal for pulsing the image 
intensity with a frequency in the range 0.1 Hz to 15 Hz; and setting the pulse frequency to the resonance 
frequency. 



183 



2. A computer program for manipulating the nervous system of a subject located near a monitor, the 
monitor emitting an electromagnetic field when displaying an image by virtue of the physical display 
process, the subject having cutaneous nerves that fire spontaneously and have spiking patterns, the 
computer program comprising: a display routine for displaying an image on the monitor, the image having 
an intensity; a pulse routine for pulsing the image intensity with a frequency in the range 0. 1 Hz to 15 Hz; 
and a frequency routine that can be internally controlled by the subject, for setting the frequency; whereby 
the emitted electromagnetic field is pulsed, the cutaneous nerves are exposed to the pulsed electromagnetic 
field, and the spiking patterns of the nerves acquire a frequency modulation. 

3. The computer program of claim 2, wherein the pulsing has an amplitude and the program further 
comprises an amplitude routine for control of the amplitude by the subject. 

4. The computer program of claim 2, wherein the pulse routine comprises: a timing procedure for timing 
the pulsing; and an extrapolation procedure for improving the accuracy of the timing procedure. 

5. The computer program of claim 2, further comprising a variability routine for introducing variability in 
the pulsing. 

6. Hardware means for manipulating the nervous system of a subject located near a monitor, the monitor 
being responsive to a video stream and emitting an electromagnetic field when displaying an image by 
virtue of the physical display process, the image having an intensity, the subject having cutaneous nerves 
that fire spontaneously and have spiking patterns, the hardware means comprising: pulse generator for 
generating voltage pulses; means, responsive to the voltage pulses, for modulating the video stream to pulse 
the image intensity; whereby the emitted electromagnetic field is pulsed, the cutaneous nerves are exposed 
to the pulsed electromagnetic field, and the spiking patterns of the nerves acquire a frequency modulation. 

7. The hardware means of claim 6, wherein the video stream is a composite video signal that has a pseudo- 
dc level, and the means for modulating the video stream comprise means for pulsing the pseudo-dc level. 

8. The hardware means of claim 6, wherein the video stream is a television broadcast signal, and the means 
for modulating the video stream comprise means for frequency wobbling of the television broadcast signal. 

9. The hardware means of claim 6, wherein the monitor has a brightness adjustment terminal, and the 
means for modulating the video stream comprise a connection from the pulse generator to the brightness 
adjustment terminal. 

10. A source of video stream for manipulating the nervous system of a subject located near a monitor, the 
monitor emitting an electromagnetic field when displaying an image by virtue of the physical display 
process, the subject having cutaneous nerves that fire spontaneously and have spiking patterns, the source 
of video signal comprising: means for defining an image on the monitor, the image having an intensity; and 
means for subliminally pulsing the image intensity with a frequency in the range 0.1 Hz to 15 Hz; whereby 
the emitted electromagnetic field is pulsed, the cutaneous nerves are exposed to the pulsed electromagnetic 
field, and the spiking patterns of the nerves acquire a frequency modulation. 

11. The source of video stream of claim 10 wherein the source is a recording medium that has recorded 
data, and the means for subliminally pulsing the image intensity comprise an attribute of the recorded data. 

12. The source of video stream of claim 10 wherein the source is a computer program, and the means for 
subliminally pulsing the image intensity comprise a pulse routine. 

13. The source of video stream of claim 10 wherein the source is a recording of a physical scene, and the 
means for subliminally pulsing the image intensity comprise: pulse generator for generating voltage pulses; 
light source for illuminating the scene, the light source having a power level; and modulation means, 
responsive to the voltage pulses, for pulsing the power level. 



184 



14. The source of video stream of claim 10, wherein the source is a DVD, the video stream comprises a 
luminance signal and a chrominance signal, and the means for subliminal pulsing of the image intensity 
comprise means for pulsing the luminance signal. 



Description 



BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 

[0001] The invention relates to the stimulation of the human nervous system by an electromagnetic field 
applied externally to the body. A neurological effect of external electric fields has been mentioned by 
Wiener (1958), in a discussion of the bunching of brain waves through nonlinear interactions. The electric 
field was arranged to provide "a direct electrical driving of the brain". Wiener describes the field as set up 
by a 10 Hz alternating voltage of 400 V applied in a room between ceiling and ground. 

[0002] Brennan (1992) describes in U.S. Pat. No. 5,169,380 an apparatus for alleviating disruptions in 
circadian rythms of a mammal, in which an alternating electric field is applied across the head of the 
subject by two electrodes placed a short distance from the skin. 

[0003] A device involving a field electrode as well as a contact electrode is the "Graham Potentializer" 
mentioned by Hutchison (1991). This relaxation device uses motion, light and sound as well as an 
alternating electric field applied mainly to the head. The contact electrode is a metal bar in Ohmic contact 
with the bare feet of the subject, and the field electrode is a hemispherical metal headpiece placed several 
inches from the subject's head. 

[0004] In these three electric stimulation methods the external electric field is applied predominantly to the 
head, so that electric currents are induced in the brain in the physical manner governed by electrodynamics. 
Such currents can be largely avoided by applying the field not to the head, but rather to skin areas away 
from the head. Certain cutaneous receptors may then be stimulated and they would provide a signal input 
into the brain along the natural pathways of afferent nerves. It has been found that, indeed, physiological 
effects can be induced in this manner by very weak electric fields, if they are pulsed with a frequency near 
1/2 Hz. The observed effects include ptosis of the eyelids, relaxation, drowziness, the feeling of pressure at 
a centered spot on the lower edge of the brow, seeing moving patterns of dark purple and greenish yellow 
with the eyes closed, a tonic smile, a tense feeling in the stomach, sudden loose stool, and sexual 
excitement, depending on the precise frequency used, and the skin area to which the field is applied. The 
sharp frequency dependence suggests involvement of a resonance mechanism. 

[0005] It has been found that the resonance can be excited not only by externally applied pulsed electric 
fields, as discussed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,782,874, 5,899,922, 6081744, and 6,167,304, but also by pulsed 
magnetic fields, as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,935,054 and 6,238,333, by weak heat pulses applied to the 
skin, as discussed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,800,481 and 6,091,994, and by subliminal acoustic pulses, as 
described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,017,302. Since the resonance is excited through sensory pathways, it is called a 
sensory resonance. In addition to the resonance near 1/2 Hz, a sensory resonance has been found near 2.4 
Hz. The latter is characterized by the slowing of certain cortical processes, as discussed in the '481, '922, 
'302, '744, '944, and '304 patents. 

[0006] The excitation of sensory resonances through weak heat pulses applied to the skin provides a clue 
about what is going on neurologically. Cutaneous temperature-sensing receptors are known to fire 
spontaneously. These nerves spike somewhat randomly around an average rate that depends on skin 
temperature. Weak heat pulses delivered to the skin in periodic fashion will therefore cause a slight 
frequency modulation (fm) in the spike patterns generated by the nerves. Since stimulation through other 
sensory modalities results in similar physiological effects, it is believed that frequency modulation of 
spontaneous afferent neural spiking patterns occurs there as well. 



185 



[0007] It is instructive to apply this notion to the stimulation by weak electric field pulses administered to 
the skin. The externally generated fields induce electric current pulses in the underlying tissue, but the 
current density is much too small for firing an otherwise quiescent nerve. However, in experiments with 
adapting stretch receptors of the crayfish, Terzuolo and Bullock (1956) have observed that very small 
electric fields can suffice for modulating the firing of already active nerves. Such a modulation may occur 
in the electric field stimulation under discussion. 

[0008] Further understanding may be gained by considering the electric charges that accumulate on the skin 
as a result of the induced tissue currents. Ignoring thermodynamics, one would expect the accumulated 
polarization charges to be confined strictly to the outer surface of the skin. But charge density is caused by 
a slight excess in positive or negative ions, and thermal motion distributes the ions through a thin layer. 
This implies that the externally applied electric field actually penetrates a short distance into the tissue, 
instead of stopping abruptly at the outer skin surface. In this manner a considerable fraction of the applied 
field may be brought to bear on some cutaneous nerve endings, so that a slight modulation of the type noted 
by Terzuolo and Bullock may indeed occur. 

[0009] The mentioned physiological effects are observed only when the strength of the electric field on the 
skin lies in a certain range, called the effective intensity window. There also is a bulk effect, in that weaker 
fields suffice when the field is applied to a larger skin area. These effects are discussed in detail in the 1922 
patent. 

[0010] Since the spontaneous spiking of the nerves is rather random and the frequency modulation induced 
by the pulsed field is very shallow, the signal to noise ratio (S/N) for the fm signal contained in the spike 
trains along the afferent nerves is so small as to make recovery of the fm signal from a single nerve fiber 
impossibile. But application of the field over a large skin area causes simultaneous stimulation of many 
cutaneous nerves, and the fm modulation is then coherent from nerve to nerve. Therefore, if the afferent 
signals are somehow summed in the brain, the fm modulations add while the spikes from different nerves 
mix and interlace. In this manner the S/N can be increased by appropriate neural processing. The matter is 
discussed in detail in the '874 patent. Another increase in sensitivity is due to involving a resonance 
mechanism, wherein considerable neural circuit oscillations can result from weak excitations. 

[001 1] An easily detectable physiological effect of an excited 1/2 Hz sensory resonance is ptosis of the 
eyelids. As discussed in the '922 patent, the ptosis test involves first closing the eyes about half way. 
Holding this eyelid position, the eyes are rolled upward, while giving up voluntary control of the eyelids. 
The eyelid position is then determined by the state of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, the 
pressure excerted on the eyeballs by the partially closed eyelids increases parasympathetic activity. The 
eyelid position thereby becomes somewhat labile, as manifested by a slight flutter. The labile state is 
sensitive to very small shifts in autonomic state. The ptosis influences the extent to which the pupil is 
hooded by the eyelid, and thus how much light is admitted to the eye. Hence, the depth of the ptosis is seen 
by the subject, and can be graded on a scale from 0 to 10. 

[0012] In the initial stages of the excitation of the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance, a downward drift is detected 
in the ptosis frequency, defined as the stimulation frequency for which maximum ptosis is obtained. This 
drift is believed to be caused by changes in the chemical milieu of the resonating neural circuits. It is 
thought that the resonance causes perturbations of chemical concentrations somewhere in the brain, and 
that these perturbations spread by diffusion to nearby resonating circuits. This effect, called "chemical 
detuning", can be so strong that ptosis is lost altogether when the stimulation frequency is kept constant in 
the initial stages of the excitation. Since the stimulation then falls somewhat out of tune, the resonance 
decreases in amplitude and chemical detuning eventually diminishes. This causes the ptosis frequency to 
shift back up, so that the stimulation is more in tune and the ptosis can develop again. As a result, for fixed 
stimulation frequencies in a certain range, the ptosis slowly cycles with a frequency of several minutes. The 
matter is discussed in the '302 patent. 



186 



[0013] The stimulation frequencies at which specific physiological effects occur depend somewhat on the 
autonomic nervous system state, and probably on the endocrine state as well. 

[0014] Weak magnetic fields that are pulsed with a sensory resonance frequency can induce the same 
physiological effects as pulsed electric fields. Unlike the latter however, the magnetic fields penetrate 
biological tissue with nearly undiminished strength. Eddy currents in the tissue drive electric charges to the 
skin, where the charge distributions are subject to thermal smearing in much the same way as in electric 
field stimulation, so that the same physiological effects develop. Details are discussed in the '054 patent. 

SUMMARY 

[0015] Computer mo no tors and TV monitors can be made to emit weak low-frequency electromagnetic 
fields merely by pulsing the intensity of displayed images. Experiments have shown that the 1/2 Hz sensory 
resonance can be excited in this manner in a subject near the monitor. The 2.4 Hz sensory resonance can 
also be excited in this fashion. Hence, a TV monitor or computer monitor can be used to manipulate the 
nervous system of nearby people. 

[0016] The implementations of the invention are adapted to the source of video stream that drives the 
monitor, be it a computer program, a TV broadcast, a video tape or a digital video disc (DVD). 

[0017] For a computer monitor, the image pulses can be produced by a suitable computer program. The 
pulse frequency may be controlled through keyboard input, so that the subject can tune to an individual 
sensory resonance frequency. The pulse amplitude can be controlled as well in this manner. A program 
written in Visual Basic(R) is particularly suitable for use on computers that run the Windows 95(R) or 
Windows 98(R) operating system. The structure of such a program is described. Production of periodic 
pulses requires an accurate timing procedure. Such a procedure is constructed from the GetTimeCount 
function available in the Application Program Interface (API) of the Windows operating system, together 
with an extrapolation procedure that improves the timing accuracy. 

[0018] Pulse variability can be introduced through software, for the purpose of thwarting habituation of the 
nervous system to the field stimulation, or when the precise resonance frequency is not known. The 
variability may be a pseudo-random variation within a narrow interval, or it can take the form of a 
frequency or amplitude sweep in time. The pulse variability may be under control of the subject. 

[0019] The program that causes a monitor to display a pulsing image may be run on a remote computer that 
is connected to the user computer by a link; the latter may partly belong to a network, which may be the 
Internet. 

[0020] For a TV monitor, the image pulsing may be inherent in the video stream as it flows from the video 
source, or else the stream may be modulated such as to overlay the pulsing. In the first case, a live TV 
broadcast can be arranged to have the feature imbedded simply by slightly pulsing the illumination of the 
scene that is being broadcast. This method can of course also be used in making movies and recording 
video tapes and DVDs. 

[0021] Video tapes can be edited such as to overlay the pulsing by means of modulating hardware. A 
simple modulator is discussed wherein the luminance signal of composite video is pulsed without affecting 
the chroma signal. The same effect may be introduced at the consumer end, by modulating the video stream 
that is produced by the video source. A DVD can be edited through software, by introducing pulse-like 
variations in the digital RGB signals. Image intensity pulses can be overlaid onto the analog component 
video output of a DVD player by modulating the luminance signal component. Before entering the TV set, 
a television signal can be modulated such as to cause pulsing of the image intensity by means of a variable 
delay line that is connected to a pulse generator. 



187 



[0022] Certain monitors can emit electromagnetic field pulses that excite a sensory resonance in a nearby 
subject, through image pulses that are so weak as to be subliminal. This is unfortunate since it opens a way 
for mischievous application of the invention, whereby people are exposed unknowingly to manipulation of 
their nervous systems for someone else's purposes. Such application would be unethical and is of course not 
advocated. It is mentioned here in order to alert the public to the possibility of covert abuse that may occur 
while being online, or while watching TV, a video, or a DVD. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS 

[0023] FIG. 1 illustrates the electromagnetic field that emanates from a monitor when the video signal is 
modulated such as to cause pulses in image intensity, and a nearby subject who is exposed to the field. 

[0024] FIG. 2 shows a circuit for modulation of a composite video signal for the purpose of pulsing the 
image intensity. 

[0025] FIG. 3 shows the circuit for a simple pulse generator. 

[0026] FIG. 4 illustrates how a pulsed electromagnetic field can be generated with a computer monitor. 

[0027] FIG. 5 shows a pulsed electromagnetic field that is generated by a television set through modulation 
of the RF signal input to the TV. 

[0028] FIG. 6 outlines the structure of a computer program for producing a pulsed image. 

[0029] FIG. 7 shows an extrapolation procedure introduced for improving timing accuracy of the program 
of FIG. 6. 

[0030] FIG. 8 illustrates the action of the extrapolation procedure of FIG. 7. 

[0031] FIG. 9 shows a subject exposed to a pulsed electromagnetic field emanating from a monitor which 
is responsive to a program running on a remote computer via a link that involves the Internet. 

[0032] FIG. 10 shows the block diagram of a circuit for frequency wobbling of a TV signal for the purpose 
of pulsing the intensity of the image displayed on a TV monitor. 

[0033] FIG. 1 1 depicts schematically a recording medium in the form of a video tape with recorded data, 
and the attribute of the signal that causes the intensity of the displayed image to be pulsed. 

[0034] FIG. 12 illustrates how image pulsing can be embedded in a video signal by pulsing the illumination 
of the scene that is being recorded. 

[0035] FIG. 13 shows a routine that introduces pulse variability into the computer program of FIG. 6. 

[0036] FIG. 14 shows schematically how a CRT emits an electromagnetic field when the displayed image 
is pulsed. 

[0037] FIG. 15 shows how the intensity of the image displayed on a monitor can be pulsed through the 
brightness control terminal of the monitor. 

[0038] FIG. 16 illustrates the action of the polarization disc that serves as a model for grounded conductors 
in the back of a CRT screen. 

[0039] FIG. 17 shows the circuit for overlaying image intensity pulses on a DVD output. 

[0040] FIG. 18 shows measured data for pulsed electric fields emitted by two different CRT type monitors, 
and a comparison with theory. 



188 



DETAILED DESCRIPTION 



[0041] Computer monitors and TV monitors emit electromagnetic fields. Part of the emission occurs at the 
low frequencies at which displayed images are changing. For instance, a rythmic pulsing of the intensity of 
an image causes electromagnetic field emission at the pulse frequency, with a strength proportional to the 
pulse amplitude. The field is briefly referred to as "screen emission". In discussing this effect, any part or 
all what is displayed on the monitor screen is called an image. A monitor of the cathode ray tube (CRT) 
type has three electron beams, one for each of the basic colors red, green, and blue. The intensity of an 
image is here defined as 

I=.intg.jdA, (1) 

[0042] where the integral extends over the image, and 
j=j.sub.r+j.sub.g+j.sub.b, (2) 

[0043] j.sub.r, j.sub.g, and j.sub.b being the electric current densities in the red, green, and blue electron 
beams at the surface area dA of the image on the screen. The current densities are to be taken in the 
distributed electron beam model, where the discreteness of pixels and the raster motion of the beams are 
ignored, and the back of the monitor screen is thought to be irradiated by diffuse electron beams. The beam 
current densities are then functions of the coordinates x and y over the screen. The model is appropriate 
since we are interested in the electromagnetic field emision caused by image pulsing with the very low 
frequencies of sensory resonances, whereas the emissions with the much higher horizontal and vertical 
sweep frequencies are of no concern. For a CRT the intensity of an image is expressed in millamperes. 

[0044] For a liquid crystal display (LCD), the current densities in the definition of image intensity are to be 
replaced by driving voltages, multiplied by the aperture ratio of the device. For an LCD, image intensities 
are thus expressed in volts. 

[0045] It will be shown that for a CRT or LCD screen emissions are caused by fluctuations in image 
intensity. In composite video however, intensity as defined above is not a primary signal feature, but 
luminance Y is. For any pixel one has 

Y=0.299R+0.587G+0.114B, (3) 

[0046] where R, G, and B are the intensities of the pixel respectively in red, green and blue, normalized 
such as to range from 0 to 1. The definition (3) was provided by the Commisssion Internationale de 
lEclairage (CIE), in order to account for brightness differences at different colors, as perceived by the 
human visual system. In composite video the hue of the pixel is determined by the chroma signal or 
chrominance, which has the components R-Y and B-Y. It follows that pulsing pixel luminance while 
keeping the hue fixed is equivalent to pulsing the pixel intensity, up to an amplitude factor. This fact will be 
relied upon when modulating a video stream such as to overlay image intensity pulses. 

[0047] It turns out that the screen emission has a multipole expansion wherein both monopole and dipole 
contributions are proportional to the rate of change of the intensity I of (1). The higher order multipole 
contributions are proportional to the rate of change of moments of the current density j over the image, but 
since these contributions fall off rapidly with distance, they are not of practical importance in the present 
context. Pulsing the intensity of an image may involve different pulse amplitudes, frequencies, or phases 
for different parts of the image. Any or all of these features may be under subject control. 

[0048] The question arises whether the screen emission can be strong enough to excite sensory resonances 
in people located at normal viewing distances from the monitor. This turns out to be the case, as shown by 
sensory resonance experiments and independently by measuring the strength of the emitted electric field 
pulses and comparing the results with the effective intensity window as explored in earlier work. 



189 



[0049] One-half Hertz sensory resonance experiments have been conducted with the subject positioned at 
least at normal viewing distance from a 15" computer monitor that was driven by a computer program 
written in Visual Basic(R), version 6.0 (VB6). The program produces a pulsed image with uniform 
luminance and hue over the full screen, except for a few small control buttons and text boxes. In VB6, 
screen pixel colors are determined by integers R, G, and B, that range from 0 to 255, and set the 
contributions to the pixel color made by the basic colors red, green, and blue. For a CRT -type monitor, the 
pixel intensities for the primary colors may depend on the RGB values in a nonlinear manner that will be 
discussed. In the VB6 program the RGB values are modulated by small pulses . DELTA. R, .DELTA.G, 
. DELTA. B, with a frequency that can be chosen by the subject or is swept in a predetermined manner. In 
the sensory resonance experiments mentioned above, the ratios . DELTA. R/R, 66 G/G, and .DELTA.B/B 
were always smaller than 0.02, so that the image pulses are quite weak. For certain frequencies near 1/2 Hz, 
the subject experienced physiological effects that are known to accompany the excitation of the 1/2 Hz 
sensory resonance as mentioned in the Background Section. Moreover, the measured field pulse amplitudes 
fall within the effective intensity window for the 1/2 Hz resonance, as explored in earlier experiments and 
discussed in the '874, 744, '922, and '304 patents. Other experiments have shown that the 2.4 Hz sensory 
resonance can be exited as well by screen emissions from monitors that display pulsed images. 

[0050] These results confirm that, indeed, the nervous system of a subject can be manipulated through 
electromagnetic field pulses emitted by a nearby CRT or LCD monitor which displays images with pulsed 
intensity. 

[0051] The various implementations of the invention are adapted to the different sources of video stream, 
such as video tape, DVD, a computer program, or a TV broadcast through free space or cable. In all of 
these implementations, the subject is exposed to the pulsed electromagnetic field that is generated by the 
monitor as the result of image intensity pulsing. Certain cutaneous nerves of the subject exhibit 
spontaneous spiking in patterns which, although rather random, contain sensory information at least in the 
form of average frequency. Some of these nerves have receptors that respond to the field stimulation by 
changing their average spiking frequency, so that the spiking patterns of these nerves acquire a frequency 
modulation, which is conveyed to the brain. The modulation can be particularly effective if it has a 
frequency at or near a sensory resonance frequency. Such frequencies are expected to lie in the range from 
0.1 to 15 Hz. 

[0052] An embodiment of the invention adapted to a VCR is shown in FIG. 1, where a subject 4 is exposed 
to a pulsed electric field 3 and a pulsed magnetic field 39 that are emitted by a monitor 2, labeled "MON", 
as the result of pulsing the intensity of the displayed image. The image is here generated by a video casette 
recorder 1, labeled "VCR", and the pulsing of the image intensity is obtained by modulating the composite 
video signal from the VCR output. This is done by a video modulator 5, labeled "VM", which responds to 
the signal from the pulse generator 6, labeled "GEN". The frequency and amplitude of the image pulses can 
be adjusted with the frequency control 7 and amplitude control 8. Frequency and amplitude adustments can 
be made by the subject. 

[0053] The circuit of the video modulator 5 of FIG. 1 is shown in FIG. 2, where the video amplifiers 1 1 and 
12 process the composite video signal that enters at the input terminal 13. The level of the video signal is 
modulated slowly by injecting a small bias current at the inverting input 17 of the first amplifier 11. This 
current is caused by voltage pulses supplied at the modulation input 16, and can be adjusted through the 
potentiometer 15. Since the noninverting input of the amplifier is grounded, the inverting input 17 is kept 
essentially at ground potential, so that the bias current is is not influenced by the video signal. The 
inversion of the signal by the first amplifier 1 1 is undone by the second amplifier 12. The gains of the 
amplifiers are chosen such as to give a unity overall gain. A slowly varying current injected at the inverting 
input 17 causes a slow shift in the "pseudo-dc" level of the composite video signal, here defined as the 
short-term average of the signal. Since the pseudo-dc level of the chroma signal section determines the 
luminance, the latter is modulated by the injected current pulses. The chroma signal is not affected by the 
slow modulation of the pseudo-dc level, since that signal is determined by the amplitude and phase with 
respect to the color carrier which is locked to the color burst. The effect on the sync pulses and color bursts 
is of no consequence either if the injected current pulses are very small, as they are in practice. The 
modulated composite video signal, available at the output 14 in FIG. 2, will thus exhibit a modulated 



190 



luminance, whereas the chroma signal is unchanged. In the light of the foregoing discussion about 
luminance and intensity, it follows that the modulator of FIG. 2 causes a pulsing of the image intensity I. It 
remains to give an example how the pulse signal at the modulation input 16 may be obtained. FIG. 3 shows 
a pulse generator that is suitable for this purpose, wherein the RC timer 21 (Intersil ICM7555) is hooked up 
for astable operation and produces a square wave voltage with a frequency that is determined by capacitor 
22 and potentiometer 23. The timer 21 is powered by a battery 26, controlled by the switch 27. The square 
wave voltage at output 25 drives the LED 24, which may be used for monitoring of the pulse frequency, 
and also serves as power indicator. The pulse output may be rounded in ways that are well known in the art. 
In the setup of FIG. 1, the output of VCR 1 is connected to the video input 13 of FIG. 2, and the video 
output 14 is connected to the monitor 2 of FIG. 1. 

[0054] In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the image intensity pulsing is caused by a computer 
program. As shown in FIG. 4, monitor 2, labeled "MON", is connected to computer 31 labeled 
"COMPUTER", which runs a program that produces an image on the monitor and causes the image 
intensity to be pulsed. The subject 4 can provide input to the computer through the keyboard 32 that is 
connected to the computer by the connection 33. This input may involve adjustments of the frequency or 
the amplitude or the variability of the image intensity pulses. In particular, the pulse frequency can be set to 
a sensory resonance frequency of the subject for the purpose of exciting the resonance. 

[0055] The structure of a computer program for pulsing image intensity is shown in FIG. 6. The program 
may be written in Visual Basic(R) version 6.0 (VB6), which involves the graphics interface familiar from 
the Windows(R) operating system. The images appear as forms equiped with user controls such as 
command buttons and scroll bars, together with data displays such as text boxes. A compiled VB6 program 
is an executable file. When activated, the program declares variables and functions to be called from a 
dynamic link library (DLL) that is attached to the operating system; an initial form load is performed as 
well. The latter comprises setting the screen color as specified by integers R, G, and B in the range 0 to 
255, as mentioned above. In FIG. 6, the initial setting of the screen color is labeled as 50. Another action of 
the form load routine is the computation 51 of the sine function at eight equally spaced points, 1=0 to 7, 
around the unit circle. These values are needed when modulating the RGB numbers. Unfortunately, the sine 
function is distorted by the rounding to integer RGB values that occurs in the VB6 program. The image is 
chosen to fill as much of the screen area as possible, and it has spatially uniform luminance and hue. 

[0056] The form appearing on the monitor displays a command button for starting and stopping the image 
pulsing, together with scroll bars 52 and 53 respectively for adjustment of the pulse frequency F and the 
pulse amplitude A. These pulses could be initiated by a system timer which is activated upon the elapse of 
a preset time interval. However, timers in VB6 are too inaccurate for the purpose of providing the eight 
RGB adjustment points in each pulse cycle. An improvement can be obtained by using the GetTickCount 
function that is available in the Application Program Interface (API) of Windows 95(R) and Windows 
98(R). The GetTickCount function returns the system time that has elapsed since starting Windows, 
expressed in milliseconds. User activation of the start button 54 provides a tick count TN through request 
55 and sets the timer interval to TT miliseconds, in step 56. TT was previously calculated in the frequency 
routine that is activated by changing the frequency, denoted as step 52. 

[0057] Since VB6 is an event-driven program, the flow chart for the program falls into disjoint pieces. 
Upon setting the timer interval to TT in step 56, the timer runs in the background while the program may 
execute subroutines such as adjustment of pulse frequency or amplitude. Upon elapse of the timer interval 
TT, the timer subroutine 57 starts execution with request 58 for a tick count, and in 59 an upgrade is 
computed of the time TN for the next point at which the RGB values are to be adjusted. In step 59 the timer 
is turned off, to be reactivated later in step 67. Step 59 also resets the parameter CR which plays a role in 
the extrapolation procedure 61 and the condition 60. For ease of understanding at this point, it is best to 
pretend that the action of 61 is simply to get a tick count, and to consider the loop controled by condition 
60 while keeping CR equal to zero. The loop would terminate when the tick count M reaches or exceeds 
the time TN for the next phase point, at which time the program should adjust the image intensity through 
steps 63-65. For now step 62 is to be ignored also, since it has to do with the actual extrapolation procedure 
61. The increments to the screen colors Rl, Gl, and Bl at the new phase point are computed according to 
the sine function, applied with the amplitude A that was set by the user in step 53. The number I that labels 



191 



the phase point is incremented by unity in step 65, but if this results in 1=8 the value is reset to zero in 66. 
Finally, the timer is reactivated in step 67, initiating a new 1/8 -cycle step in the periodic progression of 
RGB adjustments. 

[0058] A program written in this way would exhibit a large jitter in the times at which the RGB values are 
changed. This is due to the lumpiness in the tick counts returned by the GetTickCount function. The 
lumpiness may be studied separately by running a simple loop with C=GetTickCount, followed by writing 
the result C to a file. Inspection shows that C has jumped every 14 or 15 milliseconds, between long 
stretches of constant values. Since for a 1/2 Hz image intensity modulation the 1/8 -cycle phase points are 
250 ms apart, the lumpiness of 14 or 15 ms in the tick count would cause considerable inaccuracy. The full 
extrapolation procedure 61 is introduced in order to diminish the jitter to acceptable levels. The procedure 
works by refining the heavy-line staircase function shown in FIG. 8, using the slope RR of a recent 
staircase step to accurately determine the loop count 89 at which the loop controled by 60 needs to be 
exited. Details of the extrapolation procedure are shown in FIG. 7 and illustrated in FIG. 8. The procedure 
starts at 70 with both flags off, and CR=0, because of the assignment in 59 or 62 in FIG. 6. A tick count M 
is obtained at 71, and the remaining time MR to the next phase point is computed in 72. Conditions 77 and 
73 are not satisfied and therefore passed vertically in the flow chart, so that only the delay block 74 and the 
assignments 75 are executed. Condition 60 of FIG. 6 is checked and found to be satisfied, so that the 
extrapolation procedure is reentered. The process is repeated until the condition 73 is met when the 
remaining time MR jumps down through the 15 ms level, shown in FIG. 8 as the transition 83. The 
condition 73 then directs the logic flow to the assignments 76, in which the number DM labeled by 83 is 
computed, and FLG1 is set. The computation of DM is required for finding the slope RR of the straight -line 
element 85. One also needs the "Final LM" 86, which is the number of loops traversed from step 83 to the 
next downward step 84, here shown to cross the MR=0 axis. The final LM is determined after repeatedly 
incrementing LM through the side loop entered from the FLG1=1 condition 77, which is now satisfied 
since FLG1 was set in step 76. At the transition 84 the condition 78 is met, so that the assignments 79 are 
executed. This includes computation of the slope RR of the line element 85, setting FLG2, and resetting 
FLG1. From here on, the extrapolation procedure increments CR in steps of RR while skipping tick counts 
until condition 60 of FIG. 6 is violated, the loop is exited, and the RGB values are adjusted. 

[0059] A delay block 74 is used in order to stretch the time required for traversing the extrapolation 
procedure. The block can be any computation intensive subroutine such as repeated calculations of tangent 
and arc tangent functions. 

[0060] As shown in step 56 of FIG. 6, the timer interval TT is set to {fraction (4/10)} of the time TA from 
one RGB adjustment point to the next. Since the timer runs in the background, this arrangement provides 
an opportunity for execution of other processes such as user adjustment of frequency or amplitude of the 
pulses. 

[0061] The adjustment of the frequency and other pulse parameters of the image intensity modulation can 
be made internally, i.e., within the running program. Such internal control is to be distinguished from the 
external control provided, for instance, in screen savers. In the latter, the frequency of animation can be 
modified by the user, but only after having exited the screen saver program. Specifically, in Windows 
95(R) or Windows 98(R), to change the animation frequency requires stopping the screen saver execution 
by moving the mouse, whereafter the frequency may be adjusted through the control panel. The 
requirement that the control be internal sets the present program apart from so-called banners as well. 

[0062] The program may be run on a remote computer that is linked to the user computer, as illustrated in 
FIG. 9. Although the monitor 2, labeled "MON", is connected to the computer 31, labeled "COMPUTER", 
the program that pulses the images on the monitor 2 runs on the remoter computer 90, labeled "REMOTE 
COMPUTER", which is connected to computer 31 through a link 91 which may in part belong to a 
network. The network may comprise the Internet 92. 

[0063] The monitor of a television set emits an electromagnetic field in much the same way as a computer 
monitor. Hence, a TV may be used to produce screen emissions for the purpose of nervous system 
manipulation. FIG. 5 shows such an arrangement, where the pulsing of the image intensity is achieved by 



192 



inducing a small slowly pulsing shift in the frequency of the RF signal that enters from the antenna. This 
process is here called "frequency wobbling" of the RF signal. In FM TV, a slight slow frequency wobble of 
the RF signal produces a pseudo-dc signal level fluctuation in the composite video signal, which in turn 
causes a slight intensity fluctuation of the image displayed on the monitor in the same manner as discussed 
above for the modulator of FIG. 2. The frequency wobbling is induced by the wobbler 44 of FIG. 5 labeled 
"RFM", which is placed in the antenna line 43. The wobbler is driven by the pulse generator 6, labeled 
"GEN". The subject can adjust the frequency and the amplitude of the wobble through the tuning control 7 
and the amplitude control 41. FIG. 10 shows a block diagram of the frequency wobbler circuit that employs 
a variable delay line 94, labelled "VDL". The delay is determined by the signal from pulse generator 6, 
labelled "GEN". The frequency of the pulses can be adjusted with the tuning control 7. The amplitude of 
the pulses is determined by the unit 98, labelled "MD", and can be adjusted with the amplitude control 41. 
Optionally, the input to the delay line may be routed through a preprocessor 93, labelled "PRP", which may 
comprise a selective RF amplifier and down converter; a complimentary up conversion should then be 
performed on the delay line output by a postprocessor 95, labelled "POP". The output 97 is to be connected 
to the antenna terminal of the TV set. 

[0064] The action of the variable delay line 94 may be understood as follows. Let periodic pulses with 
period L be presented at the input. For a fixed delay the pulses would emerge at the output with the same 
period L. Actually, the time delay T is varied slowly, so that it increases approximately by LdT/dt between 
the emergence of consecutive pulses at the device output. The pulse period is thus increased approximately 
by 

.DELTA.L=LdT/dt. (4) 

[0065] In terms of the frequency f, Eq. (4) implies approximately 
.DELTA.f/f=-dT/dt. (5) 

[0066] For sinusoidal delay T(t) with amplitude b and frequency g, one has 
.DELTA.f/f=-2.pi.gb cos(2.pi.gt), (6) 

[0067] which shows the frequency wobbling. The approximation is good for gb«l, which is satisfied in 
practice. The relative frequency shift amplitude 2.pi.gb that is required for effective image intensity pulses 
is very small compared to unity. For a pulse frequency g of the order of 1 Hz, the delay may have to be of 
the order of a millisecond. To accomodate such long delay values, the delay line may have to be 
implemented as a digital device. To do so is well within the present art. In that case it is natural to also 
choose digital implementations for the pulse generator 6 and the pulse amplitude controller 98, either as 
hardware or as software. 

[0068] Pulse variability may be introduced for alleviating the need for precise tuning to a resonance 
frequency. This may be important when sensory resonance frequencies are not precisely known, because of 
the variation among individuals, or in order to cope with the frequency drift that results from chemical 
detuning that is discussed in the '874 patent. A field with suitably chosen pulse variability can then be more 
effective than a fixed frequency field that is out of tune. One may also control tremors and seizures, by 
interfering with the pathological oscillatory activity of neural circuits that occurs in these disorders. 
Electromagnetic fields with a pulse variability that results in a narrow spectrum of frequencies around the 
frequency of the pathological oscillatory activity may then evoke nerve signals that cause phase shifts 
which diminish or quench the oscillatory activity. 

[0069] Pulse variability can be introduced as hardware in the manner described in the '304 patent. The 
variability may also be introduced in the computer program of FIG. 6, by setting FLG3 in step 68, and 
choosing the amplitude B of the frequency fluctuation. In the variability routine 46, shown in some detail in 
FIG. 13, FLG3 is detected in step 47, whereupon in steps 48 and 49 the pulse frequency F is modified 
pseudo randomly by a term proportional to B, every 4th cycle. Optionally, the amplitude of the image 
intensity pulsing may be modified as well, in similar fashion. Alternatively, the frequency and amplitude 



193 



may be swept through an adjustable ramp, or according to any suitable schedule, in a manner known to 
those skilled in the art. The pulse variability may be applied to subliminal image intensity pulses. 

[0070] When an image is displayed by a TV monitor in response to a TV broadcast, intensity pulses of the 
image may simply be imbedded in the program material. If the source of video signal is a recording 
medium, the means for pulsing the image intensity may comprise an attribute of recorded data. The pulsing 
may be subliminal. For the case of a video signal from a VCR, the pertinent data attribute is illustrated in 
FIG. 11, which shows a video signal record on part of a video tape 28. Depicted schematically are segments 
of the video signal in intervals belonging to lines in three image frames at different places along the tape. In 
each segment, the chroma signal 9 is shown, with its short-term average level 29 represented as a dashed 
line. The short-term average signal level, also called the pseudo-dc level, represents the luminance of the 
image pixels. Over each segment, the level is here constant because the image is for simplicity chosen as 
having a uniform luminance over the screen. However, the level is seen to vary from frame to frame, 
illustrating a luminance that pulses slowly over time. This is shown in the lower portion of the drawing, 
wherein the IRE level of the short-term chroma signal average is plotted versus time. The graph further 
shows a gradual decrease of pulse amplitude in time, illustrating that luminance pulse amplitude variations 
may also be an attribute of the recorded data on the video tape. As discussed, pulsing the luminance for 
fixed chrominance results in pulsing of the image intensity. 

[0071] Data stream attributes that represent image intensity pulses on video tape or in TV signals may be 
created when producing a video rendition or making a moving pixture of a scene, simply by pulsing the 
illumination of the scene. This is illustrated in FIG. 12, which shows a scene 19 that is recorded with a 
video camera 18, labelled "VR". The scene is illuminated with a lamp 20, labelled "LAMP", energized by 
an electric current through a cable 36. The current is modulated in pulsing fashion by a modulator 30, 
labeled "MOD", which is driven by a pulse generator 6, labelled "GENERATOR", that produces voltage 
pulses 35. Again, pulsing the luminance but not the chrominance amounts to pulsing the image intensity. 

[0072] The brightness of monitors can usually be adjusted by a control, which may be addressable through 
a brightness adjustment terminal. If the control is of the analog type, the displayed image intensity may be 
pulsed as shown in FIG. 15, simply by a pulse generator 6, labeled "GEN", that is connected to the 
brigthness adjustment terminal 88 of the monitor 2, labeled "MON". Equivalent action can be provided for 
digital brightness controls, in ways that are well known in the art. 

[0073] The analog component video signal from a DVD player may be modulated such as to overlay image 
intensity pulses in the manner illustrated in FIG. 17. Shown are a DVD player 102, labeled "DVD", with 
analog component video output comprised of the luminance Y and chrominance C. The overlay is 
accomplished simply by shifting the luminance with a voltage pulse from generator 6, labeled 
"GENERATOR". The generator output is applied to modulator 106, labeled "SHIFTER". Since the 
luminance Y is pulsed without changing the chrominance C, the image intensity is pulsed. The frequency 
and amplitude of the image intensity pulses can be adjusted respectively with the tuner 7 and amplitude 
control 107. The modulator 105 has the same structure as the modulator of FIG. 2, and the pulse amplitude 
control 107 operates the potentiometer 15 of FIG. 2. The same procedure can be followed for editing a 
DVD such as to overlay image intensity pulses, by processing the modulated luminance signal through an 
analog-to-digital converter, and recording the resulting digital stream onto a DVD, after appropriate 
compression. Alternatively, the digital luminance data can be edited by electronic reading of the signal, 
decompression, altering the digital data by software, and recording the resulting digital signal after proper 
compression, all in a manner that is well known in the art. 

[0074] The mechanism whereby a CRT-type monitor emits a pulsed electromagnetic field when pulsing the 
intensity of an image is illustrated in FIG. 14. The image is produced by an electron beam 10 which 
impinges upon the backside 88 of the screen, where the collisions excite phosphors that subsequently emit 
light. In the process, the electron beam deposits electrons 18 on the screen, and these electrons contribute to 
an electric field 3 labelled "E". The electrons flow along the conductive backside 88 of the screen to the 
terminal 99 which is hooked up to the high-voltage supply 40, labelled "HV". The circuit is completed by 
the ground connection of the supply, the video amplifier 87, labeled "VA", and its connection to the 
cathodes of the CRT. The electron beams of the three electron guns are collectively shown as 10, and 



194 



together the beams carry a current J. The electric current J flowing through the described circuit induces a 
magnetic field 39, labeled "B". Actually, there are a multitude of circuits along which the electron beam 
current is returned to the CRT cathodes, since on a macroscopic scale the conductive back surface 88 of the 
screen provides a continuum of paths from the beam impact point to the high-voltage terminal 99. The 
magnetic fields induced by the currents along these paths partially cancel each other, and the resulting field 
depends on the location of the pixel that is addressed. Since the beams sweep over the screen through a 
raster of horizontal lines, the spectrum of the induced magnetic field contains strong peaks at the horizontal 
and vertical frequencies. However, the interest here is not in fields at those frequencies, but rather in 
emissions that result from an image pulsing with the very low frequencies appropriate to sensory 
resonances. For this purpose a diffuse electron current model suffices, in which the pixel discreteness and 
the raster motion of the electron beams are ignored, so that the beam current becomes diffuse and fills the 
cone subtended by the displayed image. The resulting low-frequency magnetic field depends on the 
temporal changes in the intensity distribution over the dispayed image. Order -of-magnitude estimates show 
that the low-frequency magnetic field, although quite small, may be sufficient for the excitation of sensory 
resonances in subjects located at a normal viewing distance from the monitor. 

[0075] The monitor also emits a low-frequency electric field at the image pulsing frequency. This field is 
due in part to the electrons 18 that are deposited on the screen by the electron beams 10. In the diffuse 
electron beam model, screen conditions are considered functions of the time t and of the Cartesian 
coordinates x and y over a flat CRT screen. 

[0076] The screen electrons 18 that are dumped onto the back of the screen by the sum j(x,y,t) of the 
diffuse current distributions in the red, green, and blue electron beams cause a potential distribution 
V(x,y,t) which is influenced by the surface conductivity .sigma. on the back of the screen and by 
capacitances. In the simple model where the screen has a capacitance distribution c(x,y) to ground and 
mutual capacitances between parts of the screen at different potentials are neglected, a potential distribution 
V(x,y,t) over the screen implies a surface charge density distribution 

q=Vc(x,y), (7) 

[0077] and gives rise to a current density vector along the screen, 
j. sub. s=-. sigma. grad. sub. sV, (8) 

[0078] where grad. sub. s is the gradient along the screen surface. Conservation of electric charge implies 
j=cV-div.sub.s(.sigma.grad.sub.sV), (9) 

[0079] where the dot over the voltage denotes the time derivative, and div.sub.s is the divergence in the 
screen surface. The partial differential equation (9) requires a boundary condition for the solution V(x,y,t) 
to be unique. Such a condtion is provided by setting the potential at the rim of the screen equal to the fixed 
anode voltage. This is a good approximation, since the resistance R.sub.r between the screen rim and the 
anode terminal is chosen small in CRT design, in order to keep the voltage loss JR.sub.r to a minimum, and 
also to limit low-frequency emissions. 

[0080] Something useful can be learned from special cases with simple solutions. As such, consider a 
circular CRT screen of radius R with uniform conductivity, showered in the back by a diffuse electron 
beam with a spatially uniform beam current density that is a constant plus a sinusoidal part with frequency f 
Since the problem is linear, the voltage V due to the sinusoidal part of the beam current can be considered 
separately, with the boundary condition that V vanish at the rim of the circular screen. Eq. (9) then 
simplifies to 

V"+V'/r-i2.pi.fc.eta.V=-J.eta./A, r.ltoreq.R, (10) 

[0081] where r is a radial coordinate along the screen with its derivative denoted by a prime, .eta.= l/.sigma. 
is the screen resistivity, A the screen area, J the sinusoidal part of the total beam current, and i={ square 



195 



root}(-l), the imaginary unit. Our interest is in very low pulse frequencies f that are suitable for excitation 
of sensory resonances. For those frequencies and for practical ranges for c and .eta., the dimensionless 
number 2.pi.fcA.eta. is very much smaller than unity, so that it can be neglected in Eq. (10). The boundary 
value problem then has the simple solution lV(r) = J4(l-(r/R)2).(ll) 

[0082] In deriving (11) we neglected the mutual capacitance between parts of the screen that are at different 
potentials. The resulting error in (10) is negligible for the same reason that the i2.pi.fcA.eta. term in (10) 
can be neglected. 

[0083] The potential distribution V(r) of (1 1) along the screen is of course accompanied by electric charges. 
The field lines emanating from these charges run mainly to conductors behind the screen that belong to the 
CRT structure and that are either grounded or connected to circuitry with a low impedance path to ground. 
In either case the mentioned conductors must be considered grounded in the analysis of charges and fields 
that result from the pulsed component J of the total electron beam current. The described electric field lines 
end up in electric charges that may be called polarization charges since they are the result of the 
polarization of the conductors and circuitry by the screen emission. To estimate the pulsed electric field, a 
model is chosen where the mentioned conductors are represented together as a grounded perfectly 
conductive disc of radius R, positioned a short distance .delta, behind the screen, as depicted in FIG. 16. 
Since the grounded conductive disc carries polarization charges, it is called the polarization disc. FIG. 16 
shows the circular CRT screen 88 and the polarization disc 101, briefly called "plates". For small distances 
6, the capacitance density between the plates of opposite polarity is nearly equal to .epsilon./.delta., where e 
is the permittivity of free space. The charge distributions on the screen and polarization disc are 
respectively .epsilon.V(r)/.delta.+q.sub.O and -.epsilon.V(r)/.delta.+q.sub.O, where the .epsilon.V(r)/.delta. 
terms denote opposing charge densities at the end of the dense field lines that run between the two plates. 
That the part q.sub.O is needed as well will become clear in the sequel. 

[0084] The charge distributions .epsilon.V(r)/.delta.+q.sub.O and -.epsilon.V(r)/.delta.+q.sub.O on the two 
plates have a dipole moment with the density 2D(r) = V(r) = J4(l-(r/R)2),(12) 

[0085] directed perpendicular to the screen. Note that the plate separation .delta, has dropped out. This 
means that the precise location of the polarization charges is not critical in the present model, and further 
that .delta, may be taken as small as desired. Taking .delta, to zero, one thus arrives at the mathematical 
model of pulsed dipoles distributed over the circular CRT screen. The field due to the charge distribution 
q.sub.O will be calculated later. 

[0086] The electric field induced by the distributed dipoles (12) can be calculated easily for points on the 
centerline of the screen, with the result 3E(z) = V(0)R{2/R-R/-2lzl/R},(13) 

[0087] where V(0) is the pulse voltage (1 1) at the screen center, .rho. the distance to the rim of the screen, 
and z the distance to the center of the screen. Note that V(0) pulses harmonically with frequency f, because 
in (1 1) the sinusoidal part J of the beam current varies in this manner. 

[0088] The electric field (13) due to the dipole distribution causes a potential distribution V(r)/2 over the 
screen and a potential distribution of -V(r)/2 over the polarization disc, where V(r) is nonuniform as given 
by (1 1). But since the polarization disc is a perfect conductor it cannot support voltage gradients, and 
therefore cannot have the potential distribution -V(r)/2. Instead, the polarization disc is at ground potential. 
This is where the charge distribution q.sub.O(r) comes in; it must be such as to induce a potential 
distribution V(r)/2 over the polarization disc. Since the distance between polarization disc and screen 
vanishes in the mathematical model, the potential distribution V(r)/2 is induced over the screen as well. The 
total potential over the monitor screen thus becomes V(r) of (1 1), while the total potential distribution over 
the polarization disc becomes uniformly zero. Both these potential distributions are as physically required. 
The electric charges q.sub.O are moved into position by polarization and are partly drawn from the earth 
through the ground connection of the CRT. 

[0089] In our model the charge distribution q.sub.O is located at the same place as the dipole distribution, 
viz., on the plane z=0 within the circle with radius R. At points on the center line of the screen, the electric 



196 



field due to the monopole distribution q.sub.O is calculated in the following manner. As discussed, the 
monopoles must be such that they cause a potential .phi.. sub. 0 that is equal to V(r)/2 over the disc with 
radius R centered in the plane z=0. Although the charge distribution q.sub.O(r) is uniquely defined by this 
condition, it cannot be calculated easily in a straightforward manner. The difficulty is circumvented by 
using an intermediate result derived from Excercise 2 on page 191 of Kellogg (1953), where the charge 
distribution over a thin disc with uniform potential is given. By using this result one readily finds the 
potential .phi.*(z) on the axis of this disc as4*(z) = 2V*(Rl),(14) 

[0090] where .beta. (R. sub. 1) is the angle subtended by the disc radius R.sub.l, as viewed from the point z 
on the disc axis, and V* is the disc potential. The result is used here in an attempt to construct the potential 
.phL.sub.O(z) for a disc with the nonuniform potential V(r)/2, by the ansatz of writing the field as due to a 
linear combination of abstract discs with various radii R.sub.l and potentials, all centered in the plane z=0. 
In the ansatz the potential on the symmetry axis is written 

.phi..sub.O(z)=.alpha..beta.(R)+b.intg..sub.0.sup.R.beta.(R.sub.l)dW, (15) 

[0091] where W is chosen as the function 1 -R.sub.l. sup. 2/R.sup. 2, and the constants a and b are to be 
determined such that the potential over the plane z=0 is V(r)/2 for radii r ranging from 0 to R, with V(r) 
given by (11). Carrying out the integration in (15) gives 

.phi..sub.0(z)=.alpha..beta.(R)-b{(l+z.sup.2/R.sup.2).beta.(R)-.vertline.z- .vertline./R}. (16) 

[0092] In order to find the potential over the disc r<R in the plane z=0, the function .phL.sub.O(z) is 
expanded in powers of z/R for 0<z<R, whereafter the powers zn are replaced by r.sup.nP.sub.n(cos .theta.), 
where the P.sub.n are Legendre polynomials, and (r,.theta.) are symmetric spherical coordinates centered at 
the screen center. This procedure amounts to a continuation of the potential from the z-axis into the half 
ball r<R, z>0, in such a manner that the Laplace equation is satisfied. The method is discussed by Morse 
and Feshbach (1953). The "Laplace continuation" allows calculation of the potential .phl.sub.o along the 
surface of the disc r<R centered in the plane z=0. The requirement that this potential be V(r)/2 with the 
function V(r) given by (1 1) allows solving for the constants a and b, with the result 

a=-V(0)/.pi., b=-2V(0)/.pi.. (17) 

[0093] Using (17) in (16) gives 50(z) = V(0)[(l+2z2/R2)(R)-2lzl/R],(18) 

[0094] and by differentiation with respect to z one finally finds 6E0(z) = V(0)R(z/lzl)[4-(R/) 
2-4(R)lzl/R](19) 

[0095] for the electric field on the center line of the screen brought about by the charge distribution 
q.sub.O(z). 

[0096] The center-line electric field is the sum of the part (13) due to distributed pulsed dipoles and part 
(19) due to distributed pulsed monopoles. Although derived for circular screens, the results may serve as an 
approximation for other shapes, such as the familiar rounded rectangle, by taking R as the radius of a circle 
that has the same area as the screen. 

[0097] For two CRT -type monitors the pulsed electric field due to image intensity pulsing has been 
measured at several points on the screen center line for pulse frequencies of 1/2 Hz. The monitors were the 
15" computer monitor used in the sensory resonance experiments mentioned above, and a 30" TV tube. The 
experimental results need to be compared with the theory derived above. Since R is determined by the 
screen area, the electric fields given by (13) and (19) have as only free parameter the pulse voltage V(0) at 
the screen center. The amplitude of this voltage can therefore be determined for the tested monitors by 
fitting the experimental data to the theoretical results. Prior to fitting, the data were normalized to an image 
that occupies the entire screen and is pulsed uniformly with a 100% intensity amplitude. The results of the 
one-parameter fit are displayed in FIG. 18, which shows the theoretical graph 100, together with the 
normalized experimental data points 103 for the 15" computer monitor and for the 30" TV tube. FIG. 18 



197 



shows that the developed theory agrees fairly well with the experimental results. From the best fit one can 
find the center-screen voltage pulse amplitudes. The results, normalized as discussed above, are 
.vertline.V(0)=266.2 volt for the 15" computer monitor and .vertline.V(0)=310.1 volt for the 30" TV tube. 
With these amplitudes in hand, the emitted pulsed electric field along the center line of the monitors can be 
calculated from the sum of the fields (13) and (19). For instance, for the 15" computer monitor with 1.8% 
RGB pulse modulation used in the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance experiments mentioned above, the pulsed 
electric field at the center of the subject, located at z=70 cm on the screen center line, is calculated as 
having an amplitude of 0.21 V/m. That such a pulsed electric field, applied to a large portion of the skin, is 
sufficient for exciting the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance is consistent with experimental results discussed in the 
'874 patent. 

[0098] In deriving (11), the dimensionless number 2.pi.rfcA.eta. was said to be much smaller than unity. 
Now that the values for .vertline.V(0).vertline. are known, the validity of this statement can be checked. Eq. 
(1 1) implies that .vertline.V(0).vertline. is equal to .eta..vertline.J.vertline./4.pi.. The sum of the beam 
currents in the red, green, and blue electron guns for 100% intensity modulation is estimated to have pulse 
amplitudes .vertline.J.vertline. of 0.5 mA and 2.0 mA respectively for the 15" computer monitor and the 
30" TV tube. Using the derived values for .vertline.V(0).vertline., one arrives at estimates for the screen 
resistivity .eta. as 6.7 M.OMEGA./square and 1.9 M.OMEGA./square respectively for the 15" computer 
monitor and the 30" TV tube. Estimating the screen capacity cA as 7 pf and 13 pf, 2.pi.rfcA.eta. is found to 
be 148. times. 10. sup. -6 and 78. times. 10. sup. -6, respectively for the 15" computer monitor and the 30" TV 
tube. These numbers are very small compared to unity, so that the step from (10) to (1 1) is valid. 

[0099] The following procedures were followed in preparing pulsed images for the field measurements. For 
the 15" computer monitor the images were produced by running the VB6 program discussed above. The 
pulsed image comprised the full screen with basic RGB values chosen uniformly as R=G=B=127, with the 
exception of an on/off button and a few data boxes which together take up 17% of the screen area. The 
image intensity was pulsed by modifying the R, G, and B values by integer -rounded sine functions 
.DELTA. R(t), .DELTA.G(t), and .DELTA.B(t), uniformly over the image, except at the button and the data 
boxes. The measured electric field pulse amplitudes were normalized to a pulsed image that occupies all of 
the screen area and has 100% intensity modulation for which the image pulses between black and the 
maximum intensity, for the fixed RGB ratios used. The image intensity depends on the RGB values in a 
nonlinear manner that will be be discussed. For the measurements of the pulsed electric field emitted by 
30" TV tube, a similar image was used as for the 15" computer monitor. This was done by playing back a 
camcorder recording of the computer monitor display when running the VB6 program, with 40% pulse 
modulation of R, G, and B. 

[0100] In front of the monitor, i.e., for z>0, the parts (13) and (19) contribute about equally to the electric 
field over a practical range of distances z. When going behind the monitor where z is negative the 
monopole field flips sign so that the two parts nearly cancel each other, and the resulting field is very small. 
Therefore, in the back of the CRT, errors due to imperfections in the theory are relatively large. Moreover 
our model, which pretends that the polarization charges are all located on the polarization disc, fails to 
account for the electric field flux that escapes from the outer regions of the back of the screen to the earth 
or whatever conductors happen to be present in the vincinity of the CRT. This flaw has relatively more 
serious consequences in the back than in front of the monitor. 

[0101] Screen emissions in front of a CRT can be cut dramatically by using a grounded conductive 
transparent shield that is placed over the screen or applied as a coating. Along the lines of our model, the 
shield amounts to a polarization disc in front of the screen, so that the latter is now sandwiched between to 
grounded discs. The screen has the pulsed potential distribution V(r) of (1 1), but no electric flux can 
escape. The model may be modified by choosing the polarization disc in the back somewhat smaller than 
the screen disc, by a fraction that serves as a free parameter. The fraction may then be determined from a fit 
to measured fields, by minimizing the relative standard deviation between experiment and theory. 

[0102] In each of the electron beams of a CRT, the beam current is a nonlinear function of the driving 
voltage, i.e., the voltage between cathode and control grid. Since this function is needed in the 
normalization procedure, it was measured for the 15" computer monitor that has been used in the 1/2 Hz 



198 



sensory resonance experiments and the electric field measurements. Although the beam current density j 
can be determined, it is easier to measure the luminance, by reading a light meter that is brought right up to 
the monitor screen. With the RGB values in the VB6 program taken as the same integer K, the luminance 
of a uniform image is proportional to the image intensity I. The luminance of a uniform image was 
measured for various values of K. The results were fitted with 

I=c. sub. lK.sup.. gamma., (20) 

[0103] where c.sub.l is a constant. The best fit, with 6.18% relative standard deviation, was obtained for 
.gamma.=2.32. 

[0104] Screen emissions also occur for liquid crystal displays (LCD). The pulsed electric fields may have 
considerable amplitude for LCDs that have their driving electrodes on opposite sides of the liquid crystal 
cell, for passive matrix as well as for active matrix design, such as thin film technology (TFT). For 
arrangements with in-plane switching (IPS) however, the driving electrodes are positioned in a single 
plane, so that the screen emission is very small. For arrangements other than IPS, the electric field is 
closely approximated by the fringe field of a two-plate condenser, for the simple case that the image is 
uniform and extends over the full screen. For a circular LCD screen with radius R, the field on the center 
line can be readily calculated as due to pulsed dipoles that are uniformly distributed over the screen, with 
the result 

E.sub.d(z)=(l/2)VR.sup.2/(z.sup.2+R.sup.2).sup.3/2(21) 

[0105] where E.sub.d(z) is the amplitude of the pulsed electric field at a distance z from the screen and V is 
a voltage pulse amplitude, in which the aperture ratio of the LCD has been taken into account. Eq. (21) can 
be used as an approximation for screens of any shape, by taking R as the radius of a circle with the same 
area as the screen. The result applies to the case that the LCD does not have a ground connection, so that 
the top and bottom electrodes are at opposite potential, i.e., V/2 and -V/2. 

[0106] If one set of LCD electrodes is grounded, monopoles are needed to keep these electrodes at zero 
potential, much as in the case of a CRT discussed above. The LCD situation is simpler however, as there is 
no charge injection by electron beams, so that the potentials on the top and bottom plates of the condenser 
in the model are spatially uniform. From (14) it is seen that monopoles, distributed over the disc of radius R 
in the plane z=0 such as to provide on the disc a potential V/2, induce on the symmetry axis a potential 7 ( z 
) = 1V(R).(22) 

[0107] Differentiating with respect to z gives the electric field on the symmetry axis 8Em(z) = zVRIzl 
(z2 + R2),(23) 

[0108] induced by the pulsed monopoles. For an LCD with one set of electrodes grounded, the pulsed 
electric field for screen voltage pulse amplitude V at a distance z from the screen on the center line has an 
amplitude that is the sum of the parts (21) and (23). The resultant electric field in the back is relatively 
small, due to the change in sign in the monopole field that is caused by the factor z/.vertline.z.vertline.. 
Therefore, screen emissions in front of an LCD can be kept small simply by having the grounded electrodes 
in front. 

[0109] As a check on the theory, the pulsed electric field emitted by the 3" LCD-TFT color screen of the 
camcorder mentioned above has been measured at eleven points on the center line of the screen, ranging 
from 4.0 cm to 7.5 cm. The pulsed image was produced by playing back the video recording of the 15" 
computer monitor that was made while running the VB6 program discussed above, for a image intensity 
pulse frequency of 1/2 Hz, R=G=B=K, modulated around K=127 with an amplitude .DELTA.K=51. After 
normalization to a uniform full screen image with 100% intensity modulation by using the nonlinear 
relation (20), the experimental data were fitted to the theoretical curve that expresses the sum of the fields 
(21) and (23). The effective screen pulse voltage amplitude V was found to be 2.1 volt. The relative 
standard deviation in V for the fit is 5.1%, which shows that theory and experiment are in fairly good 
agreement. 



199 



[0110] Certain monitors can cause excitation of sensory resonances even when the pulsing of displayed 
images is subliminal, i.e., unnoticed by the average person. When checking this condition on a computer 
monitor, a problem arises because of the rounding of RGB values to integers, as occurs in the VB6 
program. For small pulse amplitude the sine wave is thereby distorted into a square wave, which is easier to 
spot. This problem is alleviated somewhat by choosing AR=0, AG=0, and AB=2, since then the 8 rounded 
sine functions around the unit circle, multiplied with the pulse amplitude AB=2 become the sequence 1, 2, 
2, 1, -1 -12, -2, -1, etc, which is smoother to the eye than a square wave. Using the VB6 program and the 
15" computer monitor mentioned above with R=71, G=71, and B=233, a 1/2 Hz pulse modulation with 
amplitudes AR=AG=0 and AB=2 could not be noticed by the subject, and is therefore considered 
subliminal. It is of interest to calculate the screen emission for this case, and conduct a sensory resonance 
experiment as well. A distance z=60 cm was chosen for the calculation and the experiment. Using Eq. (20), 
the image intensity pulse modulation for the case is found to be 1 .0% of the maximum intensity 
modulation. Using R= 13.83 cm together with .vertline.V(0)=266.2 V for the 15" computer monitor, and the 
theoretical graph 100 of FIG. 18, the pulsed electric field at z=60 cm was found to have an amplitude of 
138 mV/m. In view of the experimental results discussed in the '874 and '922 patents, such a field, used at a 
pulse frequency chosen appropriately for the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance and applied predominantly to the 
face, is expected to be sufficient for exciting the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance. A confirmation experiment was 
done by running the VB6 program with the discussed settings and the 15" monitor. The center of the 
subject's face was positioned on the screen center line, at a distance of 60 cm from the screen. A frequency 
sweep of -0.1% per ten cycles was chosen, with an initial pulse frequency of 34 ppm. Full ptosis was 
experienced by the subject at 20 minutes into the run, when the pulse frequency was f=31.76 ppm. At 27 
minutes into the run, the frequency sweep was reversed to +0.1% per ten cycles. Full ptosis was 
experienced at f=3 1 .66 ppm. At 40 minutes into the run, the frequency sweep was set to -0. 1 % per ten 
cycles. Full ptosis occurred at f=31.44 ppm. The small differences in ptosis frequency are attributed to 
chemical detuning, discussed in the Background Section. It is concluded that the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance 
was excited in this experiment by screen emissions from subliminal image pulsing on the 15" computer 
monitor at a distance of 60 cm. For each implementation and embodiment discussed, the image pulsing 
may be subliminal. 

[0111] The human eye is less sensitive to changes in hue than to changes in brightness. In composite video 
this fact allows using a chrominance bandwidth that is smaller than the luminance bandwidth. But it also 
has the consequence that pulsing of the chrominance for fixed luminance allows larger pulse amplitudes 
while staying within the subliminal pulse regime. Eq. (3) shows how to pulse the chrominance components 
R-Y and B-Y while keeping Y fixed; for the change in pixel intensity one then has 

.DELTA.I.sub.h=0.491.DELTA.(R-Y)+0.806.DELTA.(B-l). (24) 

[0112] Luminance pulses with fixed chrominance give a change in pixel intensity 

.DELTA.I.sub. 1=3.DELTA.Y. (25) 

[0113] Of course, pure chrominance pulses may be combined with pure luminance pulses; an instance of 
such combination has been mentioned above. 

[0114] The subliminal region in color space needs to be explored to determine how marginally subliminal 
pulses .DELTA.R, .DELTA.G, and .DELTA.B depend on RGB values. Prior to this, the condition for 
image pulses to be subliminal should not be phrased solely in terms of the percentage of intensity pulse 
amplitude. The subliminal image pulsing case considered above, where the monitor is driven by a VB6 
computer program with R=G=71, B=233, and .DELTA.R=.DELTA.G=0, .DELTA.B=2 for full-screen 
images will be referred to as "the standard subliminal image pulsing". 

[0115] In the interest of the public we need to know the viewing distances at which a TV with subliminally 
pulsed images can cause excitation of sensory resonances. A rough exploration is reported here which may 
serve as starting point for further work. The exploration is limited to estimating the largest distance 
z=z.sub.max along the center line of the 30" TV at which screen emissions can excite the 1/2 Hz resonance, 



200 



as determined by the ptosis test. The TV is to display an image wich undergoes the standard subliminal 
pulsing as defined above. It would be best to perform this test with the 30" TV on which the subliminally 
pulsed images are produced by means of a video. Since such a video was not available, the ptosis test was 
conducted instead with a pulsed electric field source consisting of a small grounded doublet electrode of the 
type discussed in the '874 patent. The doublet was driven with a sinusoidal voltage of 10 V amplitude, and 
the center of mass of the subject was located on the center line of the doublet at a distance z=z.sub.d=323 
cm. The doublet electrodes are rectangles of 4.4 cm by 4.7 cm. At the large distance Zd there is whole4oody 
exposure to the field, so that the bulk effect discussed in the '874 patent comes into play, as is expected to 
happen also at the distance z. sub. max from the 30" TV monitor. The subject was facing the "hot" electrode 
of the doublet, so that at the subject center the electric field was the sum of the parts (21) and (23), for 
positive values of z. It was thought important to use a sine wave, since that would be the "commercially" 
preferred pulse shape which allows larger pulse amplitudes without being noticed. The only readily 
available sine wave generator with the required voltage was an oscillator with a rather coarse frequency 
control that cannot be set accurately, although the frequency is quite stable and can be measured accurately. 
For the experiment a pulse frequency of 0.506 Hz was accepted, although it differs considerably from the 
steady ptosis frequency for this case. The subject experienced several ptosis cycles of moderate intensity, 
starting 8 minutes into the experiment run. It is concluded that the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance was excited, 
and that the stimulating field was close to the weakest field capable of excitation. From Eqs. (21) and (23), 
the electric field pulse amplitude at the center of mass of the subject was found to be 7.9 mV/m. That an 
electric field with such a small pulse amplitude, applied to the whole body, is capable of exciting the 1/2 Hz 
sensory resonance is consistent with experimental results reported in the '874 patent, although these were 
obtained for the 2.4 Hz resonance. Next, the distance z. sub. max was determined at which the 30" TV tube 
with 1% image intensity pulse amplitude produces an electric field with a pulse amplitude of 7.9 mV/m, 
along the center line of the screen. From Eqs. (13) and (19) one finds z.sub.max=362.9 cm. At more than 
1 1 feet, this is a rather large distance for viewing a 30" TV. Yet, the experiment and theory discussed show 
that the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance can be excited at this large distance, by pulsing the image intensity 
subliminally. Of course, the excitation occurs as well for a range of smaller viewing distances. It is thus 
apparent that the human nervous system can be manipulated by screen emissions from subliminal TV 
image pulses. 

[0116] Windows 95, Windows 98, and Visual Basic are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. 

[0117] The invention is not limited by the embodiments shown in the drawings and described in the 
specification, which are given by way of example and not of limitation, but only in accordance with the 
scope of the appended claims. 



201 



EKG's, emotional signature clustering, patented technology and beyond: 



Before we get into EKG's, emotional signature clusters and the very science of Sub-Natural Strategy, 
first we must understand that the possibilities of manipulation are endless. It's now a question of the human 
soul and what living in today's world can really mean. Our search for meaning can be easily fulfilled. 

This next section will cover patents that can be easily looked up on the Internet or wherever. Although I 
consider some old and outdated by today's standard, their technology is the foundation we use to gauge the 
future. The patents I'm presenting below are just a sample of what's out there. My point here is that we can 
research for ourselves what has been invented and patents detail what's been "Invented" up until now. 

The "Signals" are out there. Learning about them is easy. Signals, primarily in the ULF (ultra-low-frequency) 
and ELF frequency range, have been recorded on a variety of equipment by several researchers and have been 
analyzed. During the many months these signals have been broadcast, they have been transmitting TWENTY- 
FOUR hours a day, EVERY DAY!!" If we research patents on our own, we'll see this truth for ourselves 

You can start anywhere. All through out this book I've listed patents. Some like US Patent # 5213562: 
Method of inducing mental, emotional and physical states of consciousness, including specific mental 
activity in human beings. Others I've listed outright with descriptions and my own commentary. I started 
with out with US Patent # 5159703: Silent Subliminal Presentation System. One of the details of the 
experiments that was "analyzed" was the fact that, once a specific frequency for a certain type of brain 
function is proven, that frequency of transmission can be recorded on a computer. "The purpose of all this 
high technology is to plot and display a moving cluster of periodic brainwave signals. An EEG display 
from a single individual is taken of left and right hemispheres simultaneously ... By using these computer- 
enhanced EEGs, scientists can identify and isolate the brain's low-amplitude 'emotion signature clusters', 
synthesize them and store them on another computer. In other words, by studying the subtle characteristic 
brainwave patterns that occur when a subject experiences a particular emotion, scientists have been able to 
identify the concomitant brainwave pattern and can now duplicate it. These clusters are then placed on the 
Silent Sound[TM] carrier frequencies and will silently trigger the occurrence of the same basic emotion in 
another human being ! " Once these specific frequencies that causes a certain emotion or thought is precisely identified so 
exactly that a "fingerprint" of it can be made and stored on a computer, then this "fingerprint" can be sent out 
over other types of Mass Media! In other words, the frequency of brain wave are proven to be recorded by 
computer and then subliminally sent out via radio programs or TV shows. In theory, if the government 
wanted to cause huge numbers of people to suddenly go into depression, or into euphoria, they can emit the 
recorded signals via radio or TV and reach the entire population over a period of time. This capability can 
even implant specific thoughts or commands into the minds of people. I asked, how can this be? 

A graphic illustration is found in product literature: "Induced Alpha to Theta Biofeedback cluster 
movement is labeled #AB 116-394-95 UNCLASSIFIED and is the output of the worlds most versatile and 
most sensitive EEG machine. It has a gain capability of 200,000 and is software driven by the fastest 
computers using noise-nulling technology similar to that used of nuclear submarines for detecting small 
objects underwater at extreme range. You won't need a submarine to read about the patents covered next. . . 

US 4,335, 710 Device for the induction of specific brain wave patterns - white noise 

US 4,395,600 Auditory subliminal message system and method - Anti-shoplifting device 

US 4,717,343 Method of changing a person's behavior 

US 4, 777,529 Auditory subliminal programming system 

US 4, 834, 70 1 Apparatus for inducing frequency reduction in brain wave 

US 5, 151,080 Method and Apparatus for inducing and establishing a changed state of consciousness 

US 5, 159, 703 Silent subliminal presentation system 

US 6,024, 700 System and Method for Detecting a thought and generating a control instruction in response thereto 

US 6,219,657 Device and Method for Creation of Emotions 

US 6,258,022 Behavior Modification 

US 6,358,20 1 Method and apparatus for facilitating physiological coherence and autonomic balance 



202 



United States Patent 
Williamson 



4,335,710 
June 22, 1982 



Device for the induction of specific brain wave patterns 

Abstract 

Brain wave patterns associated with relaxed and meditative states in a subject are gradually induced 
without deleterious chemical or neurological side effects. A white noise generator (11) has the spectral 
noise density of its output signal modulated in a manner similar to the brain wave patterns by a switching 
transistor (18) within a spectrum modulator (12). The modulated white noise signal is amplified by output 
amplifier (13) and converted to an audio signal by acoustic transducer (14). Ramp generator (16) gradually 
increases the voltage received by and resultant output frequency of voltage controlled oscillator (17) 
whereby switching transistor (18) periodically shunts the high frequency components of the white noise 
signal to ground. 

Inventors: Williamson; John D. (North Canton, OH) 
Assignee: Omnitronics Research Corporation (Akron, OH) 
Appl. No.: 112537 
Filed: January 16, 1980 



Current U.S. Class: 
Intern'l Class: 
Field of Search: 



600/28 

A61N 001/34 
128/1 C,l R 



References Cited [Referenced By] 



U.S. Patent Documents 



2466054 


Apr., 1949 


Siebel 


128/1. 


3160159 


Dec, 1964 


Hoody et al. 


128/1C. 


3576185 


Apr., 1971 


Schulz et al. 


128/1. 


3712292 


Jan., 1973 


Zentmeyer, Jr. 


128/1. 


3753433 


Aug., 1973 


Bakerich et al. 


128/1. 


3884218 


May., 1975 


Monroe 


128/1. 


3892957 


Jan., 1975 


Freeman 


128/732. 


4034741 


Jul., 1977 


Adams et al. 


128/1. 


Foreign Patent Documents 








1165541 


Oct., 1969 


GB 


128/1. 



Primary Examiner: Kamm; William E. 
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Hamilton, Renner & Kenner 



203 



1 . A device for the induction of brain wave patterns associated with relaxed and meditative states in a 

subject comprising: 

means for generating a white noise signal having a uniform spectral noise density; 

means for receiving said white noise signal and modulating its said spectral noise density in a manner 
similar to the brain wave patterns associated with relaxed and meditative states; and 

means receiving said modulated noise signal for coupling said modulated signal to the subject. 

2. A device, as set forth in claim 1, wherein the brain wave patterns associated with relaxed and meditative 
states occur in a range of freqencies, said means for modulating the spectral noise density including means 
for modulating said white noise signal beginning at a frequency greater than that of the brain wave patterns. 

3. A device, as set forth in claim 2, wherein said means for modulating the spectral noise density further 
includes means for gradually reducing the frequency at which said spectral noise density is modulated. 

4. A device, as set forth in claim 3, wherein said means for modulating the spectral noise density further 
includes means for terminating all modulation of said white noise signal upon reaching its lowest frequency 

of modulation. 

5. A device, as set forth in claim 3 or 4, wherein said means for modulating the spectral noise density 
further includes means for reaching a steady state frequency of modulation at a frequency slightly lower 
than the lowest said brain wave pattern frequency. 

6. A device, as set forth in claim 5, wherein said means for modulating said spectral noise density includes 
switching means for receiving said white noise signal, providing said modulated noise signal, and 
periodically shunting to ground the high frequency components of said white noise signal. 

7. A device, as set forth in claim 6, wherein said means for modulating said spectral noise density further 

includes oscillator means for controlling the instantaneous frequency at which said switching means 
periodically shunts to ground said high frequency components of said white noise signal and generator 
means for controlling the instantaneous frequency of said oscillator means. 

8. A device, as set forth in claim 7, wherein said generator means generates an output signal having a 
variable voltage, which signal is received by said oscillator means and causes said oscillator means to 
generate a modulation signal having a frequency of from approximately 14 to 15 Hz. 

9. A device, as set forth in claim 8, wherein said output signal from said generator means begins operation 
at its negative most voltage amplitude and continuously gradually increases to a steady-state value at its 
positive most voltage amplitude, said oscillator means beginning operation at approximately 14 Hz and 
continuously gradually increasing to a steady-state value at approximately 5 Hz, whereby said switching 

means modulates the high frequency components of said white noise signal at the instantaneous frequency 

of said oscillator means. 

10. A device, as set forth in claim 9, wherein said means for coupling said modulated signal to the subject 
is a headphone transducer for converting said modulated signal to an audio signal and having pneumatic 

tubes adopted to carry said audio signal to the subject in a non-intrusive manner while minimizing 
extraneous acoustical background distractions. 

1 1. A device, as set forth in claim 10, wherein said switching means includes a switching transistor 
furnishing said modulated signal, and further including an output amplifier receiving and amplifying said 
modulated signal, said headphone transducer receiving said amplified modulated signal from said output 
amplifier. 



204 



Description 



TECHNICAL FIELD 

The present invention relates generally to a device for effecting deep relaxation in a subject. More 
particular, the present invention relates to a device for the induction of brain wave patterns associated with 
relaxed and meditative states in a human subject, commonly known as a "brain driver". 

BACKGROUND ART 

It has long been recognized that most mammals and in particular humans exhibit distinct recurring 
electrical frequencies in their brain wave patterns, each of which is related to separately identifiable 
physiological states. Brain waves having dominant frequencies from approximately 8-13 Hz, inclusive, are 
known as Alpha frequency brain waves and are associated with relaxed and meditative states as would 
occur when a subject has his eyes closed but is conscious and not thinking. 

Techniques and devices which attempt to promote natural relaxation may be generally classified as passive 
or active. Passive devices serve merely to mask out irritating external noises with more pleasant sounds or 
utilize random or "white noise" to psychologically distract the subject from events which inhibit natural 
relaxation. Active devices seek to intentionally induce Alpha frequency brain waves in the subject, a 
phenomena known as "brain driving". Irrespective of the manner in which such brain waves are induced, a 
subject whose brain waves are principally in the Alpha frequency range will become deeply relaxed and 
exhibit the same beneficial reduced muscular tension and lowered anxiety and adrenalin levels as are 
associated with a naturally occurring state of relaxation. 

Typical of the numerous passive devices are those which vary the output signal from a "white noise" source 
and convert the same to an accoustical signal, resulting in pleasant masking sounds. In one device, the 
white noise source output has its amplitude varied by a saw tooth wave form to produce sounds similar to 
waves repeatedly breaking in a surf. In another device, the output signal from a "white noise" source has its 
spectral content and amplitude varied in direct response to a subject's instantaneous dominant brain wave 
frequency and amplitude, respectively, producing a feedback signal to be utilized by the subject to 
recognize his present physiological state. All passive devices suffer from a fundamental inadequacy in that 
they cannot actually induce Alpha frequency brain waves with its associated relaxed and meditative 
condition. 

Currently only three basic techniques for forcing a subject into a state exhibiting Alpha frequency brain 
waves are known to exist. Perhaps the most widely used is chemical tranquilizers, always subject to 
potentially grave known and unknown negative side effects or contraindications. The other techniques for 
"brain driving" involve the use of very bright, quickly flashing lights, direct electrical pulse stimulation of 
the brain through skin electrodes, or some combination thereof. In either instance, the lights or electrical 
pulses are synchronized to occur at a rate within the Alpha frequency range, i.e., from about 8 to 14 Hz. 
However, such flashing lights are not only irritating but may likely initiate a seizure in epileptic 
individuals. Electrical pulses are not only irritating, but also may produce unknown, deleterious side effects 
upon other parts of the brain or other neurological activity. Moreover, these devices attempt to very 
abruptly force the subject from an active and possibly highly emotional state to a highly relaxed and 
meditative state, thereby greatly increasing the likelihood of failure. 

DISCLOSURE OF INVENTION 

It is, therefore, an object of the invention to provide a device for the induction of brain wave patterns 
associated with relaxed and meditative states in a subject in a safe manner without deleterious or irritating 
side effects or contraindications. 



205 



It is a further object of the invention to provide a device for the induction of brain wave patterns associated 
with relaxed and meditative states in a subject, as above, which gradually induces such state in the subject. 

It is yet a further object of the invention, to provide a device for the induction of brain wave patterns 
associated with relaxed and meditative states in a subject, as above, which utilizes a pleasing sound that is 
modulated and programmed in such manner as to induce Alpha frequency brain wave patterns only in those 
brain structures where it naturally occurs. 

It is still a further object of the invention to provide a device for the induction of brain wave patterns 
associated with relaxed and meditative states in a subject, as above, which ultimately terminates all 
variations in modulation of the sound thereby freeing and encouraging the subject's brain to assume 
whatever somnolent brain wave patterns occur naturally to the subject. 

It is still a further object of the invention to provide a device for the induction of brain wave patterns 
associated with relaxed and meditative states in a subject, as above, which includes a source of white noise 
and a circuit for modulating the spectral noise density of the white noise in a manner similar to the brain 
wave patterns associated with relaxed and meditative states so as to promote the gradual transition to an 
Alpha frequency brain wave condition and the continuous maintenance of the subject in that condition. 

These and other objects and advantages of the present invention over existing prior art forms will become 
more apparent and fully understood from the following description in conjunction with the accompanying 
drawings. 

In general, a device for the induction of brain wave patterns associated with relaxed and meditative states in 
a subject comprises a signal generator for generating a white noise signal having a uniform spectral noise 
density, a modulation circuit for receiving and modulating the white noise signal, and means for receiving 
the modulated noise signal and coupling it to the subject. The modulation circuit modulates the white noise 
signal in a manner similar to the brain wave patterns associated with relaxed and meditative states in the 
subject, thereby actively gradually inducing such state in the subject. 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS 

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an exemplary device according to the concept of the present invention, and 
depicts the spectral-noise density modulator schematically. 

FIG. 2 is a somewhat schematic representation of the voltage waveforms at various points in the device 
shown in FIG. 1, and although the various waveforms are in approximate time coordination with each 
other, they are not necessarily to scale. 

PREFERRED EMBODIMENT FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION 

FIG. 1 illustrates a device, generally indicated by the numeral 10, for the reduction of stress in an individual 
by the induction of brain wave patterns associated with relaxed and meditative states. Device 10 broadly 
includes white noise generator 11, spectrum modulator 12, output amplifier 13, and acoustic transducer 14. 

White noise generator 1 1 may be any conventional noise generator, either of the random or impulsive type, 
that has a level frequency spectrum over the frequency range of interest. One generator found suitable for 
use herein included an operational amplifier providing a thermal noise signal and an amplification stage. 

Spectrum modulator 12 includes transistor shunt gate 15, ramp generator 16, and voltage control oscillator 
(hereinafter referred to as VCO) 17. Transistor shunt gate 15 includes a conventional NPN switching 
transistor 18, a by-pass diode 19, two summing resistors 20 and 21, and two capacitors 22 and 23. Ramp 
generator 16 may be any conventional ramp generator such as an integrator having a period as detailed 
hereinbelow and having a maximum voltage compatible with VCO 17 and transistor shunt gate 15. A 
switch 26 may be provided for resetting ramp generator 15 to its zero point, which for an integrator may be 



206 



its maximum voltage of negative polarity, referred to for convenient reference as -V. 

VCO 17 may be any of the multitude of well-known astable multivibrators whose output frequency is a 
function of the voltage of its input signal. The frequency range of the output signal from VCO 17 should be 
slightly greater than the frequency range of alpha brain wave patterns and preferably should vary linearly 
from it highest output frequency when ramp generator 16 is at its maximum voltage of negative polarity (- 
V) to its lowest output frequency when ramp generator 16 is at its maximum voltage of positive polarity 
(+V). Where the Alpha brain wave frequency range is taken to be from approximately 8 to 13 Hz, 
inclusive, it is adequate to provide a VCO 17 output signal frequency range from approximately 5 to 14 Hz, 
inclusive. 

Acoustic transducer 14 may be any conventional device for converting the electrical output signal from 
transistor shunt gate 15 to an audio signal. In order to increase the likelihood of relaxation in the subject, it 
is, however, highly desirable to provide the least intrusive coupling between the transducer and the subject 
while minimizing acoustical background distractions. Therefore, it has been found preferable to utilize a 
conventional headphone transducer having pneumatic tubes 24, 25 adopted to carry the audio signal to each 
ear of the subject without applying noticeable pressure to the subject's head. 

The interconnection of the various elements described above is straightforward. The collector of switching 
transistor 18 is connected through capacitors 23 and 22, to noise generator 1 1 and, through capacitor 23 to 
output amplifier 13, so that both may receive the output signal from noise generator 11. The output signal 
from ramp generator 16 is received by both VCO 17, and, through resistor 20, the base of switching 
transistor 18. The output signal from VCO 17 is also received, through resistor 21, by the base of switching 
transistor 18. The anode of diode 19 is connected to the base of switching transistor 18, and has its cathode 
connected to ground along with the emitter of switching transistor 18. The output signal from output 
amplifier 13 is received by acoustic transducer 14. 

To better visualize the operation of device 10, five output signal waveforms emanating from the various 
elements noted below have been illustrated in FIG. 2. Denoted A through D, inclusive, it should be 
reiterated at this point that these waveforms are coordinated in time, but not necessarily in amplitude. These 
waveforms respectively represent the output signals from noise generator 11, ramp generator 16, VCO 17, 
and transistor shunt gate 15. 

Noise generator 1 1 generates a "white noise" output signal A having a "uniform" spectral noise density. In 
other words, this means that the ratio of the noise output from noise generator 1 1 within a specific 
frequency interval to the frequency interval itself is a constant. As shall become more evident hereinafter, it 
is of no moment to the present invention precisely what this ratio happens to be, it is significant only that it 
remains constant. 

Spectrum modulator 12 receives white noise signal A from noise generator 1 1 and modulates its spectral 
noise density in a manner similar to the brain wave patterns associated with relaxed and meditative states. 
More particularly, spectrum modulator 12 modulates white noise signal A with a variable frequency in the 
range of frequencies of Alpha brain wave patterns. It has been found to be most effective in inducing a 
relaxed and meditative state in a subject to begin modulating white noise signal A at a frequency slightly 
greater than the frequency associated with the Alpha brain wave pattern occurring when the subject is most 
active, and gradually over a period (T) of minutes reducing the modulation frequency to a frequency 
slightly less than the frequency associated with the Alpha brain wave pattern occurring when the subject is 
least active. Upon reaching this lowest modulation frequency, modulation of white noise signal A is 
terminated, permitting the subject's natural brain wave patterns to become dominant. 

A typical operating cycle would begin by the closing of switch 26, resetting ramp generator output signal B 
to its "zero" voltage -V volts, and forcing VCO output signal C to its highest frequency of 14 Hz. VCO 
output signal C is mixed with ramp generator output signal B and received by the base of switching 
transistor 18, causing switching transistor 18 to alternate at the instantaneous frequency of VCO 17 (then 
14 Hz) between saturation and cutoff operational states. Diode 19 sets the maximum base-emitter voltage 
for switching transistor 18. 



207 



When operating in a saturated state, switching transistor 18 shunts to ground the higher frequency 
components of white noise signal A. When operating in a cutoff state, switching transistor 18 permits the 
full frequency spectrum of white noise signal A to be received by output amplifier 13. The resultant output 
from spectrum modulator 12 is output signal D shown in FIG. 2. 

As time proceeds, the voltage of ramp generator output signal B increases, proportionally decreasing the 
frequency of VCO output signal C and the modulation frequency of white noise signal A. When the 
maximum possible positive voltage (+V) of ramp generator output signal B is reached, the frequency of 
VCO output signal C remains at a constant 5 Hz, and switching transistor 18 remains in a saturated state, 
causing all modulation of white noise signal A to terminate, leaving only the low frequency components of 
white noise signal A to be received by output amplifier 13. 

Output amplifier 13 receives transistor shunt gate 15 output signal D and amplifies it to a level compatible 
with acoustical transducer 14, which converts the signal to an audio format suitable for direct listening by 
the subject. Output amplifier 13 only need be furnished where further amplification is required. 

Several modifications to the depicted embodiment may be noted. Perhaps most significant is the fact that 
other spectrum modulation patterns could be employed herein, although the illustrated continuously 
decreasing spectral density modulation is highly advantageous in inducing a relaxed and meditative 
condition in a subject. For example, rather than ramp generator 16 generating a continuously increasing 
voltage signal, continuously decreasing the frequency of VCO 17, it would be possible to provide periods 
of constant voltage output alternated with periods of changing voltage output, resulting in differing patterns 
of spectral modulation. An essentially unlimited number of possible combinations may be effected by 
simple adjustment of the generator 16 output signal waveform. 

It should also be appreciated that the particular transistor shunt gate 15 shown herewith is merely 
exemplary of numerous equally suitable circuits for switching the noise generator output signal A. 
Transistor shunt gate 15 permits modulation of the higher frequencies contained in the source signal at rates 
which corrolates to natural Alpha brain wave pattern frequencies and, in this manner modifies the spectral 
noise density of the source signal. 

Inasmuch as the present invention is subject to many variations, modifications and changes in detail, a 
number of which have been expressly stated herein, it is intended that all matter described throughout this 
entire specification or shown in the accompanying drawings be interpreted as illustrative and not in a 
limiting sense. It should thus be evident that a device constructed according to the concept of the present 
invention, and equivalent thereto, will accomplish the objects of the present invention and otherwise 
substantially improve the art of the induction of specific brain wave patterns in a subject. 



208 



United States Patent 
Lundy , et al. 



4,395,600 
July 26, 1983 



Auditory subliminal message system and method 

Abstract 

Ambient audio signals from the customer shopping area within a store are sensed and fed to a signal 
processing circuit that produces a control signal which varies with variations in the amplitude of the sensed 
audio signals. A control circuit adjusts the amplitude of an auditory subliminal anti -shoplifting message to 
increase with increasing amplitudes of sensed audio signals and decrease with decreasing amplitudes of 
sensed audio signals. This amplitude controlled subliminal message may be mixed with background music 
and transmitted to the shopping area. To reduce distortion of the subliminal message, its amplitude is 
controlled to increase at a first rate slower than the rate of increase of the amplitude of ambient audio 
signals from the area. Also, the amplitude of the subliminal message is controlled to decrease at a second 
rate faster than the first rate with decreasing ambient audio signal amplitudes to minimize the possibility of 
the subliminal message becoming supraliminal upon rapid declines in ambient audio signal amplitudes in 
the area. A masking signal is provided with an amplitude which is also controlled in response to the 
amplitude of sensed ambient audio signals. This masking signal may be combined with the auditory 
subliminal message to provide a composite signal fed to, and controlled by, the control circuit. 

Inventors: Lundy; Rene R. (3016 SE. 39th, Portland, OR 97214); Tyler; David L. (2939 SE. Taylor, Portland, OR 

97214) 
Appl. No.: 210645 
Filed: November 26, 1980 

Current U.S. Class: 381/73.1 
Intern'l Class: H04M 015/00; H04K 001/02 

Field of Search: 179/1 AA,1 P,1.5 M 340/348 E 358/183,22 430/9 178/17.5 250/214 

R 352/130,131,201,81 



References Cited [Referenced By! 



U.S. Patent Documents 



625627 


May., 1899 


Woody 


353/81. 


711440 


Oct., 1902 


Relchenbach 


352/201. 


1356223 


Oct., 1920 


Sawyer 


352/55. 


2073370 


Mar., 1937 


Goldsmith et al. 


178/17. 


2338551 


Jan., 1944 


Stanko 


179/1. 


2409058 


Oct., 1946 


Mitchell 


179/1. 


2501327 


Mar., 1950 


Good 


179/1. 


2609294 


Sep., 1952 


Prentice 


430/9. 


2706218 


Apr., 1955 


Wootten 


352/131. 


2730565 


Jan., 1956 


Owens 


358/183. 


2784246 


Mar., 1957 


Hurford 


358/183. 


2788386 


Apr., 1957 


Purington 


174/153. 


2808455 


Oct., 1957 


Moore 


358/22. 


2809298 


Oct., 1957 


Cawein 


250/214. 


2931857 


Apr., 1960 


Hammond, Jr. et al. 


352/130. 


2941044 


Jun., 1960 


Volkmann 


179/1. 


2969428 


Jan., 1961 


Wittlig 


179/7. 


3060795 


Oct., 1962 


Corrigan et al. 


352/131. 


3173136 


Mar., 1965 


Atkinson 


340/384. 


3278676 


Oct., 1966 


Becker 


358/142. 



209 



3410958 Nov., 1968 Cohen 179/1. 

3579233 May., 1971 Raschke 340/384. 

3934084 Jan., 1976 Munson et al. 179/1. 

3934085 Jan., 1976 Munson et al. 179/1. 
4052720 Oct., 1977 McGregor et al. 179/1. 
4059726 Nov., 1977 Watters et al. 179/1. 
4061874 Dec, 1977 Fricke et al. 179/1. 



Other References 

Brit. Journal of Psychology, (1979), 254-258, Mykel et al., Emergence of Unreported Stimuli in Imagery 
as a Function of Laterality .... 

Perceptual and Motor Skill, pp. 375-378, (1974), Zenhausern et al., "Differential Effect of Subliminal . . 

tt 

Proc. of 1978 IEEE, Region 3 Conf., 4/10-12/78, Atlanta, Becker et al., "Subliminal Communication: . . . 

tt 

Applications of Subliminal Video and Audio Stimuli in . . . Commercial Settings, 3/28/80, Becker et al. 

The Living Brain, W. Grey Walter, W. W. Norton and Co., 1953, pp. 83-1 13. 

The Human Brain, John Pfeiffer, Harper Bros., 1955, pp. 156-161. 

Strobe-The Lively Light, Howard Luray, Camera Craft Publishing, 1949, pp. 11-15. 

"Electronic Magic", H. W. Secor, Radio Electronics, Jun. 1949, pp. 20-22. 

"TV Video Switching", John Brush, Television Eng., Jul. 1951, pp. 12-15, 29. 

"Fighting the Five Finger Discount", American Way, American Airlines, 1 1/80, pp. 72 et seq. 

"Application of Signal Detection Theory to Subliminal and Supraliminal Accessory Stimulation", 

Zwosta and Zenhausern, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1969, pp. 699-704. 

Primary Examiner: Cangialosi; Sal 

Attorney, Agent or Firm: Klarquist, Sparkman, Campbell, Leigh, Whinston & Dellett 



Claims 



We claim: 

1 . An auditory subliminal message system for an area comprising: 

ambient audio signal processing circuit means adapted to receive an input representing ambient audio 
signals in the area, said ambient signal processing means comprising means for producing a control signal 
output which continuously varies with variations in the received input and thereby with variations in the 
ambient audio signals in the area; and 

subliminal message control circuit means having a first input adapted to receive an auditory subliminal 
message signal, said control circuit means having a second input coupled to said ambient signal processing 
means for receiving said control signal output, and said control circuit means comprising means for 
continuously adjusting the amplitude of the received auditory subliminal message signal and for producing 
an adjusted output signal comprising the amplitude adjusted auditory subliminal message signal, the 
adjusted output signal being adapted for transmission to the area and having an amplitude which varies in 
response to said control signal so as to increase with increases in amplitude of ambient audio signals in the 
area and decrease with decreases in amplitude of ambient audio signals in the area. 

2. A system according to claim 1 in which said ambient audio signal processing circuit means changes said 
control signal at one rate with increases in amplitude of ambient audio signals in the area and changes it at 
a faster rate with decreases in amplitude of ambient audio signals in the area, said control circuit means 
comprising means responsive to said control signal to produce an adjusted auditory subliminal message 
output signal which has an amplitude which increases at a first rate with increases in the amplitude of 
ambient audio signals in the area and which decreases at a second rate faster than the first rate with 



210 



decreases in the amplitude of ambient audio signals in the area. 

3. An auditory subliminal message system for an area comprising: 

audio sensor means for sensing ambient audio signals in the area and for producing an ambient audio 
output signal representing the volume of the sensed ambient audio signals; 

means having an input coupled to the output of said audio sensor means for producing a subliminal 
message output signal with a volume which follows the volume of the sensed ambient audio signals in the 
area. 

4. A system according to claim 3 in which said last named means includes: 

subliminal message source means for providing an auditory subliminal message output signal; and 

volume control circuit means having an input coupled to the output of said audio sensor means and an input 
coupled to the output of said subliminal message source means, said volume control circuit means 
comprising means for adjusting the volume of the received subliminal message output signal in response to 
the received ambient audio output signal so as to produce a modified subliminal message output signal 
which comprises the volume adjusted received subliminal message output signal. 

5. A system according to claim 3 in which said last named means comprises means for producing a 
subliminal message output signal at a volume which increases in response to increases in the volume of 
sensed ambient audio signals at a rate slower than the rate of increase of the sensed ambient audio signals. 

6. A system according to claim 5 in which said last named means comprises means for producing a 
subliminal message output signal at a volume which decreases in response to decreases in the volume of 
sensed ambient audio signals at a rate which is faster than the rate the subliminal message output signal 
increases in response to increases in the volume of sensed ambient audio signals. 

7. An auditory subliminal message system for an area comprising: 

at least one audio sensor means for sensing ambient audio signals in the area and for producing an ambient 
audio output signal representing the amplitude of the sensed ambient audio signals; 

subliminal message source means for providing an auditory subliminal message output signal; 

control circuit means coupled to the output of said audio sensor means and to said subliminal message 
source means for adjusting the amplitude of the subliminal message output signal so as to follow the 
amplitude of the sensed ambient audio signals; and 

masking signal source means for providing and combining a masking signal having frequency 
characteristics and an amplitude such that when the masking signal is combined with the amplitude 
adjusted subliminal message output signal it renders the adjusted subliminal message output signal outside 
of the conscious recognition range. 

8. A system according to claim 7 in which said subliminal message source means comprises means for 
producing a repetitive auditory subliminal message output signal. 

9. A system according to claim 7 in which said subliminal message source means and said masking signal 
source means comprise means for providing a composite signal which includes the auditory subliminal 
message output signal as one component and which includes the masking signal as another component; 
said control circuit means comprising means for adjusting the amplitude of the composite signal so as to 
follow the amplitude of the sensed ambient audio signals. 



211 



10. A system according to claim 9 including system testing means for selectively adjusting the amplitude of 
the composite signal to bring the masking signal into the conscious recognition range and thereby indicate 
the system is operating. 

1 1 . A system according to claim 7 in which said masking signal source means provides a masking signal 
having an amplitude which is in the range of approximately 3 db to 15 db greater than the amplitude of the 
amplitude adjusted subliminal message output signal. 

12. A system according to claim 1 1 in which said masking signal source means provides a masking signal 
having an amplitude which is approximately 5 db greater than the amplitude of the amplitude adjusted 
subliminal message output signal. 

13. A system according to claim 7 in which said masking signal source means comprises a white noise 
signal generator. 

14. A system according to claim 9 in which said means for providing a composite signal comprises an 
audio recording playback means for playing back a recording of the composite signal. 

15. A system according to claim 9 in which said means for providing a composite signal includes voice 
synthesizer means for providing the auditory subliminal signal component. 

16. A system according to claim 15 in which said means for providing a composite signal includes white 
noise signal generator means for providing the masking signal component and mixer circuit means for 
combining the output of said voice synthesizer means and the output of said white noise signal generator 
means to provide an output from said mixer circuit means which comprises the composite signal. 

17. A system according to claim 9 including output circuit means having at least one audio speaker means 
for transmitting the amplitude adjusted composite signal to the area. 

18. A system according to claim 7 in which said control circuit means is also coupled to said masking 
signal source means and comprises means for adjusting the amplitude of the masking signal so as to follow 
the amplitude of the sensed ambient audio signals. 

19. An auditory subliminal message system for an area comprising: 

at least one audio sensor means for sensing ambient audio signals in the area and for producing an ambient 
audio output signal representing the amplitude of the sensed ambient audio signals; 

subliminal message source means for providing an auditory subliminal message output signal; 

masking signal source means for providing and combining a masking signal having frequency 
characteristics and an amplitude such that when the masking signal is combined with the amplitude 
adjusted subliminal message output signal it renders the adjusted subliminal message output signal outside 
of the conscious recognition range; 

ambient audio signal processing circuit means coupled to the output of said audio sensor means for 
producing a control signal which varies with variations in the amplitude of the sensed ambient audio 
signals; amplitude control circuit means coupled to said subliminal message source means, to said masking 
signal source means and to said ambient audio signal processing circuit means for controlling the amplitude 
of said auditory subliminal message and the amplitude of said masking signal in response to the control 
signal from said ambient audio signal processing circuit means such that the amplitudes of said auditory 
subliminal signal and of said masking signal increase with increasing amplitudes of the sensed ambient 
audio signals and decrease with decreasing amplitudes of the sensed ambient audio signals; and output 
circuit means including speaker means for transmitting the amplitude controlled auditory subliminal 
message output signal and the amplitude controlled masking signal to the area. 



212 



20. A system according to claim 19 in which said ambient audio signal processing circuit means includes 
an audio channel circuit means associated with each said sensor means. 

21. A system according to claim 20 including plural audio sensor means and plural audio channel means, 
each said audio channel means including rectifier circuit means having an input coupled to the output of its 
associated audio sensor means for receiving and producing a rectified output signal representing the 
amplitude of the ambient audio signals sensed by the associated audio sensor means, each said audio 
channel means also including signal shaping circuit means having an input coupled to the output of said 
rectifier means for producing a shaped output signal which increases at a first rate in response to increases 
in the rectified output signal which corresponds to increases in the amplitude of the ambient audio signals 
sensed by the associated audio sensor means, the shaped output signal decreasing at a second rate which is 
faster than the first rate in response to decreases in the rectified output signal which corresponds to 
decreases in the amplitude of the ambient audio signals sensed by the associated audio sensor means; and 

said system also including averaging circuit means having an input coupled to the outputs of said signal 
shaping circuit means for receiving and averaging the shaped output signals to produce a control signal 
comprising the average of the received shaped output signals. 

22. A system according to claim 20 including plural audio sensor means and plural audio channel means, 
each said audio channel means including rectifier circuit means having an input coupled to the output of its 
associated audio sensor means for receiving and producing a rectified output signal representing the 
amplitude of the ambient audio signals sensed by the associated audio sensor means; 

said system also including averaging circuit means having an input coupled to the outputs of said rectifier 
circuit means for receiving and averaging the rectified output signals to produce an averaging circuit output 
signal comprising the average of the received rectified output signals; and 

signal shaping circuit means having an input coupled to the output of said averaging circuit means for 
producing a shaped output signal which increases at a first rate in response to increases in the averaging 
circuit output signal which corresponds to increases in the amplitude of the sensed ambient audio signals, 
the shaped output signal decreasing at a second rate which is faster than the first rate in response to 
decreases in the averaging circuit output signal which correspond to decreases in the amplitude of the 
sensed ambient audio signals. 

23. A system according to claim 21 or 22 in which the first rate is slower than the rate of increase of the 
sensed ambient audio signals. 

24. A system according to claim 19 in which said output circuit means includes means for combining 
background audio signals, such as music, with the amplitude controlled auditory subliminal signal prior to 
transmitting this latter signal to the area. 

25. A system according to claim 21 in which the control signal comprises a control voltage and in which 
said amplitude control circuit means comprises a voltage controlled amplifier circuit. 

26. A method of reducing shoplifting in a customer area of a store comprising: 
sensing ambient audio signals from the area; 

providing an auditory anti-shoplifting subliminal message signal; adjusting the amplitude of the subliminal 
message signal to follow the amplitude of the sensed audio signals; and transmitting the amplitude adjusted 
subliminal message signal to the area. 

27. A method according to claim 26 in which the step of adjusting the amplitude comprises the steps of 
increasing the amplitude at a first rate with increasing amplitudes of the sensed audio signals and 
decreasing the amplitude at a second rate faster than the first rate with decreasing amplitudes of the sensed 
audio signals. 



213 



28. A method according to claim 26 or 27 including the steps of providing a masking signal having 
amplitude and frequency characteristics which when combined with the auditory subliminal message signal 
renders the subliminal message signal below the level of conscious recognition; 

adjusting the amplitude of the masking signal to follow the amplitude of the sensed audio signals; and 

transmitting the amplitude adjusted masking signal to the area. 

29. A method according to claim 28 in which the step of providing a subliminal message signal comprises 
the step of providing a composite signal having the auditory subliminal message signal as one component 
and the masking signal as another component; 

the step of adjusting the amplitude comprises the step of adjusting the amplitude of the composite signal to 
follow the amplitude of the sensed audio signals; and 

the step of transmitting comprises the step of transmitting the amplitude adjusted composite signal to the 
area. 



Description 



BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 

The present invention relates to a system and method for providing subliminal auditory signals to an area 
such as a customer shopping area within a store. More particularly, the invention relates to such a system 
and method in which the amplitude of the subliminal signal is adjusted in response to the amplitude of 
ambient audio signals from the customer shopping area. 

It has been established that auditory subliminal signals, that is, those presented below the conscious 
recognition level of the listener, can be used to influence the listener's behavior to some degree. Some early 
research into visual and auditory subliminal stimulation effects are exemplified in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,060,795 
of Corrigan, et al. and 3,278,676 of Becker. 

In addition, Becker is understood to have experimented with the use of auditory subliminal messages to 
deter shoplifting by retail store customers. Although applicants have not seen or studied Mr. Becker's 
device, it is believed to combine an auditory subliminal message with background music. However, during 
non-peak shopping and other times when the store area is exceptionally quiet, the background music signal 
component in Becker must be much louder than the subliminal signal as otherwise the subliminal signal 
would be at a level such that it may be consciously recognized by a listener. In addition, as a result of this 
large difference between the amplitude of the background music and that of the subliminal message signal, 
the effectiveness of the Becker subliminal message is reduced. Also, Becker is understood to maintain his 
combined background music and subliminal message at a level sufficiently high enough to enable the 
music to be heard even under noisy store conditions. However, when the ambient audio signal level drops, 
such as during non-peak store traffic times, the combined background music and subliminal signal would 
remain the same and seem overly loud. Thus, Becker is simply not understood to control the amplitude of a 
subliminal message in response to ambient audio signals from an area. 

Accordingly, there is a need for an auditory subliminal message system and method which solves these and 
other problems. 

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION 

The present invention is a method and system for adjusting the amplitude of an auditory subliminal 
message in response to the amplitude of ambient audio signals from an area to which the subliminal 



214 



message is to be transmitted. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, an audio signal processing 
circuit means receives signals representing the amplitude of audio signals in the area, such as a retail 
shopping area of a store. This processing circuit means produces a control signal for an amplitude 
adjustment or control circuit means which adjusts the amplitude or volume of an auditory subliminal signal 
which is to be transmitted to the area. The amplitude of the auditory subliminal signal is adjusted to 
increase with increasing sensed ambient audio signals and decrease with decreasing sensed ambient audio 
signals. 

As a more specific aspect of the invention, a masking signal is generated and fed to the area. This masking 
signal has frequency and amplitude characteristics which cover or render the subliminal signal 
inperceptible to the conscious recognition level of a listener. In the preferred embodiment, the amplitude of 
this masking signal is also controlled in response to the sensed ambient audio signals so that its amplitude 
follows the amplitude of the adjusted subliminal message signal. The masking signal may be combined 
with the subliminal signal to provide a composite signal having an amplitude controlled by the control 
circuit in response to the control signal. 

As a more specific feature of the invention, to reduce distortion of the subliminal message signal, the 
processing circuit means produces a control signal which causes the control circuit means to increase the 
amplitude of the auditory subliminal message signal slowly at a rate slower than the rate of change of the 
ambient audio signals at times when the ambient audio signals are increasing in magnitude. In addition, at 
times when the ambient audio signals are decreasing to minimize the possibility of conscious perception of 
the subliminal message signal, the processing circuit means produces a control signal which causes the 
control circuit means to decrease the amplitude of the subliminal signal at a fast rate. 

It is accordingly one object of the invention to provide an improved auditory subliminal message system 
and method. 

Another object of the invention is to provide an auditory subliminal message having an amplitude which is 
adjusted in response to ambient noise levels within an area to which the auditory subliminal message is to 
be transmitted. 

A further object of the invention is to provide a method and system which adjusts the amplitude of an 
auditory subliminal message at one rate with increasing ambient audio signal levels in the area and at 
another, faster rate with decreasing ambient audio signal levels. 

A still further object of the invention is to provide such a method and system in which the amplitude of an 
auditory subliminal signal is adjusted to rise at a rate slower than the rate of increases in ambient audio 
signal levels. 

Another object of the invention is to provide an auditory subliminal message which is continuously 
maintained below the conscious perception level. 

A further object of the invention is to provide an auditory subliminal message which is maintained below 
the conscious perception level of listeners in an area and which is adjusted in response to ambient audio 
signals in the area so as to remain close to the level of conscious perception. 

Still another object of the invention is to provide an auditory masking signal for an auditory subliminal 
message, the masking signal having an amplitude which is adjusted in response to ambient noise levels in 
an area to which the auditory subliminal message is to be transmitted. 

A more specific object of the invention is to provide an auditory subliminal message anti -shoplifting 
system and method. 

These and other objects, features and advantages of the invention will become apparent with reference to 
the following drawings and description. 



215 



BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING 



In the drawing 

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an auditory subliminal message system in accordance with the present 
invention; 

FIG. 2 is a block diagram illustrating one embodiment of an auditory subliminal message signal and 
masking signal source; 

FIG. 3 is a block diagram showing another embodiment of an auditory subliminal message signal and 
masking signal source; 

FIG. 4 is a block diagram showing an alternate ambient audio signal processing circuit; and 

FIG. 5 is a detailed circuit schematic diagram of the ambient audio signal processing circuit and other 
portions of the circuit of FIG. 1 . 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION 

General Description of Preferred Embodiment 

It has now been discovered that in an environment with constantly changing ambient audio levels, such as 
in the shopping area of a store, it is desirable to adjust the amplitude of an auditory subliminal message 
signal to follow the amplitude of the ambient audio signals. That is, by increasing the amplitude of the 
auditory subliminal message with increasing ambient audio levels and decreasing the amplitude of the 
subliminal signal with decreasing ambient audio levels, the subconscious perception of the subliminal 
message by listeners is improved. This in turn increases the effectiveness of the subliminal message. 

Therefore, with reference to FIG. 1, the system includes circuit means for controlling the amplitude of an 
auditory subliminal message signal in response to the level of ambient sounds in an area 26, such as the 
customer shopping area within a store, to which the subliminal message signal is to be transmitted. Such 
circuit means includes an ambient audio signal processing circuit 10 and a control circuit 12. Control circuit 
12 is adapted to receive an auditory subliminal message signal input at 14 and processing circuit 10 has at 
least one input 16 for receiving signals representing the amplitude or volume of ambient audio signals 
within the area. Processing circuit 10 and control circuit 12 adjust the amplitude of the auditory subliminal 
message signal received at input 14, in response to the amplitude of ambient audio signals received at input 
16, to produce an auditory subliminal message signal output at 18 having an amplitude which varies with 
variations in the level of ambient audio signals in the area. 

The output signal at 18 is fed to an output circuit which, in the illustrated form, includes an output mixer 
circuit 20 having an input coupled to output 18, a preamplifier and amplifier circuit 22 with an input 21 
coupled to the output of mixer circuit 20, and a speaker 24 for transmitting the amplitude adjusted auditory 
subliminal message signal to area 26. The circuit also may include an optional background auditory signal 
source 28 which produces music or other background auditory signals which are fed to an input 29 of the 
output mixer circuit 20. These background signals are combined within mixer circuit 20 with the amplitude 
controlled subliminal message signal and the combined signal is transmitted by speaker 24 to room 26. 

The preferred embodiment of the system also includes at least one audio sensor means, such as microphone 
30 positioned within the area 26. Microphone 30 detects ambient audio signals within the area and 
produces an electrical output signal representing these detected signals. The microphone output is fed to 
input 16 of ambient audio signal processing circuit 10. 

Processing circuit 10 includes an audio channel 32 associated with microphone 30 for modifying the input 
16 to produce an audio channel output signal at 34 which varies with variations in the ambient audio signal 
input at 16, as explained below. Preferably, plural microphones 30, 30a, 30b, 30c, 30d, etc. are provided for 



216 



detecting ambient audio signals in various parts of the area 26. For convenience, these microphones may be 
positioned in the ceiling of the shopping area. A respective audio channel 32a, 32b, 32c and 32d is 
associated with each of the microphones 30a, 30b, 30c and 30d and produces output signals 34a, 34b, 34c 
and 34d in the same manner as the audio channel 32. The output signals 34 are averaged by an averaging 
circuit 36 to produce an output control signal at 38 which varies with variations in the amplitude of ambient 
audio signals sensed by the microphones throughout the store area 26. 

In the embodiment of FIG. 1, each audio channel 32 includes a preamplifier circuit 40 for amplifying the 
input signal 16, a rectifier circuit 42 for rectifying the amplified input signal and a signal shaping circuit 44 
for modifying the rectified ambient audio signal input from microphone 30, as explained below. 

In connection with this signal shaping circuit, it has now been discovered that rapid changes of an 
amplitude of an auditory subliminal signal can distort it to such an extent that it becomes unrecognizable to 
subconscious perception. Hence, to reduce such distortion and increase the subconscious perceptibility of 
the subliminal signal, the signal shaping circuit adjusts the control signal to cause the amplitude of the 
auditory subliminal message signal at a rate which is slower than the rate of increase of ambient audio 
signals at times when the amplitude of such ambient signals is increasing. However, with sudden drops in 
the level of ambient audio signals, a slow drop in the amplitude of the subliminal message could lead to 
conscious perception of this message. This can be extremely disadvantageous in situations wherein it is 
desired to keep the existence of the subliminal message a secret. Therefore, the signal shaping circuit 
adjusts the control signal to cause the volume of the auditory subliminal message to drop at a faster rate 
upon a decrease in the volume of ambient audio signals. 

Hence, with this form of signal shaping circuit 44, the control signal output at 38 of the averaging circuit 36 
varies at one rate with increasing ambient audio signals and at another faster rate with decreasing ambient 
audio signals. Furthermore, control circuit 12 is responsive to this varying control signal to produce an 
amplitude adjusted auditory subliminal message output at 18 which increases at a first rate with increases in 
ambient audio signals and decreases at a second rate, faster than the first rate, with decreases in ambient 
audio signals. In addition, to prevent distortion of the subliminal message, the first rate is slower than the 
rate of increase of the ambient audio signals. 

It has also now been discovered that time lags are introduced into an auditory subliminal system. Such time 
lags are primarily due to the amount of time required by ambient audio signals is travel to microphones and 
the time required by an amplitude controlled subliminal message to travel from speakers to a listener. Thus, 
no matter how quickly the system reduces the amplitude of the auditory subliminal message in response to 
declining ambient sound levels, a reduction in the amplitude of the subliminal message would lag the 
reduction in volume of ambient sound. Thus, a rapid drop in ambient sound level could momentarily leave 
the subliminal message signal at a level sufficiently high to be perceived by a listener. In certain 
applications this would prove extremely disadvantageous. 

For example, if an anti-shoplifting subliminal system is used to deter shoplifting in a store, customers may 
be extremely reluctant to patronize the store if they consciously perceive a normally anti-shoplifting 
message and hence realize that such a system is in use. Thus, although a store may realize savings due to a 
reduction in shoplifting, its overall profits may suffer because of customer reluctance to patronize a store 
wherein such a system is in use. Hence, in such applications it is desirable to maintain the subliminal signal 
continuously below the conscious perception range of listeners. On the other hand, in other applications 
such as in connection with a weight loss class in which the listeners realize that an auditory subliminal 
weight loss message is being transmitted, it is not as critical to continuously maintain the subliminal 
message below conscious perception levels. 

To solve this problem, the preferred embodiment of the system includes means for producing a masking 
signal which screens the auditory subliminal message and blocks its conscious perception, particularly 
during times when the volume of ambient noise drops quickly. Thus, as illustrated in FIG. 1, the system 
includes a subliminal message and masking signal source means 48 which produces the auditory subliminal 
message signal fed to input 14 of control circuit 12. In addition, source 48 includes means for providing a 
masking signal with amplitude and frequency characteristics which block conscious perception of the 



217 



auditory subliminal message. The masking signal may bypass control circuit 12 and be fed directly to room 
26. However, it is preferable that the amplitude of the masking signal also be controlled in response to the 
amplitude of ambient audio signals. Otherwise, when the room becomes very quiet, the masking signal 
could be so loud that it is readily perceived and annoying. Also, if the masking signal amplitude remained 
constant while the subliminal signal amplitude dropped in response to drops in ambient sound levels, the 
amplitude of the masking signal would become so large relative to that of the subliminal message, that 
subconscious perception of the subliminal message is impaired. 

Although a separate control circuit may be provided for controlling the amplitude of the masking signals, 
preferably the masking signal is combined with the auditory subliminal message signal and the resulting 
composite signal is fed to input 14 of control circuit 12. As illustrated in FIG. 1, control circuit 12 may 
include a voltage control amplifier circuit 39 for adjusting the output 18 in response to the control signal 
input 38. 

As shown in FIG. 2, subliminal message and masking signal source 48 may comprise a means such as a 
tape recorder for playing back a recording of a composite auditory subliminal message and masking signal. 
In an alternate form illustrated in FIG. 3, the subliminal message and masking signal source 48 may 
comprise a voice synthesizer circuit 50 which produces an auditory subliminal component of the composite 
subliminal and masking signals. One suitable voice synthesizer circuit 50 comprises a commercially 
available "Digitalker" kit produced by National Semiconductor Company. This kit includes a sixteen 
kilobite, eight bit memory chip No. MM521 16 and a speech processor chip designated SPC. In addition, a 
masking signal circuit 52 is provided for producing the masking signal. This circuit may take various forms 
and comprise a white noise signal generator circuit such as a random noise oscillator with an internal shift 
register. One suitable generator is available from Radio Shack and designated random events generator chip 
No. S2688/MM5837. The masking signal circuit and voice synthesizer circuit outputs are fed to a 
commercially available mixer amplifier circuit 54, in which they are combined. The mixer circuit output 
comprises the composite auditory signal which is fed to input 14 of the control circuit 12. 

As previously mentioned, the masking signal has frequency and amplitude components which make the 
auditory subliminal message signal incapable of conscious recognition by a listener. More specifically, the 
masking signal has frequency components which overlay the frequency components of the auditory 
subliminal message signal. In addition, the amplitude of the masking signal is slightly higher than the 
amplitude of the auditory subliminal message signal. More specifically, it has now been discovered that 
preferred results are obtained when the amplitude of the masking signal is continuously maintained 
approximately within the range of 3 db to 15 db above the amplitude of the subliminal message signal. 
Furthermore, that the best results occur when the masking signal is approximately 5 db above the amplitude 
of the auditory subliminal message signal. That is, with such relative amplitudes of the masking signal to 
the auditory subliminal message signal, a temporary screen is provided for the subliminal message at times, 
such as during rapid declines in ambient noise levels, when the subliminal message may otherwise become 
supraliminal. Also, with such relative amplitudes, the masking signal provides a satisfactory screen for the 
subliminal message without impairing satisfactory subconscious perception of the auditory subliminal 
message. It should be noted that with such relative amplitudes of the masking signal and subliminal 
message signal, the masking signal typically may not block conscious perception of the subliminal signal in 
a situation where the composite subliminal message and masking signal are at a high amplitude in relation 
to the volume of ambient audio signals. However, such conditions are prevented by controlling the 
amplitude of the composite signal in response to ambient audio signals, as explained above. 

FIG. 4 illustrates an alternate ambient audio signal processing circuit. Components of this circuit which are 
similar to those of the FIG. 1 form of processing circuit have numbers incremented by two hundred over 
the corresponding numbers in FIG. 1 . Hence, these components will not be described in detail. Unlike the 
FIG. 1 form of processing circuit, the audio channels of the FIG. 4 embodiment do not include the signal 
shaping circuit. Instead, the output of the respective rectifier circuits are averaged by an averaging circuit 
236 prior to signal shaping by a signal shaping circuit 244 in the manner explained above. 



218 



DETAILED CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 



With reference to FIG. 5, a four-channel audio signal processing circuit is illustrated. Since each of the illustrated 
channels is identical, only the upper channel will be described in detail. 

The audio channel includes series connected preamplifier circuit 40, rectifier circuit 42, and signal shaping circuit 44. 
The input 16 to the channel is obtained from the microphone 30 (FIG. 1) and thus fluctuates in response to changes in 
ambient audio signals detected by the microphone. Input 16 and hence the microphone output is fed to preamplifier 
circuit 40. More specifically, this input is coupled by a 0. 1 microfarad capacitor 58 through a one kilohm gain 
establishing resistor 60 to the inverting input of an operational amplifier 62. The output of amplifier 62 is connected 
through a one megohm feedback resistor 64 to its inverting input. The gain of amplifier 62 is established by the ratio of 
resistors 64 and 60 and, with these particular resistors is set at approximately one thousand. Also, a positive biasing 
voltage V is fed through a two megohm biasing resistor 66 to the noninverting input of amplifier 62. With the circuit 
components utilized in the FIG. 5 circuit, the positive biasing voltage is six volts and a negative biasing voltage is at 
negative six volts. One suitable amplifier 62 comprises one amplifier section of an LM3900 quad Norton operational 
amplifier. When connected as described above, amplifier 62 inverts and amplifies the input signal at 16. 

To convert the input at 16 to a direct current signal, 0.1 microfarad capacitor 68 couples the output of amplifier 62 to 
the inverting input of an amplifier 70 connected as an amplifying, inverting, precision rectifier. Rectifier circuit 42 
produces an output signal comprising a positive half-cycle inverted and amplified version of the input signal. More 
specifically, the output of amplifier 70 is connected to the anode of a diode 74 having its cathode connected through a 
one megohm feedback resistor 76 to the inverting input of amplifier 70. Thus, the positive half-cycles of the output 
signal from amplifier 70 are coupled through diode 74 and resistor 76 to the inverting input of amplifier 70. In contrast, 
the negative half-cycle output signals from amplifier 70 are blocked by diode 74. However, because the output of 
amplifier 70 is connected to the cathode of a diode 72 having its anode coupled to the inverting input of amplifier 70, 
these negative going half cycles are coupled through diode 72 to the inverting input of amplifier 70. The output of 
rectifier 42 is taken at the cathode of diode 74 and comprises a positive representation of the input signal 16 and hence 
of the amplitude of ambient audio signals detected by microphone 30. A suitable amplifier for accomplishing this 
rectification comprises one amplifier section of a type 324 quad operational amplifier. 

The rectified output signal from rectifier circuit 42 is fed to signal shaping circuit 44. That is, the output of the rectifier 
circuit is fed to a resistor-capacitor network. This network comprises a ten kilohm resistor 78 coupled between the 
output of rectifier 42 and the noninverting input of an operational amplifier 80, a one microfarad capacitor 88 which 
couples the noninverting input of amplifier 80 to ground, and a one hundred kilohm resistor 86 in parallel with 
capacitor 88. This network has a charging time constant of approximately 0.01 seconds and discharging time constant 
of approximately 0. 1 seconds. Amplifier 80 may comprise one amplifier section of a type 324 quad operational 
amplifier and has its output coupled directly through a feedback loop to its noninverting input so that the amplifier acts 
as a voltage follower. The output of amplifier 80 drives another resistor-capacitor network including a five hundred 
kilohm resistor 82 and a ten microfarad capacitor 90. The time constant of this latter resistor-capacitor is approximately 
five seconds. Also, a diode 84, having a turn-on voltage of approximately 0.7 volts, has its anode connected to the 
contact between resistor 82 and capacitor 90 and its cathode connected to the noninverting input of amplifier 80. The 
positive side of capacitor 90 is coupled through a one hundred kilohm resistor 92 to the output 34 of the audio channel. 
This output 34 is then fed to averaging circuit 36 as explained below. For reasons explained above, signal shaping 
circuit 44 operates in the following manner to produce an output on line 34 which increases at one rate with increasing 
sensed ambient audio signals and which decreases at a rate faster than said one rate with decreases in the sensed audio 
signals. Furthermore, because of the delays within the signal shaping circuit 44 resulting from charging time of the 
resistor-capacitor networks, the output signal on line 34 will increase at a slower rate than the rate of increase of 
ambient noise signals. This slows the rate of change of the audio subliminal signal and thereby minimizes rapid 
amplitude fluctuations therein and resulting distortions. That is, as the amplitude of ambient audio signals increases, the 
signal reaching capacitor 90 also increases. However, because of the relatively long charging time constant of the 
resistor-capacitor network including capacitor 90, capacitor 90 charges slowly. Hence, under those conditions the 
output on line 34 comprises a slowly rising DC signal. Furthermore, because the voltage at the anode of diode 84 is 
greater than or equal to the voltage at its cathode, diode 84 is nonconducting. In contrast, upon a sudden decrease in the 
amplitude of the sensed ambient audio signals, the input to operational amplifier 80 quickly decreases. As a result, the 
voltage at the cathode of diode 84 drops below the voltage at the anode of this diode sufficiently to cause the diode to 
conduct. While conducting, diode 84 establishes a short circuit between the positive side of capacitor 90, through 
resistor 86 and to ground so that capacitor 90 rapidly discharges. Therefore, the output signal at 34 drops rapidly and at 
a rate much faster than the rate at which the output 34 rose with increases of the amplitude of the ambient audio signals. 
Of course, by adjusting the time constants of the resistor-capacitor circuits within shaping circuit 44, the rate of change 
of the output 34 in response to changes in ambient audio signals can be adjusted as desired. 



219 



The outputs of the audio channels are fed to averaging circuit 36. More specifically, resistor 92 and a similar resistor in 
each of the other audio channels couple the DC outputs from these channels to the inverting input of an operational 
amplifier 94 connected to average the signals received at its inverting input. Amplifier 94 may comprise a type 741 
operational amplifier. The noninverting input of this amplifier is grounded and a twenty-five kilohm feedback resistor 
96 couples the output of amplifier 94 to its inverting input. In addition, a ten kilohm current limiting resistor 98 couples 
the output of amplifier 94, which comprises the control signal 38, to control circuit 12. More specifically, with this 
particular circuit, control signal 38 comprises a varying direct current signal. Resistor 96 is set at one-quarter the value 
of the input resistors 92 so that the gain of the averaging amplifier 94 is established at 0.25. In the event only one 
microphone is used to detect ambient audio signals, then averaging, of course, is not performed. 

Control circuit 12 controls the amplitude of the composite auditory subliminal message and masking signal received at 
its input 14 in response to the control signal on line 38 and thereby in response to changes in ambient sound levels 
within room 26. More specifically, the control signal on line 38 is used as a gain control for an amplifier 102 of circuit 
39. Amplifier 102 may comrise a type CA3080A operational transconductance amplifier connected as a voltage 
controlled amplifier. The control signal on line 38 is fed to the control signal input .sup. I ABC of amplifier 102. 
Amplifier 102 is conducted in a conventional manner as a single supply operational amplifier. Also, the positive 
reference voltage is fed through a voltage divider network including a forty-seven kilohm resistor 106 and forty-seven 
kilohm resistor 1 10 to ground. The three- volt signal available from this divider is supplied to the noninverting input of 
amplifier 102. A ten microfarad capacitor 108 couples this latter input to ground to remove stray alternating current 
signals at this input. In addition, the composite subliminal auditory message signal and masking signal is fed to input 
14 of voltage control amplifier circuit 39. That is, these signals are coupled through a ten microfarad capacitor 104 to 
the inverting input of amplifier 102. The output of amplifier 102 is fed to one side of a ten kilohm potentiometer 112 
having its other side coupled to ground through resistor 110. The output of circuit 39 is taken from potentiometer 112 
and, as explained above, comprises a composite auditory subliminal message signal and masking signal having an 
amplitude adjusted in response to ambient audio signals within area 26. The wiper arm of potentiometer 1 12 also 
permits adjustment of the amplitude of the voltage controlled composite auditory subliminal signal and masking signal. 
Hence, this amplitude can be selectively adjusted to make the masking signal component more clearly consciously 
perceptible to provide an indication that the system is operational. 

The gain controlled output signal of circuit 39 is connected through a one hundred kilohm resistor 1 14 to the inverting 
input of an operational amplifier 1 16 within output mixer circuit 20. Amplifier 116 may comprise a type 741 
operational amplifier connected as an inverting mixer. Any optional background audio signals, such as music, may be 
fed to input 29 of output mixer circuit 20. This input is coupled by a ten microfarad coupling capacitor 124 in series 
with a one hundred kilohm input resistor 122 to the inverting input of amplifier 1 16. A one hundred kilohm feedback 
resistor is also coupled between the output of amplifier 116 and its inverting input. Since resistors 1 14, 118 and 122 are 
all equal, the gain of the amplifier 1 16 is established at one. The output of amplifier 1 16 is coupled through a ten 
microfarad coupling capacitor 120 to preamplifier and amplifier circuit 22 (FIG. 1) and hence to the speaker 24 located 
in the area 26. 

In a specific anti-shoplifting application, an auditory subliminal message signal designed to encourage honesty is 
provided. One such signal comprises the phrase "I am honest, I will not steal". This auditory subliminal message signal 
is combined with a white noise masking signal to provide a composite signal input to the control circuit 12. The 
amplitude of this composite signal is then adjusted within control circuit 12, as explained above, in response to changes 
in the amplitude of ambient audio signals detected within the shopping area of a store. The amplitude controlled 
composite signal is then transmitted to the shopping area so that the subliminal message is subconsciously perceived by 
individuals within the store. 

It has now been experimentally determined that, although shoplifting and theft are not completely eliminated, 
significant reductions in these losses have resulted in such an application of the system of this invention. 

Having illustrated and described the principles of our invention with reference to several preferred embodiments, it 
should be apparent to those persons skilled in the art that such embodiments may be modified in arrangement and detail 
without departing from such principles. We claim as our invention all such modifications as come within the true spirit 
and scope of the following claims. 



220 



United States Patent 
Densky 



4,777,343 
January 5, 1988 



Method of changing a person's behavior 

Abstract 

A method of conditioning a person's unconscious mind in order to effect a desired change in the person's 
behavior which does not require the services of a trained therapist. Instead the person to be treated views a 
program of video pictures appearing on a screen. The program as viewed by the person's unconscious mind 
acts to condition the person's thought patterns in a manner which alters that person's behavior in a positive 
way. 



Inventors: Densky; Alan B. (2060 Collier Ave., Suite 14, Ft. Myers, FL 33901) 
Appl. No.: 880551 
Filed: June 30, 1986 

Current U.S. Class: 434/236; 352/85; 352/9 1R; 434/262 

Intern'l Class: G09B 019/00 

Field of Search: 434/236-238,262,322,333 352/41,42,85,91 R,91 C,91 S 



References Cited [Referenced Byl 



U.S. Patent Documents 



1921963 


Aug., 1933 


Crabtree 


369/285. 


2133085 


Oct., 1938 


Draper 


352/44. 


2517246 


Aug., 1950 


Seitz 


352/42. 


3278676 


Oct., 1966 


Becker 


358/142. 


3545849 


Dec, 1970 


Miheles 


352/45. 


3782006 


Jan., 1974 


Symmes 


434/234. 


3905701 


Sep., 1975 


David 


355/71. 


4181410 


Jan., 1980 


Sicha et al. 


352/91. 


4200364 


Apr., 1980 


Borowski et al. 


352/141. 


4483681 


Nov., 1984 


Weinslatt 


434/236. 


Foreign Patent Documents 








1557773 


Feb., 1969 


FR 


434/236. 



Primary Examiner: Murtagh; John E. 
Assistant Examiner: Rudy; Andrew Joseph 
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Johnson; Merrill N. 



Claims 

I claim: 

1. A method of relieving a person of an undesirable habit by having that person view a program of pictures projected onto a screen, 
said program including the following sequence: 

(a) a bright, clear first picture in color filling the screen and designed to cause a stressful thought in the mind of the person for 
approximately three seconds, 

(b) then causing that first picture to gradually become blurred and smaller and become only black and white and finally shrink to a 
pinpoint at the center of the screen and disappear over a period of approximately six seconds, 

(c) then out of the center of the screen causing a second picture to appear which is originally blurred and in black and white and as the 
second picture gets larger it becomes colored, clear and bright during a period of approximately six seconds until it fills the entire 
screen, said picture designed to cause a relaxing throught and in its largest size being held on the screen for a period of approximately 
three seconds, 



221 



(d) then causing the screen to go blank white for a period of approximately five seconds, 

(e) then repeating the foregoing sequence of pictures (a) through (d) several times, and 

(f) then speeding up the foregoing sequence of pictures (a) through (d) by 50% and repeating the foregoing sequence of pictures 
several times except that at the end of each sequence the screen goes blank white for approximately five seconds. 

2. A method as set forth in claim 1 in which the first picture is one which stimulates in the mind of the person viewing the program an 
undesirable behavioral response and the second picture is one which stimulates a desired response. 

3. A method of relieving a person of an undesirable habit by having that person view a program of pictures projected onto a screen, 

said program including a first picture showing an undesirable habit of the person viewing the program, and a second picture showing 
either a repulsive act or a life-threatening consequence of the habit shown in the first picture, and 

creating an automatic connection between the aforesaid two pictures in the conscious and unconscious mind of the person viewing the 
program by showing the two pictures in the following sequence: 

(a) the first picture is shown bright, clearly focused and in color for about three seconds; 

(b) the second picture is shown bright, clearly focused and in color for about three seconds; 

(c) the foregoing sequence of the first and second pictures each viewed for three seconds is repeated three times; 

(d) the first picture is shown for one second; 

(e) the second picture is shown for one second; 

(f) the sequence of the first and second pictures each viewed for one second is repeated nine times; 

(g) the first picture is displayed for l/24th of a second; 

(h) the second picture is displayed for l/24th of a second; and 

(i) the sequence of the first and second pictures each viewed for l/24th of a second is repeated approximately 200 times during a 
period of about 18 seconds. 

4. A method as set forth in claim 1 followed by a program of pictures projected onto the screen which includes a first picture showing 
an undesirable habit of the person viewing the program, and a second picture showing either a repulsive act or a life-threatening 
consequence of the habit shown in the first picture, and creating an automatic connection between the aforesaid two pictures in the 
conscious and unconscious mind of the person viewing the program by showing the two pictures in the following sequence: 

(a) the first picture is shown bright, clearly focused and in color for about three seconds; 

(b) the second picture is shown bright, clearly focused and in color for about three seconds; 

(c) the foregoing sequence of the first and second pictures each view for three seconds is repeated three times; 

(d) the first picture is shown for one second; 

(e) the second picture is shown for one second; 

(f) the sequence of the first and second pictures each viewed for one second is repeated nine times; 

(g) the first picture is displayed for l/24th of a second; 

(h) the second picture is displayed for l/24th of a second; and 

(i) the sequence of the first and second pictures each viewed for l/24th of a second is repeated approximately 200 times during a 
period of about 18 seconds. 

5. A method of relieving a person of an undesirable habit by having the person view a program of pictures projected on a screen 
consisting of a first picture which stimulates in the mind of the person viewing the program an undesirable behavioral response and a 
second picture which stimulates a desired response, said pictures being presented in the following sequence: 

(a) a bright, clear first picture in color filling the screen and designed to cause a stressful thought in the mind of the person for 
approximately three seconds, 



222 



(b) then causing that first picture to gradually become blurred and smaller and become only black and white and finally shrink to a pin 
point at the center of the screen and disappear over a period of approximately six seconds, 

(c) then out of the center of the screen causing a second picture to appear which is originally blurred and in black and white and as the 
second picture gets larger it becomes colored, clear and bright during a period of approximately six seconds until it fills the entire 
screen, said picture designed to cause a relaxing thought and in its largest size being held on the screen for a period of approximately 
three seconds, 

(d) then causing the screen to go blank white for a period of approximately five seconds, 

(e) then repeating the foregoing sequence of pictures (a) through (d) several times, 

(f) then speeding the foregoing sequence of piotures (a) through (d) by 50% and repeating the foregoing sequence of pictures several 
times except that at the end of each sequence the screen goes blank white for approximately five seconds. 

6. A method of relieving a person of an undesirable habit by having the person view a program of pictures projected on a screen 
consisting of a first picture which stimulates in the mind of the person viewing the program an undesirable behavioral response and a 
second picture which stimulates a desired response, said pictures being presented in the following sequence: 

the first picture appears on the screen in bright color focused sharply and as large as possible, and this picture is held on the screen a 
few seconds, 

if the first picture is a movie, have the movie go still and the picture gradually recede, 
as it gradually recedes, the picture goes from color to black and white, 
as the picture continues to recede, the picture blurs, 

the black and white blurred first picture disappears by receding into a spot on the screen, 

slowly the second picture appears from the same spot on the screen where the first picture disappeared, said second picture being 
small, still, blurred and in black and white, and gradually over a few seconds grows larger and becomes sharply focused, 

after a few more seconds the second picture gets larger and appears in color, 

after a few more seconds the second picture fills the entire screen in bright color, 

if the second picture is part of a movie, activate the movie and hold it on the screen for a few seconds, 

make the screen go blank white for several seconds, 

repeat the foregoing sequence of views about four times, 

repeat the foregoing views several times more but with their original lapsed time cut by 50% and each time followed by the screen 
going blank white for about five seconds, 

repeat the foregoing views of the first picture but with their elapsed time cut to about six frames, 
repeat the foregoing views of the second picture but with their elapsed time cut to about six frames, 
have the screen go blank white for about five seconds, 

repeat several times the six frames of the first picture followed by the six frame viewing of the second picture followed by a five 
second interlude of blank white, and 

hold the second picture on the screen about ten seconds. 

7. The method set forth in claim 6 followed by a program of pictures projected onto the screen which includes a first picture showing 
an undesirable habit of the person viewing the program and a second picture showing either a repulsive act or a life-threatening 
consequence of the habit shown in the first picture, and 

creating an automatic connection between the aforesaid two pictures in the conscious and unconscious mind of the person viewing the 
program by showing the two pictures in the following sequence: 

(a) the first picture is shown bright, clearly focused and in color for about three seconds; 

(b) the second picture is shown bright, clearly focused and in color for about three seconds; 

(c) the foregoing sequence of the first and second pictures each viewed for three seconds is repeated three times; 



223 



(d) the first picture is shown for one second; 

(e) the second picture is shown for one second; 

(f) the sequence of the first and second pictures each viewed for one second is repeated nine times; 

(g) the first picture is displayed for l/24th of a second; 

(h) the second picture is displayed for l/24fh of a second; and 

(i) the sequence of the first and second pictures each viewed for l/24fh of a second is repeated approximately 200 times during a 
period of about 18 seconds. 

uescripnon 



BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 

The present invention relates to methods for conditioning a person's unconscious thought patterns by having the person view a 
program of video pictures projected upon a screen in order to alter that person's behavior. 

It is well established in medicine and science that the human mind operates on two planes, the conscious and the unconscious. That 
part of the human mind used for reasoning and communicating with full awareness by the individual and which also controls 
voluntary behavior such as talking and walking is called the conscious mind. The unconscious mind, sometimes referred to as the 
subconscious, controls those functions which take place without the person's awareness such as heartbeat, breathing, glandular action, 
and such involuntary reactions as appetite, tension and pain. 

Hypnosis was one of the first techniques used to reach a person's unconscious mind. In the late 1800's hypnosis was used to trigger the 
release of the endorphins, an opiate-like substance manufactured and stored within the brain, to serve as anesthesia during surgery. 
More recently, hypnosis has been used to effect appetite control, smoking abatement, reduction of stress and depression, and painless 
childbirth. During the first half of the 1900's Dr. Milton Erickson introduced the use of structured linguistic patterns in hypnotic 
therapy. 

In the early 1970's Richard Bandler and John Grindler pioneered neuro-linguistic programming in which the therapist auditorially (by 
voice) tells the patient to complete a certain mental exercise in his mind's eye in order to bring about behavioral change at the 
unconscious and conscious levels of the patient's mind. 

Both hypnosis and neuro-linguistic programming are methods of conditioning a person's thought processes through sounds transmitted 
by voice. 

Another method of affecting an individual's unconscious thought processes is subliminal suggestion. Audio subliminals consist of a 
human voice repeating auditory suggestions over and over, and the voice is "covered over" by a sound such as ocean waves which is 
the only sound the conscious mind hears. But the unconscious hears the voiced suggestions. Video subliminals inject written messages 
(such as "buy popcorn") at a rate of about one frame per second into a moving picture film. There are 24 frames per second in the 
standard movie or video and thus the subliminal message registers only on the unconscious mind. One suggested use of video 
subliminal suggestion is set forth in U.S. Pat. No. 3,278,676 granted Oct. 11, 1966. 

Suggestions have also been made to use visual displays projected upon a screen as an addition to audio signals, electric shock signals 
or other sensory messages to assist a person to build up an aversion to an undesirable habit. One such suggestion is set forth in U.S. 
Pat. No. 3,782,006 granted Jan. 1, 1974. 

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION 

Most prior methods intended to reach a person's unconscious mind in order to effect a desired change in the person's habits require a 
trained therapist—a hypnotist or psychologist— to administer the program. Thus such methods are both expensive and limited by the 
number of specially trained therapists available to administer the programs. 

I have invented a unique method for conditioning a person's unconscious mind in order to effect a desired change in the person's 
behavior which does not require a trained therapist. Instead, the person to be treated views a program of video pictures projected upon 
a screen. Although the pictures appearing on the screen are viewed by the person's conscious as well as unconscious mind, the 
program's images as viewed act to condition the person's unconscious thought patterns in a way which serves to alter that person's 
behavior. 

Since it is usually a picture or image within a person's mind that creates the behavior and feeling a person will experience, my method 
programs the person's mind so that certain undesirable mental images in that person's conscious and/or unconscious mind (at the time 
of treatment and thereafter) will be automatically exchanged in the mind for a desirable mental image. When the mind thus exchanges 
mental images that person will experience a positive change in feelings and behavior. 



224 



My method of video programming uses two related but different techniques that I have named the Flash and the Chop, which are 
preferably viewed in sequence by the person being programmed. 

The Flash is designed to set up new stimulus-reponse patterns in the brain. The person viewing the sequences of the Flash has his or 
her mind programmed to automatically replace a specific undesirable image when it appears with a desirable image. For example, 
should a stressful thought or mental image come into the person's mind, it will trigger a relaxing thought or a mental image of a 
relaxing scene. 

By lengthy experimentation, I have determined the time of exposure and sequence of the scenes which comprise the Flash and which 
give it its power to program the human mind. The exact number of times the Flash is repeated will depend upon the nature of the 
program. 

Basically, the sequence of views comprising the Flash includes two different pictures which I have named the cue picture and the 
outcome picture. The cue picture is a picture or image which may be either still or moving and which stimulates in the mind of the 
viewer an undesirable behavioral response. The outcome picture triggers a desired response. 

The Flash comprises the following sequence of views: 

1. Start with the cue picture in bright color, focused sharply and as large as possible. Hold the cue picture on the screen for a few 
seconds. 

2. If the cue picture is a movie, have the movie go still and have the picture slowly recede (move away) gradually appearing smaller. 

3. After a few seconds of the picture moving away, have the picture go from color to black and white. 

4. After a few more seconds of the picture moving away, blur the picture. 

5. After a few more seconds, the black and white blurred cue picture disappears by receding into the center of the screen. 

6. Slowly bring the outcome picture into view from the same spot where the cue picture disappeared. The picture is still, small, blurred 
and in black and white but gradually gets larger and becomes sharply focused. 

7. After a few more seconds, the picture gets larger and appears in color. 

8. After a few more seconds, the picture fills the entire screen in bright color. 

9. If the outcome picture is part of a movie, activate the movie and hold it on the screen for a few seconds. 

10. Make the screen go blank white for about 5 seconds. 

11. Repeat views 1 through 10 about four times. 

12. Repeat views 1 through 9 about four times but with their original lapsed time cut by 50% and each time followed by the screen 
going blank white for about 5 seconds. 

13. Repeat views 1 through 5 but with their elapsed time cut to about 6 frames. 

14. Repeat views 6 through 9 but with their elapsed time cut to about 6 frames. 

15. Blank white screen for about 5 seconds. 

16. Repeat steps 13 through 15 several times. 

17. Repeat views 1 through 5 but cut their elapsed time to about 3 frames. 
18 Repeat views 6 through 9 but cut their elapsed time to about 6 frames. 

19. Blank white screen for about 5 seconds. 

20. Repeat steps 17 through 19 several times. 

21. Finally, hold outcome picture on the screen for about 10 seconds. 

In contrast to the Flash as just described, the Chop is a method of alternate viewing of two preferably moving scenes, the first showing 
a undesirable behavior pattern or habit of the viewer and the second showing a repulsive act or a life-threatening consequence of the 
first scene, to create an automatic connection between the two scenes in the conscious and unconscious mind of the viewer. 

As the result of lengthy experimentation, I have determined a most effective sequence and timing of the two pictures of the Chop 
which give it the power to permanently program a person's mind and alter that person's habits in a desirable manner. 



225 



The Chop consists of the following sequence of viewing the two pictures described above: 

1. The undesirable habit will be pictured bright and clearly focused, in color and moving or still, whichever best depicts the 
undesirable habit most effectively. The picture will remain on the screen about 3 seconds in order to affix in the mind of the viewer 
the view to be altered. 

2. The repulsive scene or the scene of the life-threatening consequence of the undesirable habit preferably moving is flashed upon the 
screen in bright color, clearly focused in order to alter the viewer's perception of the first picture. This second picture remains on the 
screen for about 3 seconds. 

3. The sequence of views 1 and 2 are repeated at about 3-second intervals several times. 

4. View 1 will be displayed for about one second. 

5. View 2 will be displayed for about one second. 

6. Steps 4 and 5 will be repeated several times. 

7. View 1 will be displayed for about l/24th of a second. 

8. View 2 will be displayed for about l/24th of a second. 

9. Steps 7 and 8 will be repeated several times. 



The foregoing sequence of views will be most effective when the Chop is followed by one or more "Chop scenes" which repeat the 
first picture but the second picture is replaced by another repulsive or life-threatening picture. 

I have found excellent results are achieved by having the person view in one session of about one-half hour a program consisting first 
of several different Flash sequences followed by several Chop scenes each with a different second picture. 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT 

I have used a preferred embodiment of my method of conditioning a person's unconscious mind to effect a desired change in the 
person's behavior. The preferred embodiment which I call Neuro-Vision.TM. has been successfully used to cause several dozens of 
habitual smokers to give up their smoking habit. 

The only treatment these habitual smokers underwent was to view a program lasting approximately 30 minutes displayed upon a 
screen consisting of six different Flash scenes followed by five successive Chop scenes as hereinafter described. No preliminary or 
subsequent treatment by a hypnotist, psychologist or other trained therapist was required. 

The six Flash scenes of my Neuro-Vision.TM. program are viewed in the following order: 

Flash Scene 1: The cue picture consists of the words STRESS, PROBLEMS and WORRY listed one above the other in large red 
block letters on a bright white background. The outcome picture consists of the words PEACE, SECURITY and TRANQUILITY 
listed one above the other in large blue block letters on a bright white background. 

Flash Scene 2: The cue picture consists of the words STRESS, PROBLEMS and WORRY listed one above the other in large red 
block letters on a bright white background. The outcome picture consists of a palm tree blowing in a gentle breeze at sunset on a sandy 
beach. 

Flash Scene 3: The cue picture is viewed with the camera as the eyes of a person viewing a burning cigarette in his hand resting on a 
table which also contains an ashtray and a cup of coffee and the picture also includes a portion of a newspaper being read by the 
person. The outcome picture is essentially the same as the cue picture but without the burning cigarette and the ashtray, thus picturing 
a comfortable non-smoker reading his newspaper and drinking a cup of coffee. 

Flash Scene 4: The cue picture is viewed with the camera as the eyes of a person viewing a burning cigarette in his hand resting on a 
table top containing an ashtray, cans of beer and poker chips with two other people at the table smoking and playing poker. The 
outcome picture is essentially the same as the cue picture but the person's hand has no cigarette and no ashtray near him; his side of 
the table is clean as he plays cards while the other two players are still smoking. 

Flash Scene 5: The cue picture is viewed with the camera as the eyes of a person driving a car viewing his hands on the steering 
wheel with a burning cigarette in one hand. The cue picture is a side view of a comfortable non-smoker driving his car. 

Flash Scene 6: The cue picture is viewed with the camera as the eyes of a person viewing his hand holding a burning cigarette as he 
watches a television program in the background. The outcome picture is a profile view of a comfortable non-smoker watching 
television. 



226 



Each of the Flash Scenes 1 through 6 is displayed in the following sequence: 

1. Hold the cue picture on the screen for three seconds. 

2. If the cue picture is a movie, have the movie go still and have the picture slowly recede and gradually get smaller. 

3. After two seconds of the picture moving away, have the picture turn from color to black and white. 

4. After two seconds, blur the picture. 

5. After three more seconds the black and white blurred cue picture disappears by receding into the center of the screen. 

6. Slowly bring the outcome picture into view from the center of the screen. The picture is still, small, blurred and in black and white 
but over a two second interval the picture becomes clear and grows larger. 

7. For two more seconds the picture gets larger and turns into color. 

8. Within two more seconds the picture fills the screen in bright color. 

9. The outcome picture turns into a movie for four seconds. 

10. The screen goes blank white for five seconds. 

11. Repeat views 1 through 10 four times. 

12. Repeat views 1 through 9 four times but with their elapsed time cut by 50% and each time followed by the screen going blank 
white for five seconds. 

13. Repeat views 1 through 5 but with their elapsed time cut to six frames. 

14. Repeat vies 6 through 9 but with their elapsed time cut to six frames. 

15. Blank white the screen for five seconds. 

16. Repeat steps 13 through 15 four times. 

17. Repeat views 1 through 5 but cut their elapsed time to three frames. 

18. Repeat views 6 through 9 but cut their elapsed time to six frames. 

19. Blank white the screen for five seconds. 

20. Repeat steps 17 through 19 four times. 

21. Hold the outcome picture on the screen for ten seconds. 



Following these six Flash scenes are five Chop scenes in each of which the first picture is a moving picture of a burning cigarette in 
bright color, sharply focused and filling the entire screen. And in each of the five Chop scenes the second picture is also a moving 
picture in color, sharply focused and filling the entire screen. 

In Chop Scene 1 the second picture is a close-up of a person vomiting into an open toilet bowl. 

In Chop Scene 2 the second picture is a close up of human excrement dropping into an open toilet bowl. 

In Chop Scene 3 the second picture is detailed view of a caesarean section operation or the removal of a diseased lung. 

In Chop Scene 4 the second picture is a person whose face is blurred sitting in a wheelchair and coughing. 

In Chop Scene 5 the second picture is a mouse eating cheese. 

Each of Chop Scenes 1 through 5 are displayed in the following sequence: 

1. The first picture (always a burning cigarette) is displayed for three seconds. 

2. The second picture is displayed for three seconds. 

3. The sequence of views 1 and 2 is repeated three times. 

4. The first picture is displayed for one second. 

5. The second picture is displayed for one second. 

6. The sequence of views 4 and 5 is repeated nine times. 

7. The first picture is displayed for l/24th of a second. 

8. The second picture is displayed for l/24fh of a second. 

9. The sequence of views 7 and 8 is repeated approximately 200 times or for about 18 seconds. 

All display times listed above may be varied and the exact number of times the scenes are repeated may also be varied without 
departing from the scope of my method for conditioning a person's unconscious mind. Those psychologists, hypnotists and other 
therapists skilled in the art will be able to make changes in the Flash and Chop scenes for use in fields other than smoking abatement 
without departing from my method of programing a person's mind. It is to be understood that despite the foregoing description of the 
preferred embodiment of my invention called Neuro-Vision.TM., the scope of my invention is defined only by the appended claims. 



227 



United States Patent 
Schultz , et al. 



4,777,529 
October 11, 1988 



Auditory subliminal programming system 

Abstract 

An auditory subliminal programming system includes a subliminal message encoder that generates fixed 
frequency security tones and combines them with a subliminal message signal to produce an encoded 
subliminal message signal which is recorded on audio tape or the like. A corresponding subliminal 
decoder/mixer is connected as part of a user's conventional stereo system and receives as inputs an audio 
program selected by the user and the encoded subliminal message. The decoder/mixer filters the security 
tones, if present, from the subliminal message and combines the message signals with selected low 
frequency signals associated with enhanced relaxation and concentration to produce a composite auditory 
subliminal signal. The decoder/mixer combines the composite subliminal signal with the selected audio 
program signals to form composite signals only if it detects the presence of the security tones in the 
subliminal message signal. The decoder/mixer outputs the composite signal to the audio inputs of a 
conventional audio amplifier where it is amplified and broadcast by conventional audio speakers. 



Inventors: Schultz; Richard M. (Marengo, IL); Dolejs; Raymond (Arlington Heights, IL) 
Assignee: R. M. Schultz & Associates, Inc. (McHenry, IL) 
Appl.No.: 076113 
Filed: July 21, 1987 

Current U.S. Class: 348/484; 348/61; 380/252; 381/73.1; 381/105; 381/124; 386/102; 

434/307R; 434/319 

Intern'l Class: H04N 005/92 

Field of Search: 358/93,143,341 380/23 381/73.1,105,124 434/307,319 



References Cited [Referenced Byl 



U.S. Patent Documents 



2338551 


Jul., 1942 


Stanko. 


2409058 


Dec, 1944 


Mitchell. 


2501327 


Mar., 1950 


Good. 


2941044 


Jun., 1980 


Volkmann. 


3060795 


Oct., 1962 


Corrigan et al. 


3173136 


Mar., 1965 


Atkinson. 


3278676 


Oct., 1966 


Becker. 


3410958 


Nov., 1968 


Cohen. 


3579233 


May., 1971 


Raschke. 


3934084 


Jan., 1976 


Munson et al. 


3934085 


Jan., 1976 


Munson et al. 


4052720 


Oct., 1977 


McGregor et al. 


4061874 


Dec, 1977 


Frick et al. 


4124943 


Nov., 1978 


Mitchell 


4230990 


Oct., 1980 


Lert 


4270284 


Jun., 1981 


Skellings 


4315502 


Mar., 1982 


Gorges. 


4373918 


Feb., 1983 


Berman 


4395600 


Jul., 1983 


Lundy 


4396946 


Sep., 1983 


Bond. 


4699153 


Oct., 1987 


Shevrin 


4717343 


Jan., 1988 


Densky 



434/307. 

358/84. 
434/169. 

434/307. 
381/73. 

128/731. 
434/262. 



Primary Examiner: Britton; Howard W. 

Attorney, Agent or Firm: Willian Brinks Olds Hofer Gilson & Lione Ltd. 



228 



Claims 

We claim: 



1. A subliminal decoder/mixer for use in an auditory subliminal programming system, comprising: 

means for receiving at least one audio program signal and at least one subliminal message signal; 

means responsive to the instantaneous amplitude of said audio program signal for rapidly varying the 
amplitude of said subliminal message signal; to maintain said signal at a selected consciously inaudible 
level relative to the level of said audio program signal; and 

means for combining said audio program signal and said subliminal message signal to produce at least one 
composite signal having an audio program component and a subliminal message component. 

2. The subliminal decoder/mixer of claim 1 wherein said means for varying the amplitude of said 
subliminal message signal comprises: 

rectifier means for generating a control signal indicative of the instantaneous absolute amplitude of said 
audio program signal; and 

amplifier means responsive to said control signal for amplifying said subliminal message signal with gain 
that varies as a function of said control signal. 

3. The subliminal decoder/mixer of claim 1 further comprising: 

signal generator means for generating at least one signal having a selected frequency; and 

means for combining said signal with said subliminal message signal to form a composite subliminal 
message signal. 

4. The auditory subliminal programming system of claim 1 wherein said subliminal decoder/mixer means 
further comprises: 

signal generator means for generating selected subsonic frequency signals; and 

means for combining said signals with said subliminal message signal to form a composite subliminal 
message signal. 

5. A subliminal decoder/mixer for use in an auditory subliminal programming system, comprising: 

means for receiving at least one audio program signal and at least one subliminal message signal; 

means for combining said audio program signal and said subliminal message signal to produce at least one 
composite signal having an audio program component and a subliminal message component, the amplitude 
of the subliminal message component relative to the amplitude of the audio program component being such 
that only the audio program component is consciously audible; 

means for detecting at least one predetermined security code in said subliminal message signal; and 

means responsive to said means for detecting for preventing said subliminal message signals from being 
combined with said audio program signal unless said at least one predetermined security code is detected. 

6. The subliminal decoder/mixer of claim 5 wherein said at least one security code comprises at least one 
tone signal having selected frequency. 



229 



7. The subliminal decoder/mixer of claim 5 further comprising: 

signal generator means for generating at least one signal having a selected frequency; and 

means for combining said signal with said subliminal message signal to form a composite subliminal 
message signal. 

8. An auditory subliminal programming system, comprising: 

audio program source means for generating at least one audio program signal; 

subliminal message source means for generating at least one subliminal message signal; 

subliminal decoder/mixer means for procesing said audio program signal and said subliminal message 
signal, said decoder/mixer means comprising: 

means for receiving said audio program signal and said subliminal message signal; 

means responsive to the instantaneous amplitude of said audio program signal for rapidly varying the 
amplitude of said subliminal message signal to maintain said signal at a selected consciously inaudible 
level relative to the level of said audio program signal; and 

means for combining said audio program and subliminal message signals to produce at least one composite 
signal having an audio program component and a subliminal message component; 

audio amplifier means for receiving and amplifying said at least one composite signal; and 

audio speaker means for broadcasting said at least one composite signal. 

9. The auditory subliminal programming system of claim 8 wherein said means for varying the amplitude 
of said subliminal message signal comprises: 

rectifier means for generating a control signal indicative of the instantaneous absolute amplitude of said 
audio program signal; and 

amplifier means responsive to said control signal for amplifying said subliminal message signal with gain 
that varies as a function of said control signal. 

10. An auditory subliminal programming system, comprising: 

audio program source means for generating at least one audio program signal; 

subliminal message source means for generating at least one subliminal message signal; 

subliminal decoder/mixer means for processing said audio program signal and said subliminal message 
signal, said decoder/mixer means comprising: 

means for receiving said audio program signal and said subliminal message signal; 

means for combining said audio program and subliminal message signals to produce at least one composite 
signal having an audio program component and a subliminal message component, the amplitude of the 
subliminal message component relative to the amplitude of the audio program component being such that 
only the audio program component is consciously audible; means for detecting at least one predetermined 
security code in said subliminal message signal; and 



230 



means responsive to said means for detecting for preventing said subliminal message signal from being 
combined with said audio program signal unless said at least one predetermined security code is detected; 

audio amplifier means for receiving and amplifying said at least one composite signal; and 

audio speaker means for broadcasting said at least one composite signal. 

11. The auditory subliminal programming system of claim 10 wherein said subliminal decoder/mixer 
means further comprises: 

signal generator means for generating at least one signal having selected frequency; and 

means for combining said signal with said subliminal message signal to form a composite subliminal 
message signal. 

12. The auditory subliminal programming system of claim 10 wherein said at least one predetermined 
security code comprises at least one tone signal having selected frequency. 

13. An auditory subliminal programming system, comprising: 

subliminal message encoder means for combining a subliminal message with at least one predetermined 
security code to produce an encoded subliminal message; and 

subliminal decoder/mixer means for receiving a subliminal message and an audio program, said 
decoder/mixer comprising decoding means for detecting whether said subliminal message is encoded with 
said predetermined security code, and mixing means responsive to said decoding means for combining said 
subliminal message with said audio program to produce at least one composite signal having a consciously 
audible audio program component and a subconsciously audible subliminal message component only if 
said decoding means detects said security code. 

14. The auditory subliminal programming system of claim 13 wherein said subliminal encoder means 
comprises at least one oscillator means for generating at least one said security code comprising a tone 
signal haveing selected frequency. 

15. A subliminal message encoder system for use in an auditory subliminal programming system, 
comprising: 

means for generating at least one subliminal message signal; 
means for generating at least one security code; 

combining means for combining said at least one security code and said subliminal message signal to 
produce an encoded subliminal message signal; and recording means for recording said encoded subliminal 
message signal. 

16. An audio-video subliminal programming system, comprising: 

audio-video program source means for generating audio and video program signals; 

subliminal message source means for generating at least one auditory subliminal message signal; 

subliminal decoder/mixer means for processing said audio and video program signals and said 
subliminal message signal, said decoder/mixer means comprising: 

means for receiving said audio and video program signals and said subliminal message signal; 



231 



means responsive to the instantaneous amplitude of said audio program signal for rapidly varying the 
amplitude of said subliminal message signal to maintain said signal at a selected consciously inaudible 
level relative to the level of said audio program signal; 

means for combining said audio program signal and said subliminal message signal to produce at least 
one composite signal having an audio program component and a subliminal message component; and 

modulator means for modulating said video program signal for reception by a television video display 
means; 

audio amplifier means for receiving and amplifying said at least one composite signal; 

audio speaker means for broadcasting said at least one composite signal; and 

television video display means for receiving and displaying the modulated video program signal. 

17. The audio-video subliminal programming system of claim 16 wherein said means for varying the 
amplitude of said subliminal message signal comprises: 

rectifier means for generating control signals indicative of the instantaneous absolute amplitude of said 
audio program signal; and 

amplifier means responsive to said control signal for amplifying said subliminal message signal with 
gain that varies as a function of said control signal. 

18. The audio-video subliminal programming system of claim 16 wherein said subliminal 
decoder/mixer means further comprises: 

signal generator means for generating at least one signal having selected frequency; and 

means for combining said signal with said subliminal message signal to form a composite subliminal 
message signal. 

19. An audio-video subliminal programming system, comprising: 

audio-video program source means for generating audio and video program signals; 

subliminal message source means for generating at least one auditory subliminal message signal; 

subliminal decoder/mixer means for processing said audio and video program signals and said subliminal 
message signal, said decoder/mixer means comprising: 

means for receiving said audio and video program signals and said subliminal message signal; 

means for combining said audio program signal and said subliminal message signal to produce at least one 
composite signal having an audio program component and a subliminal message component, the amplitude 
of the subliminal message component relative to the amplitude of the audio program component being such 
that only the audio program component is consciously audible; 

means for detecting at least one predetermined security code in said subliminal message signal; 

means responsive to said means for detecting for preventing said subliminal message signal from being 
combined with said audio program signal unless said at least one predetermined security code is detected; 



232 



and modulator means for modulating said video program signal for reception and display by a television 
video display means; 

audio amplifier means for receiving and amplifying said at least one composite signal; 

audio speaker means for broadcasting said at least one composite signal; and 

television video display means for receiving and displaying the modulated video program signal. 

20. The audio-video subliminal programming system of claim 19 wherein said at least one predetermined 
security code comprises at least one tone signal having selected frequency. 

21. The audio-video subliminal programming system of claim 19 wherein said subliminal decoder/mixer 
means further comprises: 

signal generator means for generating at least one signal having selected frequency; and 

means for combining said signal with said subliminal message signal to form a composite subliminal 
message signal. 



Description 



BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 

1 . Field of the Invention 

This invention relates generally to systems for generating auditory subliminal messages. More particularly, the invention relates to an 
auditory subliminal programming system that includes security coding and decoding and improved automatic gain control of the 
subliminal message signal. The programming system of the invention is particularly well adapted for use in self-improvement 
programs. 

2. Statement of Related Art 

It has long been thought that subliminal programming has the capability to influence the behavioral patterns of listeners. Corrigan et 
al. U.S. Pat. No. 3,060,795 and Becker U.S. Pat. No. 3,278,676 are examples of early work in this area. 

One application of auditory subliminal programming to influence the behavior of listeners has been in the area of anti-theft systems. 
Lundy et al. U.S. Pat. No. 4,395,600 discloses an anti-shoplifting system in which subliminal anti-shoplifting messages are mixed with 
audio program signals such as background music, and with a masking signal. The combined signal is then broadcast via loudspeakers 
to various areas of a store. In order to ensure that the subliminal message is broadcast at a sufficient level to be physically (although 
not concipously) audible, Lundy et al. varies the amplitude of the subliminal signal as a function of the level of ambient noise in the 
store. However, in order to ensure that the subliminal message does not become supraliminal, i.e., consciously audible, during a sharp 
drop in the ambient noise level, Lundy et al. also uses a masking signal that quickly responds to changes in the ambient noise level to 
mask the subliminal message and prevent such an occurrence. The amplitude of the audio program signal i.e., the background music, 
is separately controlled independently of the ambient noise level. 

It is also though that auditory and/or visual stimulation at certain frequencies enhances the relaxation, awareness, and control of the 
person being stimulated. See, for example, Gorges U.S. Pat. No. 4,315,502. The use of such stimulation in conjunction with auditory 
subliminal programming is desirable to further enhance the programming. However, insofar as the applicant is aware, no system 
combining auditory subliminal programming with such stimulation has heretofore been developed. 

In particular, an area in which auditory subliminal programming alone or in combination with such other stimulation can be quite 
effective and beneficial is the area of self-improvement programming. For example, auditory subliminal programming can be used to 
help the listener stop smoking, lose weight, improve problem solving techniques, and the like. 

In the past, tapes or other audio storage media having pre-recorded subliminal self-improvement messages mixed with pre-recorded 
audio programs such as musical programs have been available. The listener purchased the tapes and played them through his own 
home stereo, for example, to obtain the desired subliminal programming. However, this proved unsatisfactory to users primarily 
because they had no control over the musical selections provided and because the musical selections could not be changed. 



233 



Known prior art systems, such as the Lundy et al. system also have various drawbacks and lack certain features that have made them 
unsatisfactory for use in the personal self-improvement programming area. For instance, although it is desirable for the level of the 
subliminal message to track the higher level of the audio program, thereby optimizing the effect of the programming, it is 
unsatisfactory to do so by sensing the ambient noise level in a location such as the user's living or family room. In addition, the known 
systems do not include the very desirable feature of built-in security in order to inhibit unauthorized and possibly damaging use of the 
subliminal programming. 

In view of the foregoing drawbacks and deficiencies of the prior art, it is an object of the present invention to provide an improved 
auditory subliminal programming system which is particularly well adapted for use in personal self-improvement programming. 

It is another object of the invention to provide such a system which combines auditory subliminal programming with auditory 
stimulation at frequencies which enhance the relaxation, awareness and control of the listener for enhanced learning and retention. 

It is a further object of the invention to provide such a system which includes built-in security measures which automatically prevent 
the use of unauthorized subliminal program material. 

It is still another object of the invention to provide such a system wherein the quality of the composite signal containing the audio 
program and subliminal programming signals is enhanced by automatically controlling the relative level of the subliminal 
programming signal as a direct function of the amplitude of the audio program signal. 



SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION 

The foregoing objects and attendant advantages are obtained by providing a subliminal decoder/mixer that receives audio program 
signals and subliminal message signals, automatically varies the amplitude of the subliminal message signals as a function of the 
amplitude of the audio program signals, and combines the signals into a composite signal in which only the audio program component 
is consciously audible. 

With respect to another aspect of the invention, the decoder/mixer detects whether at least one predetermined security code is present 
in the subliminal message signals and prevents combination of the audio program signals and subliminal message signals unless such 
code is detected. 

With respect to still another aspect of the invention, the decoder/mixer combines the subliminal message signal with at least one signal 
having selected frequency to produce composite subliminal signals. 

A subliminal message encoder system is also provided that generates at least one predetermined security code, combines the code with 
subliminal message signals generated by an audio source and records the encoded subliminal message signals. 

With respect to yet another aspect, the decoder/mixer is combined with an audio program source, a subliminal message source, an 
audio amplifier and audio speakers to provide an auditory subliminal programming system. 

In another variation, the decoder/mixer is combined with an audio-video program source, a composite video signal modulator, and a 
television video display to provide an audio-video subliminal programming system. 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING 

The novel features that are believed to be characteristic of the invention are set forth in the appended claims. The invention itself, 
along with the foregoing objects and attendant advantages thereof, will be best understood by reference to the following detailed 
description of the presently preferred embodiments thereof, taken in conjunction with the drawing, in which: 

FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a presently preferred subliminal decoder/mixer, which embodies various novel features of the 
invention, together with related audio components; 

FIG. 2 is an electrical schematic diagram illustrating the details of the subliminal decoder/mixer of FIG. 1 ; 

FIG. 3 is a block diagram illustrating a preferred subliminal message encoder which embodies various novel features of the invention, 
together with related audio components; and 

FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrating an alternative embodiment of the subliminal decoder/mixer of FIGS. 1 and 2 which is adapted 
for use with a video cassette recorder and television. 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PRESENTLY PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS 

Referring to FIG. 1 of the drawing, an audio program source 10 such as a conventional tape deck, compact disc, or 
phonograph generates stereo music or other audio program signals selected by the user on left and right audio outputs. 
These signals are conducted to left and right audio inputs of a subliminal decoder/mixer 25 on lines 15 and 20 
respectively. 



234 



A subliminal message source 30, which is typically also a tape deck, compact disc player, or other audio source 
generates a pre-determined subliminal message signal which is transmitted to a subliminal signal input of the 
subliminal decoder/mixer 25 on a line 35. The subliminal decoder/mixer 25 decodes the subliminal message signal and 
detects whether it contains two selected pre-recorded security tones. The subliminal decoder/mixer 25 filters the tones, 
if present, out of the subliminal message signal and mixes the subliminal message signal with the left and right audio 
program signals only if both tones are present. The subliminal decoder/mixer 25 also controls the level of the 
subliminal message signal as a function of the level of the audio program signal, mixes in two subliminal low 
frequency signals, and outputs the resulting composite signals on left and right audio output channels respectively. 

The composite signals on the left and right audio output channels are transmitted to the left and right audio input 
channels of a conventional stereo amplifier 50 on lines 40 and 45 respectively. The amplifier 50 amplifies the 
composite signals and outputs them on lines 55 and 65 respectively to conventional left 60 and right 70 audio speakers. 
The listener consciously hears only the audio program he has selected, but subconsciously also receives the subliminal 
programming message and the subsonic frequency stimulation. If the user attempts to use an unauthorized subliminal 
message which does not contain both security tones, the decoder/mixer 25 detects the absence of the tones and does not 
mix the unauthorized message with the audio program. 

FIG. 2 is an electrical schematic diagram which illustrates the details of the subliminal decoder/mixer 25 of FIG. 1. The 
decoder/mixer 25 has three inputs: a subliminal program signal input on line 35, a left audio signal input on line 15, and 
a right audio signal input on line 20. Power is supplied to the components by any conventional power supply (not 
shown) that is capable of full wave rectifying and filtering a 60 Hz AC power signal and providing +/-12 V and +/-5 V 
DC operating voltages therefrom. 

An RC network comprised of resistor 155 connected between line 35 and ground and a series capacitor 156 couples 
line 35 to the input of a conventional audio input amplifier 160, which is suitably a conventional negative feedback 
operational amplifier. The output of the amplifier 160 is connected by line 162 to the signal input of a first notch filter 
175. The output of the first notch filter 175 is coupled to the input of a second notch filter 180 through an RC network 
comprised of a resistor 177 connected between the output of the notch filter 175 and ground, and a series capacitor 178. 
The output of the second notch filter 180 is coupled to one input of a conventional summing amplifier 185 through an 
RC network comprised of a resistor 182 connected between the output of the second notch filter 180 and ground, and a 
series capacitor 184. The notch filters 175 and 180 may be either digital or analog filters, one tuned to each security 
tone frequency. A suitable digital notch filter, for example, is the MF10 notch filter manufactured by National 
Semiconductor Corp. 

The output of the amplifier 160 is also connected by line 162 to the input of a security tone detect/decode unit 170. The 
output of the security tone detect/decode unit 170 is connected by a line 172 to the respective control terminals of a pair 
of transmission gates 195 and 200 respectively which are connected between lines 142 and 147 respectively and 
ground. The security tone detect/decode unit 170 is preferably comprised of two parallel phase locked loops (PLL's) 
(not shown) each tuned to one of the security tones. Line 162 is connected to the signal inputs of both PLL's and the 
tone detect signal outputs of the PLL's are gated together so that the output signal of the security tone detect/decode 
unit 170 on line 172 is low only if both security tones are present. The PLL's are suitably NE567 PLL's manufactured 
by a number of companies including Signetics, National Semiconductor, and Motorola. 

A signal generator 190 preferably generates 1 Hz and 12 Hz TTL output pulses on lines 192 and 194 respectively. 
Lines 192 and 194 are connected to inputs of the summing amplifier 185. The signal generator 190 also preferably 
generates tuning frequency pulses which correspond to the frequencies of the selected security tones and outputs them 
to the notch filters 175 and 180 on lines 193 and 191 respectively. The signal generator 190 is preferably comprised of 
a conventional oscillator (not shown) having its output connected to one or more conventional counters (not shown) 
which count down the oscillator signals to provide the output signals on lines 191-194 having the desired frequencies. 
This technique is well known to those skilled in the art. 

The output of the summing amplifier 185 is connected by lines 186 and 187 tpo the signal inputs of voltage controlled 
amplifiers 140 and 145 respectively. The signal outputs of the voltage controlled amplifiers 140 and 145 are connected 
by lines 141 and 146 respectively to inputs of conventional summing amplifiers 120 and 125 respectively. 

An RC network comprised of resistor 112 connected between left audio input line 15 and ground and series capacitor 
1 14 couples line 15 to the input of a conventional audio input amplifier 1 16. Likewise, an RC network comprised of a 
resistor 1 13 connected between the right audio input line 20 and ground, and a series capacitor 115 couples line 20 to 
the input of a conventional audio input amplifier 117. Audio input amplifiers 116 and 117 may also be conventional 
negative feedback operational amplifiers. The outputs of the audio input amplifiers 116 and 1 17 are connected by lines 
118 and 119 respectively to the signal inputs of conventional precision rectifiers 130 and 135 respectively, and to signal 



235 



inputs of the summing amplifiers 120 and 125 respectively. The outputs of the precision rectifiers 130 and 135 are 
connected by lines 142 and 147 respectively to the control terminals of the voltage controlled amplifiers 140 and 145 
respectively and to signal inputs of the transmission gates 195 and 200 respectively. The outputs of the summing 
amplifiers 120 and 125 are coupled through series capacitors 150 and 152 respectively to left and right audio output 
lines 40 and 45 respectively. 

Many suitable precision rectifiers are known to those skilled in the art. One such rectifier which utilizes a two-stage 
operational amplifier arrangement and which is suitable for use is illustrated and described in Roberge, Operational 
Amplifiers Theory and Practice, 458-460, John Wiley & Sons Inc. (1975). It is preferred, however, that in the 
illustrated rectifier circuit, the transistor in the negative feedback path of the first stage amplifier be replaced by a diode 
and that the fixed resistor in the negative feedback path of the second stage amplifier be replaced by a variable resistor 
to provide gain control. Suitable voltage controlled amplifiers are LM1035 amplifiers manufactured by National 
Semiconductor Corp. 

FIG. 3 illustrates a presently preferred subliminal message encoding arrangement for use with the decoder/mixer 25 of 
FIGS. 1 and 2. A subliminal message encoder 80 includes a first oscillator 85, a second oscillator 90, and a summing 
amplifier 100. The first and second oscillators 85 and 90 respectively generate at their outputs first and second security 
tones having predetermined fixed frequencies. The outputs of the first and second oscillators 85 and 90 are connected 
by lines 88 and 92 respectively to signal inputs of a conventional summing amplifier 100. The output of the summing 
amplifier 100 is connected by a line 105 preferably to a signal input of a tape recorder, compact disc recorder or other 
audio recording device. An audio source 95, which may be a person speaking through a microphone, or a tape recorder 
or speech synthesizer or the like, generates at its output subliminal message signals that will eventually be broadcast to 
the listener. The output of the audio source 95 is connected by a line 97 to a signal input of the summing amplifier 100. 

The use and operation of the preferred auditory subliminal programming system will now be described. Initially the 
manufacturer of the subliminal message encoder and the subliminal decoder/mixer 25 determines the number and 
frequency of security tones that will be used. In the preferred embodiment, two tones are used. During manufacturing, 
the manufacturer tunes the PLL's of the detect/decode unit 170 and the notch filters 175 and 180 to the selected 
frequencies, and sets the oscillators 85 and 90 to the selected frequencies. The manufacturer uses the subliminal 
message encoder to produce tapes, compact disks or the like with the subliminal message and the security tones 
encoded thereon. Since only the manufacturer knows the tones selected, it retains control over the content of the 
subliminal programming which will be allowed to pass through the decoder/mixer 25. 

Persons desiring to receive particular subliminal programming must obtain a subliminal decoder/mixer 25 and the tapes 
or other audio media containing the desired programming from the manufacturer. The user can verify the contents of 
the tapes or other media by playing them on a tape deck, compact disc player or other suitable audio reproduction 
equipment and listening to their contents. To use the subliminal decoder/mixer 25, the user plugs the left and right 
audio output jacks of his tape deck, compact disc player or other audio program source into the left and right audio 
inputs of the decoder/mixer 25. The user connects the left and right audio outputs of the decoder/mixer 25 to the left 
and right audio inputs of his stereo or audio amplifier. The user also connects an output of another tape deck or other 
suitable audio reproduction equipment which will be the subliminal message source to the subliminal signal input of 
the decoder/mixer 25. The user then plays whatever musical or other audio programs he selects on the tape deck 
connected to the audio inputs of the decoder/mixer 25, and the subliminal program material on the tape deck or other 
audio source connected to the subliminal signal input of the decoder/mixer 25. The user may control the volume of the 
audio program using the volume control provided on the tape deck and the decoder/mixer 25 automatically adjusts the 
level of the subliminal message signal as a function of the level of the audio program signals. 

Referring to the details of the decoder/mixer 25 illustrated in FIG. 2, the RC networks comprised of resistors 1 12,113 
and capacitors 1 14,1 15 AC couple the left and right audio program signals to the inputs of the audio input amplifiers 
116 and 117 respectively. The audio input amplifiers 116 and 117 amplify the left and right audio signals and output 
the amplified signals to the summing amplifiers 120 and 125 on lines 118 and 1 19 respectively. Assuming that the 
subliminal message source 30 is not activated so that there is no subliminal message signal on line 35, the left and right 
audio signals pass through summing amplifiers 120 and 125 and are output on lines 40 and 45 unchanged. The gains of 
the audio input amplifiers 1 16 and 1 17 and the summing amplifiers 120 and 125 are preferably adjusted to provide 
unity gain to the left and right audio signals. 

When a subliminal message signal is present on line 35, it is AC coupled to the input of the audio input amplifier 160 
through the RC network comprised of resistor 155 and capacitor 156. The signal is amplified and output on line 162 to 
the series notch filters 175 and 180. 

The series notch filters 175 and 180 remove the security tone frequencies from the subliminal message signal before it 
is input to the summing amplifier 185. The summing amplifier 185 sums the filtered subliminal message signal with the 



236 



1 Hz and 12 Hz stimulation signals generated by the signal generator 190. The 12 Hz signal component assists the 
listener in generating alpha brain waves which increase awareness. The 1 Hz component reinforces relaxation and 
concentration. If desired, either or both signals can also be transmitted through light emitting diodes (LED's) to provide 
visual as well as auditory stimulation. 

In order to maintain the subliminal message at an optimum level with respect to the level of the audio program, the 
voltage controlled amplifiers 140 and 145 control the amplitude of the subliminal signal output by the summing 
amplifier 185 with gain that varies as a function of the instantaneous amplitude of the audio signals. The precision 
rectifiers 130 and 135 generate unipolar signals with amplitudes the same as the instantaneous absolute amplitudes of 
the left and right audio signals. These signals are scaled and used to control the gains of the voltage controlled 
amplifiers 140 and 145. 

The variably amplified subliminal signals are then summed with the left and right audio signals by summing amplifiers 
120 and 125 and the composite signals are AC coupled to the outputs 40 and 45 by capacitors 150 and 152 respectively. 
The inputs to the summing amplifiers 120 and 125 from the voltage controlled amplifiers 140 and 145 are scaled with 
respect to the left and right audio signal inputs so that the subliminal signals are continuously maintained at a 
consciously inaudible level of preferably about -30 dB with respect to the levels of the audio signals. 

The security tone detect/decode unit 170 also receives the amplified message signal on line 162 and inputs the signal to 
the two tuned PLL's. If, and only if, the error signal outputs of both PLL's are low, indicating that both security tones 
are present, the gate control signal output by the detect/decode unit 170 on line 172 is high. A high gate control signal 
renders the gates 195 and 200 non-conductive. A low signal energizes the gates, which then shunt the control signals 
from the precision rectifiers 130 and 135 on lines 142 and 147 respectively to ground. This disables the voltage 
controlled amplifiers 140 and 145 from passing the subliminal signals output by the summing amplifier 185 on lines 
186 and 187 and thus prevents the subliminal message signal from being mixed with the left and right audio signals. 
Accordingly, only the left and right audio signals are output on the left and right audio output lines 40 and 45. 
FIG. 4 illustrates an alternative preferred embodiment of the subliminal decoder/mixer 25 which is adapted for use 
with an audio-video program source such as a video cassette recorder (VCR) 205 and an audio-video output device 
such as a television 29, for example. In this embodiment, the subliminal decoder/mixer 25 contains the same circuitry 
as illustrated in FIG. 2 and described above. The left and right audio signal inputs of the subliminal decoder/mixer 25 
are connected to the left and right audio outputs 15 and 20 respectively of the VCR. The left and right audio outputs of 
the subliminal decoder/mixer 25 are input to the left and right audio inputs of television 29 if it is adapted to receive 
stereo and the signals are broadcast by left and right television speakers 32 and 33. If the television 29 is not stereo 
compatible, either the right or left audio output of the subliminal decoder/mixer 25 is connected to the monaural audio 
input of the television 29. If no such connection is provided, it is necessary to use a separate audio amplifier and 
speaker. In addition, the subliminal decoder/mixer 25 also contains a conventional RF modulator 26 which receives the 
composite video output signal of the VCR 205 on a line 22. The RF modulator 26 converts the composite signal to a 
radio frequency signal suitable for display preferably on channel 3 or 4 of the television 29 in a manner well known to 
those skilled in the art, and outputs the signal to the television on line 28. Alternatively, if the VCR contains its own RF 
modulator or if the television 29 is adapted to receive the VCR composite video signal, the VCR video signal may be 
connected directly to the video input of the television 29 on a line 24, for example. Thus, in the alternative embodiment 
of FIG. 4, the listener may watch a favorite program, for example, while at the same time obtaining the benefits of 
auditory subliminal programming. 

What have been described are certain aspects of auditory subliminal programming systems which constitute presently 
preferred embodiments of the invention. It is understood that the foregoing description and accompanying illustrations 
are merely exemplary and are in no way intended to limit the scope of the invention, which is defined solely by the 
appended claims and their equivalents. Various changes and modifications to the preferred embodiments will be 
apparent to those skilled in the art. Such changes and modifications may include, but are not limited to: the use of 
different security arrangements such as pseudo-random codes and corresponding detectors; the addition or deletion of 
signal components from the composite output signals; the use of various different types of audio program source and 
subliminal message source equipment such as tape decks, speech synthesizers, live input, phonographs, and the like; 
and the use of different output devices such as headphones or the like. Moreover, various analog components of the 
preferred embodiment can be replaced by equivalent digital components and vice versa. Such changes and 
modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly it is intended that 
all such changes and modifications be covered by the appended claims and equivalents. 



237 



United States Patent 
Masaki 



4,834,701 
May 30, 1989 



Apparatus for inducing frequency reduction in brain wave 

Abstract 

Frequency reduction in human brain wave is inducible by allowing human brain to perceive 4-16 hertz beat 
sound. Such beat sound can be easily produced with an apparatus, comprising at least one sound source 
generating a set of low-frequency signals different each other in frequency by 4-16 hertz. 
Electroencephalographic study revealed that the beat sound is effective to reduce beta-rhythm into alpha- 
rhythm, as well as to retain alpha-rhythm. 



Inventors: Masaki; Kazumi (Osaka, JP) 
Assignee: Ken Hayashibara (Okayama, JP) 
Appl. No.: 758534 
Filed: July 24, 1985 

Foreign Application Priority Data 



Aug 24, 1984[JP] 



59-175098 



Current U.S. Class: 
Intern'l Class: 
Field of Search: 



600/28 

A61N 001/34 
128/731-732,905,1 C,l R 600/26-28 



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Primary Examiner: Howell; Kyle L. 
Assistant Examiner: Sykes; Angela D. 
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Browdy and Neimark 



238 



Claims 



I claim: 

1. An apparatus for inducing frequency reduction of human brain wave, comprising: 

(a) means for generating a first low-frequency signal which is higher in frequency than the range of 4 to 16 hertz; 

(b) means for generating a second low-frequency signal which is higher in frequency than the range of 4 to 16 hertz and is different in 
frequency by 4 to 16 hertz from the first signal; 

(c) means for sounding the first- and second signals to generate a beat signal of the frequency of 4 to 16 hertz. 

2. The apparatus in accordance with claim 1, wherein the frequency of the first signal is 120 to 180 hertz. 

3. The apparatus in accordance with claim 1, wherein either or both of said generating means comprises a means for generating a low- 
frequency signal and a means for lowering the frequency of the signal. 

4. The apparatus in accordance with claim 3, wherein said frequency lowering means is coupled with the sounding means through a 
waveform-modifier. 

5. The apparatus in accordance with claim 3, wherein said frequency lowering means is a decade counter. 

6. The apparatus in accordance with claim 1, wherein said sounding means is at least one earphone or loudspeaker. 

7. The apparatus in accordance with claim 1, wherein said generating means essentially consists of a linear integrated circuit, 
capacitance, and resistance. 

8. An apparatus for inducing frequency reduction of brain waves of human subject, comprising: 

(a) first means for generating a first low-frequency signal which is higher in frequency than the range of 4 to 16 hertz; 

(b) second means for generating a second low-frequency signal which is higher in frequency than the range of 4 to 16 hertz and is 
different by 4 to 16 hertz from said first low-frequency signal; and 

(c) means for sounding said first- and second-low frequency signals to generate a beat signal of the frequency of 4 to 16 hertz; 
whereby upon perceiving said beat signal by the human brain the ongoing state of brain wave is shifted to alpha -rhythm. 

9. The apparatus of claim 8, wherein at least one of said first and second generating means comprises a third means for generating a 
third low-frequency signal and a means for lowering the frequency of said third low-frequency signal to produce a fourth low- 
frequency signal. 

10. The apparatus of claim 9, wherein said means for lowering said third low-frequency signal is coupled with said means for 
sounding through a waveform-modifier. 

11. The apparatus of claim 10, wherein said means for lowering comprises a decade counter. 

12. The apparatus of claim 8, wherein said means for sounding is coupled to at least one ear of the human subject. 

13. The apparatus of claim 8, wherein each of said means for generating a first- and a second- low frequency signal comprises linear 
integrated amplifier means, capacitor means, and resistor means. 

Description 



FIELD OF THE INVENTION 

The present invention relates to an apparatus to induce frequency reduction in human brain wave. 
DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART 

The human brain wave produced when the five sensory organs are in action is called as "beta-rhythm", a 
brain wave of 15 hertz or higher, which is reduced to the "alpha-rhythm", a brain wave of 7 to 14 hertz, by 
mental relaxation. One may exhibit an amazing ability when one's brain wave is in alpha-rhythm. In such 
state, a great ability may be exhibited in learning, researching, and making invention. 



239 



So far no effective means to induce frequency reduction in human brain wave was proposed. 
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION 



Accordingly, one general object of the invention is to provide an apparatus to induce frequency reduction in 
human brain wave. Still more specific object of the invention is to provide an apparatus to allow human 
brain to perceive a beat sound within a prescribed frequency range. These and other objects as may become 
apparent hereafter have been attained with an apparatus, comprising means for generating a pair of low- 
frequency signals; said signals being different in frequency by 4-16 hertz. 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING 

The present invention will hereinafter be explained with reference to the accompanying drawings: 

FIG. 1 show a basic structure of an apparatus according to the invention; 

FIG. 2 shows another basic structure using single sound source; 

FIG. 3 shows a circuit diagram of an oscillator feasible in the invention; 

FIG. 4 shows a circuit diagram of an apparatus feasible to generate a correct frequency difference; 
FIG. 5 shows a circuit diagram wherein decade counters are used; 
FIG. 6 shows the frequency of human brain waves; and 

FIG. 7 shows a waveform chart illustrating frequency lowering operation of decade counter. 

In the Figures, F indicates oscillator; SP, loudspeaker; IC, linear integrated circuit; C, capacitance; R, 

resistance; A, frequency lowering-circuit; B, waveform-modifier; D, decade counter; and S, switch. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS 

FIG. 1 shows a basic structure of an apparatus according to the invention, wherein the outputs of first- and second-oscillators F.sub.l 
and F.sub.2 are sounded with loudspeakers SP.sub.l and SP.sub.2 respectively. The ears perceive their frequency difference as beat. 
Human brain wave can be reduced to alpha-rhythm by employing a beat frequency approximate or equal to alpha-rhythm. 

FIG. 2 shows an example wherein the outputs of first- and second-oscillators F.sub.l and F.sub.2 are sounded with single loudspeaker 
SP. 

FIG. 3 illustrates an oscillator circuit, essentially consisting of linear integrated circuit IC, capacitance C and resistance R, feasible in 
first- and second-oscillators F.sub.l and F.sub.2. The oscillation frequency f is expressed by f=l/.kappa.RC, where .kappa, is the 
constant. In the apparatus according to the invention, the oscillation frequency f is generally set to 120-180 hertz. 

FIG. 4 shows a means for fixing the frequency difference in order to obtain a stabilized beat. For example, 900 hertz fundamental 
frequency, produced by oscillator F, is applied to frequency lowering-circuits A.sub.l, A.sub.2 and A.sub.3 to obtain signal with one- 
ninth, one-eighth or one-seventh of the fundamental frequency, i.e. 100, 1 12.5 and 128 hertz, respectively. These signals are changed 
by waveform-modifiers B.sub.l, B.sub.2 and B.sub.3 into more audible signals, and then used to generate a beat sound corresponding 
to either frequency difference of 1 12.5-100=12.5 (hertz) or 128-112.5=15.5 (hertz). 

FIG. 5 shows an example wherein fundamental frequency f produced by oscillator F is lowered by decade counter F. Decade counter 
F is arranged to produce single synchronous signals at output terminals 9, 8, 7 and 6 for every ninth-, eighth-, seventh- or sixth-cycles 
of the fundamental frequency. For example, when oscillator F is supposed to generate 900 hertz signal, then 100 hertz signal appears 
at output terminal 9 of decade counter D.sub. 1 . Similarly, output terminal 8 of decade counter D.sub.2 is applied with 1 12.5 hertz 
signal; terminal 7, 128.5 hertz signal; and terminal 6, 150 hertz signal. By turning an output terminal 9 of decade counter D.sub. 1 and 
output terminal of 8 of decade counter D.sub.2 with switches S.sub.l and S.sub.2, a 12.5 hertz beat sound is produced, while by using 
output terminal 9 of decade counter D.sub. 1 and output terminal 7 of decade counter D.sub.2 a 28.5 hertz beat is sounded. A beat 
sound with a desirable frequency, obtained by turning on any two output terminals with switches S.sub.l and S.sub.2, is changed with 
waveform-modifiers B.sub.l and B.sub.2 into a more audible signal, and then sounded by loudspeakers SP.sub.l and SP.sub.2. 
FIG. 6 shows the frequency of human brain waves: It can be seen that the frequency of human brain wave produced when the five 
sensory organs are in action is 15 hertz or higher, but shiftable to alpha-rhythm, i.e. 7-14 hertz, by mental relaxation. 
FIG. 7 shows the operations of decade counter D. When successive signals 0, 1, 2, ... , and 16 come into decade counters D.sub. 1 and 
D.sub.2 in a manner as shown with chart "P", for example, seventh- and eighth-signal 7 and 8 produce single pulses at decade counters 
D.sub. 1 and D.sub.2 respectively to back them to the first state for the subsequent counting. By using these as synchronous signal, sine 
or other suitable waveform can be desirably generated, followed by modification into a more audible waveform with waveform- 
modifier B. An electroencephalographic study using volunteers confirmed that 4-16 hertz beat sound is most effective to lower the 
frequency of human brain wave to 8-14 hertz alpha-rhythm. I found that such beat sound is also effective to retain alpha-rhythm, as 
well as to bring human brain wave from either "theta-rhythm" or "delta-rhythm" into alpha-rhythm. 

Having described the present invention as related to the embodiments shown in the accompanying drawings, it is my intention that the 
invention is not limited by any of the details of description, but rather be construed broadly within its spirit and scope as set out in the 
accompanying claims. 



240 



United States Patent 
Bick 



5,151,080 
September 29, 1992 



Method and apparatus for inducing and establishing a changed state of 
consciousness 

Abstract 

An electroacoustic device includes a sound generator as well as a system for producing synthetic human 
speech, connected to a modulation stage for superimposing the output signals thereof. The superimposed 
output signals are applied via an amplifier stage to one of a headphone system or loudspeaker system. 



Inventors: Bick; Claus (Felsenland-Bick-Klinik, D-6783 Dahn, DE) 

Appl. No.: 490552 

Filed: April 27, 1990 

PCT Filed: August 28, 1990 

PCT NO: PCT/CH89/00153 

371 Date: April 27, 1990 

102(e) Date: April 24, 1990 

PCT PUB.NO.: WO90/01967 

PCT PUB. Date: March 8, 1990 

Foreign Application Priority Data 



Aug 30, 1988[CH] 
Current U.S. Class: 
Intern'l Class: 
Field of Search: 



3219/88 

600/28; 600/26 
A61M 021/00 
600/26,27,28 381/54,73.1,61 



References Cited [Referenced Byl 



U.S. Patent Documents 



2943152 


Jun., 1960 


Licklinder 


3712292 


Jan., 1973 


Zentmeyer 


3884218 


May., 1975 


Monroe 


4082918 


Apr., 1978 


Chang 


4717343 


Jan., 1988 


Densky. 






Foreign Patent Documents 


3628420 


Feb., 1988 


DE. 


2124490 


Feb., 1984 


GB. 



381/54. 
600/28. 
600/28. 
600/28. 



Primary Examiner: Kamm; William E. 

Assistant Examiner: Akers; Scott R. 

Attorney, Agent or Firm: Spencer, Frank & Schneider 



241 



Claims 



I claim: 

1 . A method for inducing and establishing a deepened state of consciousness in a human that is physically and psychically relaxed or 
changed by employing electroacoustic means for creating and generating electromagnetic sound signals and for producing 
electronically altered and synthetic human speech signals, the method comprising: 

generating said sound signals; 

producing said synthetic human speech signals; 

superimposing said sound signals and said synthetic human speech signals to produce a superimposed signal; and 
conveying said superimposed signal to the ears of a human by way of one of headphones and loudspeakers. 

2. The method as defined in claim 1 , wherein the sound signals comprise noise signals which simulate the sound of crashing waves 
and the superimposing is performed by modulating said synthetic human speech signals so that said synthetic human speech signals 
are, at least partially, scarcely understandable. 

Description 

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 

1 . Field of the Invention 

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for inducing and establishing a deepened state of in a human that is physically 
and psychically (hypnotically) relaxed or changed by employing electroacoustic means. 

2. Background Information 

Psychogenic-therapy methods in the form of suggestive treatment with therapeutic and prophylactic character are gaining more and 
more in importance because there exists a very high probability of positively influencing the subconscious mind. Through this 
treatment, carried out in a deepened physical and psychical (hypnotical) state of relaxation-which is in itself already of great 
therapeutic effect-negative mental (disturbing) factors, which are fixed in the subconscious mind and evoke (subconsciously) 
misguided behavior, are replaced suggestively by positive, mental-motivating elements. 

In spite of the necessity of individual, different treatment for executing the aforementioned exchange, it is, in order to relieve the 
treating therapist, both unavoidable and possible to induce and establish at least the deepened state of consciousness that is physically 
and psychically (hypnotically) relaxed or changed by employing electroacoustic auxiliary means. 

The applicant has already described an apparatus in this connection for carrying out hypnotherapy, with which the physician 
conducting the therapy is able to reach simultaneously via sound carrier or microphone several patients wearing headphones, and 
exercise a suggestive influence on them for inducing and deepening the hypnosis and for the subsequent return out of the hypnosis. 

In this connection, it was pointed out that certain sounds, in particular the rushing of the sea, i.e., the crashing of waves, had a very 
high sedative effect. To be able to utilize this, the control part of the aforementioned apparatus is provided with a suitable sound 
generator in order to bring the rushing of the sea alone by itself as well as superimposed, on the headphones for group and individual 
suggestion. 

It is true that all this does relieve the therapist as regards previous individual methods of induction, such as the fascination method and 
the fixation method, but the effectiveness on the individuals remains very different, which demands in the end no lesser expenditure of 
time. 

In the meantime, however, the results of years of scientific research by the inventor have revealed possibilities of essentially 
accelerating and deepening the induction and establishment of a deepened state of consciousness that is physically and psychically 
relaxed or changed. 

From the findings of the inventor, upon inducing the condition of hypnosis a sinking of the activity of the left (with right-handers) half 
of the brain (fatigue effect) takes place, i.e. a damping of understanding and sense; and the censor becomes inattentive due to threshold 
tiring or distraction; which, on the other hand, results in the restriction of the consciousness on the left side, as restriction of the control 
of the censors; the sinking of the brain activity on the left hemisphere means, hence, a kind of dazed feeling, sleepiness, even 
inattentiveness on the part of the censor (C. H. Bick, Hypnoanalyse, in Laux/Schubert, Klinische Hypnose, Centaurus- 
Verlagsgesellshaft, Pfafferweiler); the inventor has set himself the task of creating a method of the aforementioned kind which is 
suitable for accelerating and deepening the induction and establishment of the deepened physical and psychical state of relaxation in 
accordance with the foregoing findings. 



242 



SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION 



This is achieved according to the invention in that the electromagnetic sound signal as well as the output signal of a 
system for producing synthetic human speech are conveyed, each other superimposed, to the human ear by way of 
headphones or loudspeakers. 

In this connection, it is of advantage that the sound signals simulate the rushing of waves, upon which the speech 
signals are modulated into a form that is at least partially, no longer understandable. 

Essentially, therefore, the rushing of the waves sound is in the foreground, out of which only rudimentary, 
incomprehensible or scarcely understandable words are audible. These seemingly nonsensical stimulation signals and 
word information lead, in the left half of the brain, hence, in the rational area, to a comparatively very fast, apparent 
tiring or switch-off process with, among other things, strongly reduced sense, logic and control, through which, in a 
kind of switching, the right half of the brain is now to a large degree receptive to suggestion. 

Further, the present invention relates to an apparatus for executing the method, which distinguishes itself according to 
the invention in that the electroacoustic means for inducing and establishing a changed state of consciousness 
comprises a sound generator as well as a system for producing synthetic human speech, which are connected to a 
modulation stage disposed downstream for superimposing the output signals thereof; said output signals being applied 
via amplifier means to a headphone system or loudspeaker system. 

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the system for generating synthetic human speech is a vocoder for coding 
speech and producing a robot voice. 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING 

The drawing shows a block diagram of an embodiment in accordance with the invention. 
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT 

An embodiment for executing the method according to the invention will now be described in more detail with 
reference to the accompanying block diagram. 

The apparatus for inducing and establishing a deepened state of consciousness that is physically and psychically 
relaxed or changed shown in the block diagram comprises a sound generator 1, with the rushing of the sea, preferably 
swelling up-and-down, being generated on the output 1' thereof; as well as a vocoder 2, with speech, introduced via a 
microphone 7, appearing coded like an incomprehensible or scarcely understandable robot voice on the output 2' 
thereof. 

Both outputs 1' and 2' are adjacent to a modulation stage 3, which permits the rushing of the sea and the robot voice to 
be superimposed; a superimposed output signal being capable of being fed via a preferably adjustable amplifier stage 6 
to a headphone system 4 or a loudspeaker system 5 having one or more headphones or loudspeakers, respectively. 

Preferably, a sound-recording and sound-reproduction unit 8 is inserted between amplifier stage 6 and playback 
systems 4 or 5, which permit both the superimposed output signal for inducing and establishing the hypnotic state as 
well as the subsequent, normally-spoken suggestive information, to be recorded, stored and played back, for instance 
by means of a recording tape as carrier means. 

Recorder tapes produced in such manner can then be individually and repeatedly employed. 
Also, the apparatus according to the invention can be developed as a multistage station. 

Vocoder, sound generator, modulation stage and amplifier stage can also be combined into a compact apparatus. 

The specified apparatus is suitable for essentially accelerating and deepening the induction and establishment of a 
deepened state of consciousness that is physically and psychically relaxed and changed by the seemingly nonsensical 
stimulation signals and word information that is fed to the ear, and leads in the left half of the brain to a comparatively 
very fast threshold tiring or switch-off process with, among other things, strongly reduced sense, logic and control, and 
the right half of the brain being thereby to a large degree receptive to suggestive information and instruction. 



243 



United States Patent 
Lowery 



5,159,703 
October 27, 1992 



Silent subliminal presentation system 

Abstract 

A silent communications system in which nonaural carriers, in the very low or very high audio frequency 
range or in the adjacent ultrasonic frequency spectrum, are amplitude or frequency modulated with the 
desired intelligence and propagated acoustically or vibrationally, for inducement into the brain, typically 
through the use of loudspeakers, earphones or piezoelectric transducers. The modulated carriers may be 
transmitted directly in real time or may be conveniently recorded and stored on mechanical, magnetic or 
optical media for delayed or repeated transmission to the listener. 



Inventors: Lowery; Oliver M. (5188 Falconwood Ct., Norcross, GA 30071) 

Appl. No.: 458339 

Filed: December 28, 1989 

Current U.S. Class: 455/42; 381/73.1; 455/46; 455/67.11; 455/67.13; 455/67.16; 607/56 

Intern'l Class: H04B 007/00; H04R 025/00; H04R 003/02 

Field of Search: 455/46,47,66,109,110,42-43 381/73.1,105,124 358/141-143 600/28 

128/420.5 380/38 



References Cited [Referenced Byl 



U.S. Patent Documents 



3060795 


Oct., 1962 


Corrigan et al. 


352/131. 


3278676 


Oct., 1966 


Becker 


358/142. 


3393279 


Jul., 1968 


Flanagan 


128/420. 


3712292 


Jan., 1973 


Zentmeyer, Jr. 


600/28. 


4141344 


Feb., 1979 


Barbara 


600/28. 


4395600 


Jul., 1983 


Lundy et al. 


381/73. 


4463392 


Jul., 1984 


Fischer et al. 


360/30. 


4777529 


Oct., 1988 


Schultz et al. 


381/73. 


4834701 


May., 1989 


Masaki 


600/28. 


4877027 


Oct., 1989 


Brunkan 


128/420. 



Primary Examiner: Eisenzopf; Reinhard J. 
Assistant Examiner: Faile; Andrew 



Claims 



What is claimed: 

1 . A silent communications system, comprising: 

(a) amplitude modulated carrier means for generating signals located in non-aural portions of the audio and 
in the lower portion of the ultrasonic frequency spectrum said signals modulated with information to be 
perceived by a listener's brain and, 



244 



(b) acoustic and ultrasonic transducer means for propagating said signals, for inducement into the brain, of 
the listener, and, 

(c) recording means for storing said modulated signals on mechanical, magnetic and optical media for 
delayed or repeated transmissions to the listener. 

2. A silent communications system, comprising: 

(a) frequency modulated carrier means for generating signals located in non-aural portions of the audio and 
in the lower portion of the ultrasonic frequency spectrum, said signals modulated with information to be 
perceived by a listener's brain, and; 

(b) acoustic and ultrasonic transducer means for propagating said signals, for inducement into the brain of 
the listener, and; 

(c) recording means for storing said modulated signals on mechanical, magnetic and optical media for 
delayed or repeated transmissions to the listener. 

3. A silent communications system, comprising: 

(a) a combination of amplitude and frequency modulated carrier means for generating signals located in 
non-aural portions of the audio and in the lower portion of the ultrasonic frequency spectrum, said signals 
modulated with information to be perceived by a listener's brain, and 

(b) acoustic and ultrasonic transducer means for propagating said signals, for inducement into the brain of 
the listener; 

(c) recording means for storing said modulated signals on mechanical, magnetic and optical media for 
delayed or repeated transmissions to the listener. 



Description 



BACKGROUND-FIELD OF THE INVENTION 

This invention relates in general to electronic audio signal processing and, in particular, to subliminal 
presentation techniques. 



BACKGROUND-DESCRIPTION OF PRIOR ART 

Subliminal learning enjoys wide use today and subliminal tapes are being manufactured by a number of 
companies in the United States alone. Several decades of scient